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The following program is produced under a grant and aid from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters and the University of Michigan proudly presents one nation indivisible. Self-determination independence. Sovereignty. These are the catch words of one of the most powerful forces on march in the world today. Words which symbolize the desire of people everywhere. To be masters of their own political destiny. This is our story. The story of nationalism in the twentieth century. Told in a series of 13 radio
documents created by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. And now. One nation indivisible. The date is July 4th 1946 the place below needed a great square and Manila is excellent see Paul VI McNutt has just read the proclamation signed by President Truman declaring the independence of the Philippines. The events of this day are significant. They exemplify the achievement of nationhood by a people long dedicated to the cause of a free and independent country. But the date July 4th is symbolic too of a long and sometimes difficult but always fruitful relationship between the older Republic and the one in the process of being
born. The sky is overcast there's a brisk wind blowing in from the bay and the promise of rain. And now the crowd is silent. Tense almost unnatural silence. The United States flag is slowly being lowered from the mast the flag under which both Americans and Filipinos fought the epic battles of the 10 and Corregidor. There are tears in the eyes of some. No men will Rojas. The president of the Philippines is raising with his own hands the flag of the Philippines. The two flags touched briefly at midpoint on the pole and now the American flag. Is down. Here now. Is President Rojas. I have raised the Philippine flag to wave hands. I don't and shadow over Dean dive Philippines.
We marched here today. Forward fast. Different years of freedom. That's the people of the Philippines celebrated their first Independence Day July 4th 1946. For all practical purposes Philippine history began in 15 21 when Magellan set foot on the islands. The people he met were of Asian stock principally from Malaya. In 15 64 Legaspi laid formal claim to the islands in the name of Spain they were called Filipinas in honor of Prince Philip. Later Philip the second of Spain a pattern of conquest by sword and cross was the same as it had been in the New World. But Spanish rule had its beneficial aspects to community loyalty was encouraged. The first step toward a feeling of national unity. European laws customs and culture were introduced. But because the Philippines were at the other end of the world from
Spain the colonial government there was especially prone to corruption and injustice. In the 1980 few Filipinos like Jose Rizal were able to travel to Europe. There as students they learned for themselves the meaning of freedom resound himself wrote novels depicting in realistic terms the degradation of his people under Spanish rule. The colonial government consider these works and incitement to rebellion for this result was executed December 30th 1896. His death sparked overt rebellion against the Spanish rulers and helped to focus the feeling of nationalism among the Philippine people. Such men as Marcello delle people are under as both a fashion show and Emilio I get all the organized forces in direct defiance of Spain insurrectionary society Kutty Putin begun to enforce reforms was soon talking independence betrayal and reverses coupled with the Spanish need for troops and money in Cuba brought the two sides together in December 1897. The insurgents are going to go and the Spanish governor general sign
papers by which Spain agreed to pay certain indemnities to the rebels granted general amnesty and institute reforms. The promises were not kept within three months hostilities had commenced again. The Philippines were in open revolt when on the morning of May 1st 1898 an American fleet under Admiral Dewey's sailed into Manila Harbor. United States was at war with Spain. Before me now was the object for which we had made our arduous preparations. I felt confident of the outcome. I had no thought that victory would be wanted so slight a cost to our own side. Confidence was expressed in the very precision with which the dun wore colored hollows of the squadron followed in column behind the flag ship keeping that distance. Excellent lay. All the guns were pointed constantly at the enemy while the men were at their stations waiting the word. The misty haze of the tropical Dawn had hardly risen when at 5:15 at long range the forts and Spanish squadron opened fire.
So far as I could see none of our ships were suffering any damage. In view of my limited ammunition supply it was my plan not to open fire until we were within effective range. Batteries ready. By. Distance to the. Fire when you were ready. Runs were made from the east from the west. There had been no cessation of the rapidity maintained by a whole squadron. Concentration was smothering at 12:30. The fact of surrender was taken and the firing ceased. Victory was ours. They ought to capture or destroy the Spanish
squadron had been executed to the letter. Not one of its fighting vessels remained afloat. We anchored off Manila. Even before Dewey's capture of Manila the Philippine leaders had been in contact with the Americans. Do we welcome the help of the insurgents in the conflict with Spain but already Washington was urging caution. The United States would make no alliance with the insurgents. There must be no relations or cooperations military or otherwise. Do we reply to his government that he had made no alliances but added sharply. In my view of the Filipinos are far superior in their intelligence and more capable of self-government than the natives of Cuba. And I am familiar with both races agreements or no agreements are going to Aldo proceeded on the assumption that the United States would aid in the immediate establishment of a free Philippine nation. The first Philippine Republic was actually declared on June 12th 1898 and a provisional government was established. But despite the good intentions of some American representatives of official United States policy
decreed that there be no joint occupation with the rebels insurgents were warned to recognize the military occupation and authority of the United States. Relations between the two went from bad to worse and disillusion Filipino Patriots were ready when the first opportunity offered to turn their guns on the Americans. You know opportunity was not long in coming and it spelled the death knell for the short lived Philippine Republic. That was to blame. Certainly no one person. Not American foreign policy but rather the lack of it caused the confusion and heartbreak. The true state of affairs was nowhere better expressed than in the words of President McKinley. His own candid statement of November 21st 1899. The truth is I didn't want the Philippines. And when they came to us as a gift from the gods I did not know what to do with them. I walked the floor of the white house night after night until midnight and I am not ashamed to tell you that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty
God for light and guidance. More than one night and one night late it came to me this way. I don't know how it was but it came one that we could not give them back to Spain. That would be cowardly and dishonorable. That we could not turn them over to France or Germany. Our commercial rivals in the Orient that would be bad business and discreditable 3 that we could not leave them to themselves. They were unfit for self-government and would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's ones. And for there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos and uplift and Christianize them. And by God's grace do the best we could for them as our fellow men for whom Christ died. And then I went to bed and went to sleep and slept soundly. And the next morning I sent for the chief engineer of the War Department. Our map maker
and I told him to put the Philippines on the map of the United States and there they are and there they will stay while I am president. So President McKinley and those who followed him played the situation more or less by ear. The Treaty of Paris signed between Spain and the United States was bitterly debated in the Senate. I claim that under the Declaration of Independence you cannot govern a foreign territory a foreign people another people than your own that you cannot subjugate them or govern them against their will. These sentiments were opposed by the rank imperialists whose most forceful exponent was Senator Beveridge of Indiana the Philippines are ours for having. The Pacific is our ocean and the Pacific is the Ocean of the calmest of the future. The power that rules the Pacific. Is the power that rules the world. And with the Philippines that power is. And will forever be the American republic.
So spoke Senator Beveridge of Indiana. In the end McKinley is rather vague expressions of goodwill were consolidated into a resolution. It is the intention of the United States to establish a government suitable to the wants and conditions of the inhabitants of set ups to prepare them for local self-government and in due time to make such disposition of said islands as will best promote the interests of the citizens of the United States and the inhabitants of said I have. To prepare them for local self-government. Ironically having committed the country to this concept it became necessary first to eradicate the existing revolutionary forces already in the act of creating self-government. After two years of conflict the American military forces and American diplomatic missions brought the non-toll and the insurgents to their knees. On July 4th one thousand one with the inauguration of William Howard Taft as civil governor of the islands. The first phase of the struggle for Philippine independence came to an end. In
his four years in the Philippines Taft helped to establish the pattern of American control until 1913 emphasizing the need to prepare the Filipinos for popular self-government. Following this line of reasoning to have supported the organization of a political party in the Philippines pledged to perpetual fealty to the United States the party's candidate went down to defeat. But from that time on every political party of significance had as a major plank in its platform independence now. Nevertheless Taft was an able administrator and he helped pave the way for the elections of 1000 No.7 in the meeting of the first Philippine assembly. In one thousand thirteen Woodrow Wilson the Democratic Party candidate became president of the United States. His attitude was the Philippines are at present our front TV. But I hope we presently are to deprive ourselves of that front here. Wilson's stand and that of his party was dictated by two major considerations. First the growing realisation that the Philippines were more of a burden than a blessing to the United States. Their
commercial advantage was doubtful. Their military importance was questionable. Secondly the Filipinos themselves under the leadership of stereo as men you know and men well Kaizen were becoming increasingly vocal in their demands for independence. Our creed is known to the world. We profess convinced through our very souls the principle of nationalists is Kaizen addressing the Philippine Senate women pain that every nation has a right to guide its own destinies under its own sovereignty national sovereignty recites in the people. These are our principles our convictions our faith. After much delay and frequent revisions legislation known as the Jones Act was signed into law by the president of the United States 1916 it provided for an elected legislature composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Only the governor general the
vice governor and members of the Philippine Supreme Court would be appointed by the president of the United States. But to the Filipinos not the law itself but the preamble to it was its most significant feature whereas it is the purpose of the people of the United States to withdraw their sovereignty over the Philippine Islands and recognize their independence as soon as a stable government can be established there in and where the Philippines No exact date had been set. But the Jones Act was the first official promise of eventual independence as manwell Kazan expressed it. From now on we Filipinos can look up and look any men of any nation in the eyes because our status is no longer that of a subjugated nation. In her and in the Jones bill were the seeds of bitter disagreements. Well the civil service was no longer colonial in character. The presence of a governor general with almost dictatorial powers was a thorn in the side of Filipino Patriots. As the Filipinos pressed for more and more autonomy. The attitude of American administrators defend when
General Leonard Wood took over as governor general in 1901 he had just completed a tour of investigation among his findings. We feel that with all their many excellent qualities the experience of the past eight years has not been such as to justify the people of the United States in relinquishing supervision of the government of the Philippine Islands. We are convinced that it would be a betrayal of the Philippine people. A misfortune to the American people. A distinct step backward in the path of progress. Were we to withdraw from the islands. General Hood in the Philippine leaders as men yeah. And now Rojas. We're bound to tangle in all sincerity would emphasize Filipino mistakes which the Filipinos themselves were only too quick to charge up to experience. Neither side was wholly right nor wholly wrong. The Executive and Legislative branches of the government finally reached a deadlock. I would veto the acts passed by the Philippine legislature. If you know Peano's appeal directly to President Coolidge protesting that would have exceeded his authority. Coolidge upheld
would United States Filipino relations were at a low ebb. The Furious manual Kazan expressed himself in terms which became a rallying cry for the frustrated nationalists. I would rather have a government run like hell by Filipinos than a government run like heaven by Americans. The death of General Hood in one thousand twenty seven. Momentarily relieved and almost intolerable situation. The principal accomplishment of his regime was to solidify Filipino aspirations and convictions. Now either there was to be a complete break or relations would have to improve swiftly Underwood's successes they did improve an era of increasing cooperation was inaugurated. The consciousness of national unity is reflected in many ways in dress. For instance the bottle at Saia borrowed originally from Mexico and Central America is today considered the national costume for women to be worn on formal locations. The
bottle is a light blouse with a big butterfly sleeves. The Sawyer is a skirt made it made of native woven material usually who see. As for language there are 87 different native languages and dialects spoken in the Philippines national aspirations demanded. And in 1935 a constitution provided for a national language. The God of the language of the people of Manila and the surrounding area was chosen but it will be a long time before everyone in the Philippines speaks the same language. In my own family for instance we speak spanish english to God and because. Of. That. Beginning in one thousand thirty one and continuing through 1934 a series of bills was passed by the American Congress culminating in the tidings McDuffie act providing for the
establishment of a Commonwealth Government in the Philippines and complete independence in a period of 10 years. A constitution was drawn up in the Philippine Commonwealth was inaugurated on November 15th 1935 manual case on and stereo as Mannion became the first president and vice president. The future of the Philippines seemed especially bright but clouds had been gathering on the horizon for some time clouds with which neither the United States nor the Philippines seem to be actively concerned. Then on December 8 1941 Japanese bombers roared down from the north to bomb Manila. Go the Philippines and then for some time the easiest spot in the Pacific. The attack still came with a suddenness no one can predict. Japanese invasion the destruction of lives and property of the dislocations of war had a decisive impact on future American Filipino relations and the national status of the Philippines. Within a few months formal resistance to the Japanese was limited to the fortress island of Corregidor.
There on December 29 outside the entrance to the tunnel president Kazan was inaugurated for his second term. He spoke for the vast majority of Filipinos when he said Do not despair for your liberation is certain. Keep faith with America which has kept faith with every nation and specially with us after the fall of Corregidor the case time government went into exile behind the Japanese lines guerrilla forces resisted with growing success. Americans and Filipinos fought side by side cementing in blood the bonds of friendship which no official pronouncement could make more substantial in Zambales province. A force of twelve thousand guerrillas under the leadership of an ex auto mechanic by the name of Raymond excise II achieved remarkable gains 15 days before American forces landed on their triumphant return to the Philippines. The province was securely in the hands of the resistance forces. With the end of the war our reconstruction became the paramount issue. Independence would have little force without rehabilitation. True as these arguments were they played directly into the hands of
those Americans who wish to retain economic control of the islands. Even though political control were lost in April 1046 the Philippine trade law was passed by the United States Congress. The most important section of the bill read as follows. The disposition exploitation development and utilization of all agricultural timber and mineral lands of the public domain. The letter's men rose petroleum and mineral resources of the Philippines and the operation of public utilities shall open to any person be open to citizens of the United States and of all forms of business enterprise owned or controlled directly or indirectly by United States citizens whether necessary as an emergency measure or not. This bill and others to follow were in effect an abrogation of Philippine sovereignty. This was the heavy cloud which hung over the independent ceremonies of July 4th one thousand forty six. But the Republic of Philippines was launched at last. All the promises had been kept.
But because of the remaining problems of defense industry and economy in the Philippines could not proclaim themselves completely sovereign. Still another event intervened to make the very existence of The New Republic a hazardous one for a time it was a question whether democracy could survive that it did survive has been attributed to the courage and honesty of one man the ex auto mechanic from Zimbabwe's province Roman mix Eisai fifty years of American control had failed to eliminate some of the evils inherited from the 300 years of Spanish rule. The peasant continued to be exploited by the great land holder by the local moneylender and by the dishonest politician. One group in particular capitalized on the rising discontent over these unsolved problems. This group was the hook but lap or as we say here in America the hooks a condensed phrase meaning people's anti-Japanese army. Originally one of the many patriotic liberation movements the hook Bella hap fell under communist sponsorship and transformed themselves into the Philippine People's Liberation Army agrarian
discontent social injustice and political corruption played into the hands of the communists. RAMAN mix Eisai entered politics at a time when people had lost respect for their government in 1050 having served two terms as Congressman from Zambales and Excise I was appointed secretary of national defense. President ke Reno gave him but one order destroyed the hocks it amounted to this save the nation. Within a few days and event transpired so fantastic that it is hard to believe. Yes. I wish to speak to the secretary of defense. This is Max I say. Mr. Secretary. One of the top 10 hawks has expressed a desire to meet and confer with you. I would be glad to oblige when tonight where the address was in Tondo one of the toughest of Manila neighborhoods. It was inconceivable that a man in his position should expose himself to so much danger but mix whose life was a succession of reckless adventures in the cause of justice did not hesitate after midnight Knicks Isiah drove to the address he had been
given. No one else had been permitted to learn of the acid nation 10 minutes because I say waited alone. Then a man in a cream colored coat stepped out of the darkness. I am the commander. I am X I say. What can I do for you. The victory of the hawks is inevitable. You served your country well during the war we Hucks appreciate that. But you are serving no purpose no in a corrupt government resign and save yourself. I don't have all the answers we are helping the masses. We are fighting for the rights of the poor. So am I. That is my job to correct abuses as long as the rebels hold out the country will have nothing but civil war. I am going to see that that does not happen. Surrender yourself to me. That is your patriotic duty. You will be well rewarded and your country will thank you for two hours they argued. The hug leader grew more nervous more unsure of himself as time went on. The meeting was in reality a crap warm excited side but the gunman assigned to assassinate him was delayed by car trouble. Meanwhile an excited size particle personality and his honest arguments were having their effect on the huck
leader. We're not getting any work Amanda. I might as well go. You will never convince me to resign but I did have hopes you would surrender. Wait perhaps we could meet again tomorrow night and as you wish. When excited so I told this story to his colleagues. The men in the cream colored coat became a standing joke but Nick's eyes I pursued his advantage relentlessly. Two weeks later Mr. Secretary what I'm going to do now means life or death to myself and my family. But I know you are kind and just. I want to help you. You will never regret it. Listen carefully. An old woman will stop in front of my house in the morning at nine o'clock. This old woman will be carrying two baskets. She will enter my house and deliver some beef and vegetables. Then she will go on to 20 other houses in Manila delivering that shipped. Those 22 houses are the residences of the members of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Philippines. Follow the old woman. And you will know who they are.
The old woman was followed after almost a month of preparation mixing size forces raided 22 houses simultaneously. The leaders were captured and with them stores of arms and ammunition incriminating documents papers detailing the entire organization. The back of the movement had been broken. Years of fighting in the hills remain. But Nick size I was not satisfied with subduing the rebels. He worked to eliminate those wrongs in which rebellion fed to the masses of the people. He became a symbol of integrity by plane by car on foot. Excited I hustled for one corner of the country to another in one thousand fifty three. He was elected president of the Philippines by the greatest majority in the republic's history. On March 17th 157 he was killed in a plane crash. But already his amazing life inside is supreme example for other Filipinos to follow. The future of the Philippines may involve a new orientation not toward the west but toward the
continent of Asia. In this fear the influence of the Philippines may have an important bearing on the battle of freedom against tyranny. But as MC's I say recognized the first and most important victory must be won at home. Here are his own words. Autograph him up I have read. That the stage of development. In the retired people think of me. You would be the right. One to be with the point. We can be certain. That they have that happening. And I wrote a public letter the boat. With great. One nation indivisible one of a series of 13 radio documents
on nationalism in the twentieth century. Resource advisor for this program was George junior associate professor of political science at the University of Michigan gratefully we acknowledge the help of Ms Sylvia comer and of station F. M. M.. The program was written by e.g. Burroughs and narrated by Lou Hamers also in the cast where Philippine students at the university and members of the Wu or AM radio. Program was directed by Williams and was produced and transcribed by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. With. With. One nation indivisible was produced under a gratin aid from the educational television and radio center. And was distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasting. This is the Radio Network.
One nation indivisible
The Philippines
Producing Organization
University of Michigan
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
The Philippines: Independence and security are achieved under the sponsorship of a colonial power. Features Ramon Magsaysay, late president of the Philippines.
Series Description
A documentary series about nationalism in the 20th century.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Politics and Government
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Narrator: Hemmers, Lou
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Speaker: Magsaysay, Ramon, 1907-1957
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-17-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:00
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Chicago: “One nation indivisible; The Philippines,” 1958-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 23, 2024,
MLA: “One nation indivisible; The Philippines.” 1958-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 23, 2024. <>.
APA: One nation indivisible; The Philippines. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from