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The shadow of the lion. Emerging from a memorable immovable past Britain today faces the formidable task of defining the future. And this is our story our story of the tree. Longer stands can tell a lie and this is bottom apparition of Cupid's yesterdays. His profile turns. Mrs.. Temple transmission. Heard in London this comic strip in Coventry in Oxford and the. Rhythm
of a new revolution in Britain. Programme 11 Heather and hope. From an Indiana University Radio documented essay about contemporary Britain. We present the shadow of the lion with William Kinzer as your net leader. And the English politician was emoting. I was born an Englishman. I have lived an Englishman and I expect to die an Englishman
when from the rear of the hall a voice with a distinct Scottish burr rang out. Mom I am not ambition and so it is that this feeling of intense pride clannishness and growing nationalism has set apart this country north of the border in the broad consideration of Britain's future. You talk to Sir Thomas Amos the Lord Lyon king of arms in Edinburgh and he puts it quite simply. Well of course it was that good fact that black back. Left the backbench at Baghdad that would that make us copy the sack. What. Special and the literature of religion the historical tragedy and in between of great unfulfilled promise. Of breathtaking natural beauty. Of quaint yesterday's recall didn't meet customers. With
quiet frugality. Industry. And individuality. Scott. Land of lakes and borders and lofty peaks a bustling busy city streets of self-styled error of self-sufficiency. And independence. From an. Important remember this that the Treaty of Union of 1770 would amalgamate of the parliaments of the two countries explicitly safeguarded the Scottish legal system with a college education system. The banners and camp and local government and the problems that we have built in within the Great Britain certain fundamentals of the region would have been better and so far have been perpetuated. The Undersecretary of State for Scotland George Patton ger explaining the prevailing sense of national identity. And it's more than just separate systems and institutions you find. It's deeper than that. It's the
people themselves and the character of the Scot is reflected in his laws in his religion in his education. Schools in Scotland for instance are very sober and very strict. Perhaps more so than English schools. They have a very very effective in the college. And no question that on the other hand they don't all wish for up as well as English children would do. But it can learn it in order to discussion and that sort of thing. This is a senior inspector of schools in Scotland Dr David Dickson. This is supposed to be about half a darn person when he doesn't talk about it but I think that in the past and often we have paid far too little attention to that or side of it we have tended to make children walk away books and on their daughter's thought happen to love them to talk as
much as it ought to be and that throne for children has in England the Scottish child to begin school at the age of 5 and is required to attend school until the age of 15. But the systems vary in that Scottish schools offer seven years of primary training to just six years in England. The secondary schools are somewhat the same in both countries but the so-called 11 plus examination in England is really a 12 plus in Scotland Scotland too. In response to the government's plan is moving toward comprehensive education. You wonder about Scotland's high rate of emigration and you ask Dr. Dixon do you Matt feel that you are educating people for other countries having what you have done for many many years I mean you're probably know it all over the road Scotland. But it could be in a video called Cabot Cox and it was
a source and this is convicted with the fact that Scotland has no right in the way of metal resources as compared with many countries that already the system has always been such that we produce. Far more able youngsters than we were able to provide jobs for in the past. You will hear much about Scotland shifting population for like him hourglass see its signs of populist subtle gradually to the bottom of Britain migrating ever southward from the highlands to Glasgow. Maybe to the industrial centers of northern England perhaps ultimately to the excitement and back to body of London. And while many are attracted many Scots look with distain developments to the south for Scotland finds it difficult to accept the easy permissive attitude of
contemporary England and Scotland we still have the inheritance of Calvinism. And which are too uncertain things are false certain things are right and certain things are wrong and what you and your mother. And and we hold what we got and it comes with us. As the Reverend John R. Gray explains the Established Church of Scotland which is Presbyterian exerts a strong influence on the Scottish community. In fact its general assembly acts almost as a parliamentary body for the country. You as well as administering the church often commenting on social and political issues of the day it is a gem of him to the yeah called a great measure of self-government and there has always festered a certain nationalistic feeling in Scotland but never so adamant or as strong as it is today. The Nationalist Party for instance has doubled in strength each year since 1963.
At the University of Strathclyde near Glasgow a professor Titi Patterson tells you about the division of culture in Scotland. He's a mentor apologist and teaches industrial administration. And he speaks of the North seeing literal culture of caring fishermen of the Baltic settling southward along the east coast of Scotland and forming a land based society in which one's home from the sea. The man entered a domain dominated by the women. He then Contrast this with the Irish influence of the West where the original Scots advanced a male dominated society. It means that. You. Have Scotland and Northern England except the pot of coffee on the water. You have. A. Plan. And. There are very good reasons I said to a live wire. There's a strong distinction between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Do there culturally poles apart.
Here in Glasgow I never tell people I am from Edinburgh because I belong to another culture I may be to suspect but no I love to speak the language and if you help me speak it you can understand the other with that I went into a pub near to where you disappear star plus seven or gullible or something like that you completely uncomprehensible. But then having been an anthropologist I love the languages. So I never tell people that I belong to that other Scottish culture because of the strong the Viking line. Now most people think that they're the entrepreneurship of the Glasgow. A. Scotsman. Is derived from the fact that it was looking westerly. SEE Scott Glasgow square developed because of the economic event called. Flats not real. It's because Glasgow was a much more muscular. Now. I use the word the dial I mean those of us I'm accent of
masculinity. You may if you Dr Lee the Glasgow Irish the songs for instance Glasgow belongs to me and I set up to make you know others well like we have a lot of. People. There's less action upon the top of my music very much like your American you know the accent upon the tough rugged American museums actually we've got it here. I mean the same way even new ways. Got. Next to them is the realty letters in the east the accent is not on the political reaction of theirs upon your mental capacities and nothing. This is why I didn't but it was the Athens of an office in the King Center. It's true you can see it just as Professor Patterson saves prim and proper Edinburgh to the east with its fine chops and elegance along Princes Street. Its white collar existence its political and business circles its sense of history and only 44 miles to the
west. Glasgow brawling dockside city reeking with dingy slums and imbued with a lusty air of heavy industry and hearty souls M&A round these two metropolitan centers exist the social and economic vigor of Scotland. But the Under Secretary of State George Patton Ger would point out Scotland have the moment's office sometime imbalance in its industrial strength forfeits off the Scottish population and most of the industry lies in the Central Belt. I'm done do you on the East Coast call Scotland to go down to the coast. This means that while most of Scotland is wildly beautiful and sparsely settled in Glasgow and environs is glutted with humanity over a million people or one fifth of the country's total population lives within the city where right in the heart of it he and I went back to the posturing underneath
the valet line leading to Central Station. You're writing with Ronald Nichols chief planning officer of the Scottish development department. He's driving you through the streets of Glasgow showing you what is being done to rid the city of a vast slum area called the Goebbels. A few years ago people would love to. You can have flowering cherry trees and the dew going in the gold. But if they had a big factory that's got to be moved six or seven storeys high employs about 500 people. It had been acquired we're now providing tentative accommodation somewhere else for this factory to move out of. It's terribly important that we don't live in industrial problems such as we have. It's terribly important that we don't kill the industry in the process of carrying out of the development scheme. You look and you marvel at this mammoth task of urban renewal and Glasgow
Nicol was directing this undertaking which demanded the displacement of some thirty seven thousand people. The relocation of many industries and the destruction of vast areas of tenement slums much had already been done. Great city blocks were clear others were occupied by modern apartments well landscaped and accommodated. Not far away there were new towns being developed to handle the population over spill of these old is the showpiece of complete up to date community where cars are banned from its center. But for all its problems the central belt of Scotland is not a foremost concern. The Highland north its huge undisciplined expanse deserted and undeveloped presents perhaps the most formidable challenge to see what it offers to see what it is. You take a trip you travel north.
House in Green locks micro-management and tape and drama the next. By the balmy breezes of the top tube by the Crag there's a mist covered mountains. And through glimpses of history when look both of Cupid warriors where once clams took their stand against treachery and oppression. And from a high wind to swept over you see below a crofter's cottage plain and small against the immensity of nature. So very simple and alone so symbolic of that which is right and wrong with Scotland. Inverness is a small market town on the banks of the River Mass. Here there is hope for the Highlands and it emanates from a new and modern building housing the Highlands and Islands development board.
The trouble with the Highlands and Islands is that it comprises a vast area of about 9 million acres or nearly half the landmass of Scotland but it contains only about 5 percent of the population of Scotland. Robert fasc amuse the secretary of the board and you listen intently as he tells you about the area. The reason for this is that much of the country is extremely mountainous and barren much of the court's wine is indented by sea loss and the cultivatable land in many places is in small coastal strips. Townships are in the main isolated and communications often difficult their natural creatures of course. The mountains the locks the rivers and bury the Highlands with great scenic beauty which with their historical and cultural associations will always exact a powerful attraction and in fact so far as the tourist industry is concerned are exacting and even more powerful attraction of the present time we are getting more and more to this coming to this part of Scotland.
But it's more than an area for no matter how sparsely settled the problems focus on the people and you remember the observation of our Duncan in Midan borough. As a planner with the Scottish development department he had worked closely with the Highland Highland is probably much more conscious of his antecedents. He until recent years. There's always been a tendency for him to look a bit backward. Going forward to unravel the potential of the territory them the newly established Highlands and Islands Development Board must ignite a new and radical plans for progress yet at the same time acknowledge and preserve the heritage inherent in this historic land. Not an easy task and heading the activity as chairman of the board is a former University of Glasgow Professor Robert Green who now sits his back against a wall of map and discusses the future
and the past. Other committees other agencies have in other days accepted the challenge but none with the determination and scope of this organization instituted by the British government in the spring of 1966. Professor Greig now put aside his pipe he leans back and he points to the great detail covering his wall. This is the area he says. This is the problem. It's like a problem of geriatric and other ones when we try to get in and to not gas and into something very closely approaching it. Nothing very much can be done about it. It's intractable. It's a marginally difficult here. It's not in the mainstream of industrial civilization. This has been the general attitude noticeboard has been set up.
And is faced with a very difficult task because even the federally. But even so the board friends of the idea that the border is being set up to handle to put this video on its feet. People who choose to live in the industrial areas of this country. Whose folks came from the Highlands they are confused they are thinking really and rather sentimental in emotional terms very often about the old way of life which of course is demonstrably according to the statistics of America that we have. Death comes occupation is going down in the more rural parts of the Highlands now. But they want to see the old way of life. The all cultural background and at the same time they want to see development. When development comes one is pretty certain from certain indications already where development is taking place that people criticize us because it is changing things.
And here is the fundamental problem for this board. A kind of ambivalence in the Scots people about what should be done. They both want to see it alive and at the same time they don't want to see any change. And of course chain means pain. Many have become disenchanted especially the youth and many have emigrated. You ask about their son Professor Greig ponders your question. Well I often ask people in the Highlands and many other people about this. No one of course knows. What. All the. Motives are for people leaving places like the Highlands. Some people allege that it is purely economic. They don't get the choice of job field in a place like the Highlands and Islands. Some people say it's the bright lights. It's a social outreach that drives the need
for more recreation theatres and cinemas. The busy streets and bigger shocks are all the choice you get in the big cities metropolitan mission is one thing. Who knows. I think it's both. And so the move is on to develop tourism forestry fishing encourage industrial group advise and aid small businesses seek new opportunities and attractions for the young. Publicize the many assets of the Highland north and when there is optimism no one underestimates the task or how long it will take and the secretary tasked him declares the Highlands it must be appreciated it's taken 200 years to get into this mess. We won't get out of it and 201. Scots seem to hold a bore a cautious and considered view of life strictly Calvinistic upbringing. Has he wrecked its own wall of resistance to
change as the Reverend John Gray suggests when it will need a connection to the not so completely gathered in cities. As in the south of England and I think people who live among hills out in country places on the whole all of us kind of view but the view is changing. Scots are not immune to the ways of the world and contemporary influences have tended to erode basic human values once highly prized in the Scottish character. Professor Patterson of the University of Strathclyde puts it quite bluntly we are no longer the Scotsman that we were I mean a Scotsman of my By who did well I'm getting on for 16 hours a day so you can see the generations. That are there. I think Scotsman knew exactly when you felt exactly who they were. How they were placed in the road. They knew very well
that there was this essence of the equality of man. This is Robin Williams. Thank you. A man's a man for all that. Scott's mom says Professor Patterson knew they were better than anyone else and they felt they had to prove it and so it has been throughout the world. The Scots bird is heard in the high places of responsibility but somehow Scotsman have lost the initiative level and too often in Scotland today there was a feeling that what was good in the past is good still. Take for instance ships in the world Id have quite built a ship with built in the quiet It did not need better ships in Sweden that's for sure. But these do we still think they are easy and they still really rest on this tradition I'm good just racing. There's a song status quo I'm going to she did precisely it just stands where it did.
And do any of you think that you feel that those are great standing with God. Let me disabuse you of this. They're already starting is that I think that we know that the last minute we simply have to get over these economic pressures are forcing us. To do something about it. Forcing us to look at the amount of the buy whatever it's motivation. There is clearly a new spirit emerging in modern Scotland one chems sense a growing impatience with her long history of economic stagnation. And while much of the fervor is voiced in the machinable party it is efforts designed to compensate for the country's declining industries that time and delicately mean the most for Scotland's future. Under Secretary of State Popham Gerry mentions the Scottish national platform published in one thousand sixty five. Well the national plan contemplates an increase in productivity of 25 percent. In the US from 1965 to 1970 already
there are signs of the economic resurgence thanks to government pump priming and incentives for private investment. Almost a billion dollars in capital has flowed in since World War Two for three years now Scotland has outpaced the rest of Britain in the rate of industrial growth. Last year more than 5 million tourists were attracted by Scotland's scenic wonders and the bring dream the traditional exit this of Scotland's brightest sons for opportunities abroad has been practically reversed but much is yet to be done for Scotland has the scars of many decades of social and economic degradation. So what of the future. Professor Patterson I think that for Scotland we need another rabid buttons. We need a man to sing. But I think again. We need a man who can give us
new a clear picture of where we stand in the modern society. And what of the society now. Like everybody did he did he enunciated a universal. You see this is why I'm running this place it can be read in Moscow and Rio de And you know New York of course is universal. Right.
We have as you said a rear cross roads. Things are moving. Things are moving I think what you're really saying is that you sense that in Scotland there is a diva desire yet a striving striving to find ourselves again. We've lost ourselves. Striving to find ourselves this not a question of building a lot of new factories and mines and a new bridge and the Highland development zone. That isn't the real problem. The problem is to find ourselves as a Scotsman. What we have in this modern world. I Scotsman. I don't know. We've got to solve this problem. From Indiana University Radio we have presented Heather and hope
Series
The shadow of the lion
Episode
Heather and Hope
Producing Organization
Indiana University
WFIU (Radio station : Bloomington, Ind.)
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-8c9r5z7b
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Description
Other Description
For series info, see Item 3300. This prog.: Heather and Hope. Scotland and its other world: education, culture, religion; also its economic upheavals, its shifting population, and its urgent need for highland development.
Date
1968-01-01
Topics
Social Issues
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:29:27
Embed Code
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Credits
Producing Organization: Indiana University
Producing Organization: WFIU (Radio station : Bloomington, Ind.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-14-11 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:13
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Citations
Chicago: “The shadow of the lion; Heather and Hope,” 1968-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed November 30, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-8c9r5z7b.
MLA: “The shadow of the lion; Heather and Hope.” 1968-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. November 30, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-8c9r5z7b>.
APA: The shadow of the lion; Heather and Hope. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-8c9r5z7b