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The Asia Society at present. This is a series of interviews with experts on Asian affairs designed to strengthen our understanding of Asian people and ideas. Your most on this transcribed series is the noted author on the ward winning broadcaster Lee Graham. Here now is Mrs. Graham. Instead of talking about one Asian country as we often do on a program in this series we're going to talk about Asia generally. But from the point of view of the revolution which seems to be taking place there and discuss what the problems are and what the opportunities might be. Our guest is a man who has a very good view of this and we're fortunate that he's at our microphone and he is Ralph Buton. Mr. Boot Den's is chairman of the salon Council of the Asia Society chairman of the New York Buddhist Council and aid to the former prime minister of Ceylon Mr. Jens. Since you were born in Ceylon you no doubt have traveled through a great part of Asia.
Which countries have you visited. I've visited most of Asia and past 15 years from. Salon through India Afghanistan right through most of the Far East. Well since this is a topic that you suggested Asian revolution. That's a strong word. Why do you apply it. We're throughout Asia today. There are tremendous changes taking place changes in every sphere of activity which I think history will be as one of the great revolutions of our time. When we talk of the Asian revolution I think we've got to view it as a process by which the peoples of contemporary Asia seek to find a new definition of themselves both within their continental ethos and in relation to the rest of the world. Well this phrase that one hears that often of rising expectations that people are
striving in this direction they expect more and they are insisting upon getting more with this coverage. Well to my mind the Haitian revolution is a movement at three levels. It is trust and modernization process changing traditional political social and economic patterns. Secondly I think it is as you mentioned a revolution of rising expectations in which Asians aspire to share are in the advances of this age. And thirdly I think it is an effort for recognition in a world largely oriented towards the north Atlantic concepts and goals. But I think at all these three levels there are changes taking place and this is what I would define as the Asian revolution. Our Western goals also the goals then of aging. In many ways they are in the east in the area of
social welfare the area of concern with human affairs. I think they are identical but they tend to differ very sharply in the political context and in matters concerned with material. Aspirations in outlook of the peoples of Asia. If democracy for example considered the ideal form of government or is it that we stress that more an agency are not that interesting. Well this is one of my pet subjects and democracy in Asia is a relatively new concept. It was really left behind it's a tradition of or it's a legacy of imperialism. Most of the countries which left to Asia after World War 2 left behind them. This tradition of a democratic political framework. My own view is that
this has proven largely unsuited to Asia. We see this in many areas of Asia democracy failing revision to authoritarianism we see in many parts of Asia people resorting to direct action as they find the Western. Democratic systems and the party system in a clickable find it unable to fulfill the aspirations they think it is slow and to a sense it ignores the traditional Asian approach to political affairs. I think the approach to political of players in Asia must be very much influenced by your philosophy in general not just in Salon but in philosophies and religions which do not dictate this attitude or this kind of behavior. If you think that's one of the great mistakes that the West makes about the East. Well I think the West tends to look at Asia in naturally perhaps through Western eyes.
But those of us in Asia who have seen the reaction to. Western policies in Asia feel that in many ways and Asians a view of Asia is perhaps more realistic then a Western view. In this context of course religious forces local cultural forces the whole Asian ethos is very significant. Then democracy do you think is considered desirable in the long run or as with other kinds of government handling the political situation now. What do you think democracy is something that Asians really wouldn't care for in spite of our regard for my own personal view is that democracy in its broadest concept as providing a means of expression for people is suited to Asia but some of the. Western has pics of democracy the party
system. Some of the systems of public administration have proven unsuited to Asia and are really ineffective in dealing with Asian problems. I only speak of the Asian revolution has this touched some countries more than others. Yes I think the countries of South and Southeast Asia are at the present time more affected or more in the vanguard of the Asian revolution than other parts of Asia. I refer particularly to countries like India Pakistan Ceylon Malaysia Indonesia and the countries round that area. And naturally the West that those Western countries which feel that democracy is the best way for people to live and express themselves are concerned about communism in Asia. What countries would you say have experienced the strongest effect of communism. Well aside from North Vietnam and North Korea. Well there are different views of communism in
Asia and I think to answer your question one has to take this in perspective. Many Communist movements in Asia are nationalist. When there are goals in the objectives of the West I think tends largely to brand the most of these movements as being totally communistic. This is not so and for instance countries like Burma have experienced the communist influence to some extent communist infiltration. But the communist movement in Burma for instance has also been a vehicle for expression of the dissatisfaction of some of the local people. Through one of the few structured political organizations available to them yes. What would you say then that there is a different way of looking at communism
and a way perhaps which we don't understand that communism is not necessarily a powerful international movement. They can be a strong national movement without any loyalty let's say to our Peking I think you are correct because when one looks at Communism in Asia there are really three viewpoints there is the. International Communist viewpoint there is the Western viewpoint and there is the local Asian viewpoint and in many cases communism in Asia in its local setting has provided an outlet for the feelings of people who have no other way in which to express it. Of course there have been ties that have been proven cases of support by Peking and by Moscow. But in many ways and correct cries the communist movement of most of the Communist movements in Asia is somewhat akin to Yugoslavia and communism a communism of a different breed from either Peking or from Moscow's communism.
Yes perhaps our thinking is too rigid about communism and we see it as an either or proposition. If we speak about the social changes taking place in a country like India as I understand it the caste system has. Well I think it has been abolished although traces of it may linger. But are there these changes in other countries as well that is shop class distinctions are they lessening. Well to look at social change in Asia is to view were fascinating evolution as almost 2 billion people are precipitated into the modern world. The nature of Asian societies changing the traditional framework where relationships were based on birth and custom is evolving towards a more modern concept of talent recognition. Modernization in communications have tended to exacerbate social discontent growth of education illiteracy has created a great deal of intellectual ferment
and made evident a generation gap. And for the first time in the history the three great regions of Asia with Islam Hinduism Islam find their values questioned as society becomes more secular. I think the breakdown of caste rigidity is just only one facet of this whole picture. And one of the key influencers in social change in Asia is the influence of western living which is bringing to Asia A new ideas of social welfare and new thoughts with regard to the whole area of social change. Well if the country then has the idea of giving the people more self expression about the economically and politically. And if it wants to consider the welfare of the people by giving them certain legislative programs why would such a country then be called a communist country. Where does the communism come in in that the government is
controlling all production and economic growth. Is that why such a country would still be called a communist country. I suppose if one were to look at it from a Western point of view that would be correct. Although take China for instance. We look at China today as a communist country. People who are subject to communist rule. But I think if one were to compare China today with China in 1949 one is forced to recognize the massive achievement of the present government and of course one all to realize is that these achievements have been gained at considerable expense of life and personal freedom. But then how much personal freedom did the average Chinese enjoy before 1949. And what was life worth then. In a country torn apart by warlords where disease and famine were common and where human existence had very little meaning.
I think this is one of the questions that is relevant to a shark today. What they have today versus what they can get under different forms of political administration. It seems to be difficult doesn't it Mr. bookends for a country which is in need of massive development and change to give people democracy at the same time as it gives them growth. There seems to be necessary to have this subordination of what people want to do in order to force them to do which is good for the country at large and for society at large. But one wonders at what point are the people then given the freedom which they've been denied. At what point does the government say well now I think we've grown far enough so you may vote you may travel you may be yourself. When is that when is their promise fulfilled. That's been the a bone of contention among policy political philosophers for centuries. Yes well I'm asking you the question I
think in Asia as we see it today there has to be some form of organized development if the continent is not to recede economically. The people have to get a better standard of living a larger share of the rice plate so to speak. In mobilizing these forces for economic development there are several alternate courses. We have the Western oriented course Western type democracy in many cases in Asia this has proven ineffective. We have the traditional Asian rural village type government form of administration. This in the modern world has also proven effective. We have the totalitarian system
which has certain benefits but can only achieve them at substantial expense in terms of human values. I think what the Asians are searching for and what they are making some progress towards evolving is a system of or rather political framework essentially ition in corrector and which is. Particularly valid in the Asian ethos today. The president can try this with some success in Pakistan over the past 10 years although now the outcome seems to be in doubt. And we have seen this in other parts of Asia but it hasn't yet emerged a clear clearly defined political framework which would suit Asians I think they are searching for this. Well if we go back to India as an example of an Asian country which has about as much democracy as a country can have. There
there at the prime minister or the ruling class doesn't feel that Asians have to be suppressed. Do you think this interferes with the economic development that they have freedom of expression. My own view is that India in the past 20 years has in many ways been an authoritarian type of. Set up because. Up till very recently India had really one functioning national political party. It was only recently that we are seeing if you can call it that true democracy being manifest in India. It is only in the past three or four years the Congress hold on India has slipped. And to that extent I think we will see in India a wider diffusion of political power. But I don't know whether this will be matched to economic growth. One feels that if people are convinced that the government is doing
things for their welfare and that if they all work hard together they will prosper and it will and maybe not prosper immediately but enjoy life better. And these are all called People's Republic. You just wonder about why the government has to enforce this kind of thing with such an iron hand. Why should people have to be forced to do something which is for their own good. Well I think one has to look at the structure of Asian states. To appreciate the situation we've got to remember that most Asian states are really an agglomeration of naturally independent communities. Once administered collectively as a dependent colonial territory and then elevated by departing colonialists to the status of independent but largely artificial states. Now within these national entity there are all sorts of minorities racial linguistic religious cultural and so on. And the artificial
structure of most of these states makes it difficult to absorb these large minorities into the mainstream of national thought and national development. We see this trend towards national solidarity under pressure evident in many parts of Asia. We see it in India which is 70 million Muslims. We see it in Pakistan which is 10 percent of its population Hindu. We see it in Burma. A large number of minorities we see it in Sudan and the Question of the developing truly national good. With a large number of divergent forces is one of the problems that is occupying the attention of most of the nations statement today. What are the problems. Do you think that Asia will have to face a side in this one which is the nominal part. I think if one want to talk in terms of economics I think there are serious economic problems which
Asia faces for instance the decline in the price of commodities. Excluding Japan approximately 70 percent of Asia's export earnings are derived from commodities like the rubber tin Jude and so on. The price of commodities has fallen world markets. At the same time the price of capital goods from industrialized nations has increased in the period over the late 1950s and mid 1960s. The price of primary commodities exported from Asia declined seven percent whereas the price of goods imported from industrial countries increased by 27 percent for the grep gap grows larger. I think the gap the economic gap between Ishai and the Western world is dramatically last created by the Hudson Institute comparison of the four largest Asian countries with the U.S. to do it.
At present rates of growth measured in GNP per capita terms to reach current U.S. standards it will take China one hundred and one years. India hundred seventeen years. Pakistan one hundred forty four years and Indonesia. Five hundred ninety three years. Why is it necessary for countries which are that different from the West to appropriate or less they approach Western standards. Well the Western. I mean is that is so desirable is that what these countries live to do. I don't think these countries seek to approach Western standards but they do seek to evolve a system whereby they can get a better share of benefits where they can as we spoke about earlier where they are rising aspirations will be satisfied where more of the economic benefit in the world could be shared
among more equally among its people after all Asia has 55 percent of the world's population but produces only 10 percent of its world of the world economic output. Yet Asia is one of the richest continents potentially perhaps there. That's the irony of it that Asia would like to emulate. Let's say the Western economic goals and standard of living and yet does not want to imitate the West's political system feeling that it is not right for them. I think there is a dichotomy there and this is one of the problems that Asia will have to resolve and is trying to resolve. Perhaps not as logical as the West would like to see it being robbed and certainly this country the U.S. would not want to put more aid into Asia it has contributed magnificently to Asia approximately 25 I think because approximately 25 billion dollars in the past 20 years. But it is this dichotomy which has to be resolved.
Well Mr. bookends a final question I think most of us are aware of the fact that the United States plays a tremendous role in aid to economically and and to some extent militarily. What should in your opinion the United States stance be in Asia in the future. Well my own view is that U.S. policy in Asia could be most effective if it is based on five principles. First a recognition of political realities. Second abandonment of the principle of intervention occurred cessation of support of non-representative regimes and politicians to Forth to view ition developments in anation light and not in terms of European ports. Policy is effective in Asia and fifth increasing the emphasis of U.S. policy towards economic development and reducing the security and defense. Emphasis of U.S. policy. That takes a very large mind and heart. Do you follow your suggestions but
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Series
Asia Society presents
Episode Number
22
Producing Organization
WNYC
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-959c981j
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Description
Series Description
Asia Society presents is a series of programs from WNYC and The Asia Society. Through interviews with experts on Asian affairs, the series attempts to strengthen listeners understanding of Asian people and ideas. Episodes focus on specific countries and political, cultural, and historical topics.
Date
1969-03-31
Genres
Talk Show
Topics
Education
Global Affairs
Race and Ethnicity
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:24:49
Credits
Host: Graham, Leigh
Producing Organization: WNYC
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 69-6-22 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
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Citations
Chicago: “Asia Society presents; 22,” 1969-03-31, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 6, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-959c981j.
MLA: “Asia Society presents; 22.” 1969-03-31. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 6, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-959c981j>.
APA: Asia Society presents; 22. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-959c981j