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Speaking of Mexico. Radio television the University of Texas in cooperation with the National Association of educational broadcasters presents speaking of Mexico. Dr. Marvin al-Askari is chairman of mass communications. Arizona State College. It is with pleasure that we present Dr. Alice ski as he discusses mass media in Mexico with Professor RC nor as assistant director of radio television the University of Texas and Sinjar Gabriele Martinez director of Radio government of Mexico for the short time that we have before us the three of us are going to be talking about Mexican broadcasting and see if we can discover where there are similarities and where there are differences in the way broadcasting is carried out in these two neighboring countries. Thank you Martine is. I would like to begin our conversation with you by first stating that we know that you have practiced broadcasting both in the United States
at K I.W.W. in San Antonio and in your native Mexico. And from that background of experience in the two countries to ask you what differences you have observed in broadcasting with particular reference to broadcasting law in these two countries. Why that the biggest difference is that we can I talk about religion we cannot talk about politics and that you need to permeate to the economy from announcer in Mexico morn makes Again I wonder if we could take these three points one at a time and talk about them just a bit. First the matter of religious broadcasting in your country. What does that mean that you cannot do. I know in this country we can rod. We can put a microphone inside a church and broadcast the full
circle and are all of the services. You cannot do that. We cannot Mr. Norris. And in the realm of political broadcast when for instance a candidate can go to my school like Gratias radio station to make his campaign he's not allowed to do that not even the speaker or announcer from Dre station. In other words the man who is a candidate for the presidency cannot speak on Mexican radio in behalf of his candidacy for the office of the president of course not because it's against the law. Well that is certainly a big difference. Well what we have in this country of course it is. And as a matter of fact radio stations make quite a bit of revenue off of the selling of time to political candidates here. I'm not sure that would be a very popular law and there are a basic radio laws strange in another way though a
person or even a corporation is restricted to owning one radio station or one television station in a city or a greater listening area. MARTIN That that's a good point I want if we could hold it for just a moment I think I think about a team that had one other point of difference the the matter of licensing the announcers before we before we come to that. Well yes that means that of course you can be an announcer. Any time you want to be. You like the profession if you do it's a profession and I guess it has to be a profession. You asked for an application is a good idea because you are the secretary of education. That's right. They give you the rose. You start him. You go back to the thing with the guys you know on and through the question of Cory's cording to rules and present an examination I was
hoeing for imprinted station for instance and to know that they had the farm and Heskey saw in the restrictions and I was her for any product especially they may seen their products. Very few MPs rock stores forward and professed cause I mean so he brings in Garrison's called ratings. You had to know that too. The announcer has to be aware of Mexican broadcasting law. That's right and he has to pass an examination on pronunciation that might have his own language and many other languages of course. Primarily he's only English he has to know foreign language pronunciation. Yes. Can he lose his license if he turns out not to be a good announcer. Can he have a penalty.
Well I'm going to sleep more than that if he breaks the law way and some way of course we have very good announcers. Maybe some were just regular In others words but in some cases they regularly all. We could say you post in a nice your way. It has it all. It has no repercussions against a piece of the country. Maybe he's only fine maybe he's only forbade him to announce for a month or something. And that I wouldn't break the law by. What would he say what would he do that would lead to. For instance you can take a poll most of all the radio stations news guys programs. Yes. Suppose he takes a note from a newspaper that alarmed the people that are against him.
A rumor that might cause panic or perhaps even a slander that right libelous statement. I was about to observe before that your law seems a little restrictive in regard to say religion and political campaigning. Conversely Ottomar has a broadcasting law has the restriction of limiting a person or a corporation owning one radio station and one television station in a particular city or county or greater listening area primary listening area metropolitan area. I believe though in Mexico in that respect your law is more liberal more lenient do you get on more than one station in one community. Yes of course she's more liberal as you say and you can then have as many stations as you can by the ones that mix with it wisely in the you know the country. Yes. So if you have enough money you can only as many stations as you have money
to buy the equipment far in Mexico. Now I believe that Mexican broadcast law is very similar to the law of this country. In saying that they say the how empty the doing of the station the manager of the station doesn't really own that frequency. He doesn't own the airwaves. That's right that their ways belong to who the people to the government the government and in that respect that philosophy is identical with the philosophy that the station manager has a concession of right to to use these airways far for how many years at the present time do you recall 20 years 20 years that he can have his concession for. Well now on this matter of getting a broadcast license you applied to your own ministry of communications which I
believe is a slightly different than our Federal Communications Commission I have CC it which is it. Ours is an independent agency yours is actually a part of the cabinet. Now what about some of the other government agencies or are cabinet entities which may be concerned with broadcasting for example your public health ministry wouldn't be concerned with say commercials and products while only in the area of the contents of a commercial spot for instance you can say they properties of medicine that. Make a product I mean without receiving the approval of the department. Not only in the magazines but as I said before very few food everything that has to do with health of the people for whom drugs and you know false claims are what it will be
and what no false claims in other words doesn't ride. You couldn't say that me how well that will cure everything. Of course not. You can say for me to do this in Florida by the way Zamora's better than me what I've done. Oh that must be your advertising I think I know you suspect I'm advertising and having it here. Well there's his headache he makes money off of that particular problem with the product against this info and I thing a here in the states he's known as Coricidin. Well maybe but I repeat the name for the stage because there might be some US sponsored or something. Well this is an education broadcast these are hardly playing where you can send them the bill you know what you might do they don't forgive my faith or your agency commission on that 15 percent. Well since you are a very effective advertising band in Mexico I hope you won't think this next answer is the next question is too personal but it has been my own opinion
from listening to Mexican radio and reading some of the trade papers that most of the production. Most of the programs on Mexican radio are not produced by the station but are produced by advertising agencies. Am I correct in that. Well in a way yes. But I have to spray you. That of course they are produced by Radio I guess here I mean I retire as an agency but actually dubbed the only radio station at the present time in Mexico that has I live programs. That means that they need production and then I retire agency since through these two he's on producer to make the programme but it's only one radio station so the whole country that has more than 400 radio stations 300 maybe I guess something that I call my share of radio station they only play regulars.
So all the other nations. Yes or. Well they do news and have announcers only go around sometimes but not production. You know production because they only play records and I've seen records for five or six parts commissions parts but actually W and actually W's power is around 250000 watches I corrected. Yes Mr. Orr That's correct. They also have a couple of repeater stations to reach to the far corners of the Republic with you where they have exactly six six so it's literally blankets the country. Well in a way yes but the reason for that aid that makes it doubly O. Although they have a two hundred fifty two and fifty thousand two hundred fifty thousand watts they don't breach some times of the day. So the whole country freeze this big markets like the wild I had I'm going to have a better crews they have an already stationed meeting in Tanzania what it's
done or transmitted in Mexico City. I suppose this would be because of reasons of geography. I'm out in the Y where more than that it's because the man that your meter US car are the owner more than manager the owner a ver a very aggressive man I am of course talking the business I spect. Enterprising would be pretty good translations and then drive. And of course he's looking for more sponsors in those cities because they are potential markets very important to me to any I retire. I wonder if we could come back just a moment now to this matter of Mexican broadcast. Lol I think that. We got into this matter of agency production which I must admit I am fascinated with. But it occurred to me that we might have omitted one very
important aspect one very important part of Mexican broadcast law which is different from the law in this country as I understand it. Mexican broadcast law requires that each station donate a certain amount of time each day. Yes our government broadcast is that is that correct. Yes Nora she said 30 minutes of a 30 minutes each day is at 30 minutes always used or at the present time he is for instance. Of course there is always. That operation from the commercial radio stations for reasons. When we post we are just making a start to the year in the year more or less. The company for schools for repairing the schools and all the radio in Mexico are the courageous. Make their best ever. And instead of giving determiners they gave more of the
time that was a very late campaign I remember that last week. Don't you have a silent newspaper from a QCT dedicated and a Tory I would say that the Nesco gave a very big credit to or going through the barman I mean to or take that idea because your own ministry of education. Yes for the great effort they are making for the biggest hold they're making. They put an X an example for the whole ward and he was saved by the next guy. Welcome to come back for a moment then to the commercial aspects of the operation of the commercial radio stations in Mexico. I gather that the role of
radio in Mexico is pretty closely allied is pretty closely tied to some of the ideas or some of the aims of the revolution the Revolution of 1917 in Mexico that radio feels a responsibility for helping in the development of the country. Am I suggesting something that is not true. Well there's two different aspects. For us the state is in Henri's. Don't forget that our commercial radio stations are just that. In a way they helped to hide you just said. Our revolution 51 years ago will make a complete change especially in this hotel aspect.
If you own a commercial radio station you don't have to talk about that you are selling time. You're you're selling commercial time and any effort any corporation you make it as bait of course will receive is appreciated by our by our government that is not your obligation. With that I mean that just a few radio stations in the whole country may die. For that reason I suppose that our government established a lot of nice united. That brings us really to your other role now your as example owner manager of a large public relations and advertising agency in Mexico City but you also bear the title of director of the National hour or on ice you know which comes from the
Ministry of the interior. Now this or announce you know what exactly it's a Sunday night program of all linking all the stations would you tell us a little about them. Yes Mr. ski there is a network every Sunday from I think to 11:00 PM or the a nation of our loud and I should know its principal purpose aides to feel the make feel our people. They progress we are having every day. I can assure you and I am very proud of saying that I had every make sick and now my going very feels that makes it go its in a way its a new country a country that is fighting to get the pussy he deserves. Our history is
a very beautiful. We have many examples we use and we use the information on the story by Brown we have a lot of nice and I'm not a nice woman of the present time is divided into seven sections exactly the first one is dedicated to make it run and you say shown something important through our history. It could be seen as quote them later. You gotta go for independence. Later a letter for him and then the letter was here only he can order so Morris spades. We have many poets many scientific men and if you last for years and we'd rather I thought sometimes not only the hero aspect. We dramatized some examples that TV has
serves as an example a present example to our people and very young people. They second section is dedicated to our Constitution. Every week we read one of the articles of our institution. A true take is dedicated to a Tauriel page of some papers newspapers I mean that means that every week I have to read from 60 to 70 and Toreadors or the newspapers you make you go and pick one of the best and be one of the best thinking of hese importance eyes and national interest not luckily interest because those newspapers are in the federal district. The forsake shown and so far as Sikhs are serving is according to the timing of the program. He's dedicated to inform to make to give some information to all our people. That information is usually taken
from the newspaper and 99 percent of that information is from the newspapers. In other words you're not interested in scooping the papers but rather repeating and making clear some of the things they've already reported. That's right that's the grain of forcing reinforcing Yeah right reinforcing. Besides consider that if we have that's what we suppose that we have 5 million listeners. Some of them were a part of them. Very said don't worry the DMV the newspaper or they don't have time to read it. Saw no harm to our program in repeating that in the next holiday the coming Sunday. The an organization these are dedicated to to a point where we have very good speaker in Mexico monitoring Earl and he says a point every week.
Almost more of the times are makes young boys of course these are not points especially written for Law Order last year not now of course it's a metaphor of my own there was that says many years ago and I have some exceptions made in dissection because a lot of nice and I'll credit made it always showing go along via trade for use of Columbia and sometimes I've included a poem from the Colombian poet. We might explain to the North Americans who aren't familiar with all of the culture in Latin America that poetry in Mexico and in most of the Latin American countries is is a popular item in the United States it is shrunk to the small intellectual circles but the average Latin American involves himself with poetry it is not just for the highbrow or the college professor that arrives you're already there.
I'm always taken we have a set of dedicated to the Tories. With Here we talk about the four eights as a couple core while I heart our beautiful cities that are many and that station These are dedicated to that. I speak of the program the next a Chinese educated two or the people we the people we could say I get there you have the people speak. They send me a letter and sometimes I have made a series on the record of this person in interviews with something interesting of course Yost of a nation of interest and a section dedicated to where we could say a lot I would say this to say hello a place I know almost us. I mean one Maestro by Simon that means to make the gun that for any reason or any cause are out of the country and we play by the way beautiful music name it kinds your
mistake. The killer has a story that is well on the night he'll say how far I have from the earth. I mourn reaching listeners in Texas New Mexico Arizona California Colombia places where they're able to tune into Mexico that Rhine and then I was here many letters by the way from Texas from Mexicans are born every year and they too like to know makes me go and write me many lyrics. You've got your own Voice of America and the way this loud unless you know where you are crying. Cute is generous. Remember this is a point that I mean I retightened may have done means that I try to make scene last 30 for moments to make a radio program and entertaining program I am selling a product.
But behind is a tradition. Yes you're selling a nation. Yes that's a good product and intangible. Yes we did lose points or I should say. He only Zahra's father Anyway the big audience to see because I have a lease or so without I I mean the program needs more music on it from a crazy systems I threw for a minute that he catered to music and goes through the program is all we previews is around 58 or 59 minutes. I would like to make an observation here that the fact that a government can require that all of the stations all of the commercial stations of a nation join together either by direct lines are by rebroadcast at the same hour every evening every Sunday evening and carry in national government produced program. Both
amazes me and frightens me. It amazes me because it shows that here is a chance for a government to speak to all of its people. It frightens me because I think I was a terrific responsibility. It puts all the director of the program to speak honestly to be a forthright honest. Representative of that government to the people. Obviously Mexico has chosen the right man. Oh I thank you. Well I had the pleasure I had before you and I may say to your day Liz and I to a party here in Austin and I watch a program television program that he gave to drive to that raid they had Mr. Sam Rayburn and roared. Remember that when the hay was interviewed by the emcee here as I remember well the why on earth for many years that I made you request you gave almost the same eyes for he
gave a beautiful and for why has to be different. If I say the truth then is the same answer is you know the truth and you make that thing out and as you know you say the truth. You're not boasting you are not kidding. You're not hiding anything. You're not lying. You can be sure and you have nothing to fear that rhyme. And wouldn't that be true of all right deal that if you say the truth I do you have to fear for what you have set of and I think. It has been indeed a pleasure talking with you saying your home state governor you don't want to miss. And with you Dr. Alice Kay and I look forward to that type and the three of us can meet together again to discuss this fascinating topic of Mexican broadcasting. This has been mass media in Mexico with Dr. Marvin Alice Skee chairman of mass communications at Arizona State College Professor R. C. Norris assistant director of radio television the University of Texas and
Sinjar Gabriela Markstein is director of Radio the government of Mexico speaking of Mexico was produced by RNC Nies and directed by BW Crocker add radio television the University of Texas under a grant and aid from the National Association of educational broadcasters. This is the N A The B Radio Network.
Speaking of Mexico: English
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University of Texas
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This episode discusses the differences between broadcasting in the United States and Mexico.
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This series discusses issues related to Mexican life, government, and culture. This is the English-language version of Speaking Of Mexico.
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Radio stations
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Interviewee: Marti_nez, Gabriel
Interviewer: Alisky, Marvin
Interviewer: Magny, Claude-Edmonde, 1913-1966
Producing Organization: University of Texas
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 62-41-4 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
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Chicago: “Speaking of Mexico: English; 4; Broadcasting,” 1962-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 9, 2023,
MLA: “Speaking of Mexico: English; 4; Broadcasting.” 1962-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 9, 2023. <>.
APA: Speaking of Mexico: English; 4; Broadcasting. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from