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I go to my glory and my death. I go willingly my chief keep it for your debt because they are not of your clan and the name and shame to my clan if I do not go forth to mock battle to be killed. You would die a great warrior. Death casts and there will be an end to the humiliation the kind of ideas feel for the killing of their warrior high mass by our noble Chi-Chi. I die indeed outside the country is and the one you are drawing up ratings. Still I go bearing a high the honor of the nine yeah. Stand for a murderer. A study in culture. A program in the series ways of mankind presented under the supervision of Walter Goldsmith anthropologist at the University of California Los Angeles by the
National Association of educational broadcasters a series designed to show how human beings live together in different times and places. A study in culture. Stand in for a murderer. With a running commentary by Dr. Goatman. Thinks about children. I am very glad now I'm going. Because he made sure he was quick strong and brave all the battle he felt most alive and worthy of his ancestors and to stand by his adversary like
great chief and honorable way that was not so quick. Strong again and again. This might have thrust to stay overnight through the ages. Yes because usually parents just lay the stress on telly but called his duty to his clan. He fought carelessly then and so quickly thrashed to steer home. Into the hot doc as the. Doctor Goldschmidt. This scene takes place in front of the cedar prank houses of the Plunket Indians of southeast Alaska. Dot because this gopher warrior sacrifices his life in combat with a rival chieftain to us this seems a foolish and insane act to dock this in his people it was neither. Many things that people of foreign lands do seem strange to us because we don't understand the whys and wherefores of the acts. Such behavior is understood by the anthropologists in terms of the culture. Let's try to
understand the action of dockets in terms of Plunket culture. Consider first the sense of property. Springs slipped down the mountain that is from Southeastern Alaska and quickly turned into summer snowline move noticeably every day. Farther up the mountainside the non-U plateau the clink of India gathered along the sticky ever time of the salmon run was attacked last year it had not been good but this year when it came. It was bountiful with spearmen gap. They pulled the tasty fish from the foaming torrent the first salmon they caught was treated with the same respect they paid to achieve the feast was given its honor when it's forgive and good will. Then the fishing went off some of the salmon was cooked most of it was split and hung from the rafters to dry. Then yeah you were happy they would have food for a long time
like a storm cloud. Some news brought by one of their warriors Daucus moved a shadow across the best head that can hide here where down the river at the Cataract. How many it is a large band much larger than ours. They come to fight us. They have their women and babies with them. They are building huts and setting the raven crests out front they have even raised a totem pole. They have come to stay. They have come to take our fishing waters. Their hunting grounds and fishing waters not already asked the salmon do not fill their rivers as they do this to Keene. We shall attack them and drive them away. Call the head men gather in my room for a council of war. We are outnumbered doctor says bravery and fierceness are better than numbers doctor Nic attacked without warning. Attacked them at night. What kind of height is a large and scattered plan. Yes if we ambushed those down by sticking from here and killed them all that
will not end it only begin it. Did they not force us to leave our old hunting ground. Do we let them drive us on again. Long ago that was the peace we have lived many seasons we are of the same great nation. Many of their women are writing up the cause for war. You are young and wish put Sophy's but not this time. You while noble and brave enough trophies will come your way. We shall hold up but let that feast for that then how does and shame them into leaving all fishing grounds gather all your roads. That does look good and hot does have given many great pledges but this will surpass any of them. Their host they really dare not insult further by remaining on our fishing grounds we shall shame them with the grit gives shame shame in dark humiliation they will
draw. What's this protection of property by giving it away. Defeating an enemy by giving him a feast. Yes this is in the pattern of Plunket culture. Probably the most economic military tactic in the room for Ana comes to those who can not give their rivals who can make the greater display of generosity. Again perhaps not unknown to hostesses in our culture. But here among the linkit it is a dominant cultural motif. The famous potlatch ceremony the rival gift giving. Let's see how it works out. There is a rich man. Why did you say there is not coming.
Why did they always call God the Potlatch was a range the gun had as accepted the nine years invitation and came wearing their ceremonial costumes and carrying their valuable emblems engraved on copper shields emblems inherited and emblems when the non-unique greeted them wearing their finest costumes. Food was piled in great stacks. Deer meat berries salmon trout and wooden boxes full of candle fish oil. There was song storytelling speeches and much exchanging of gifts for blankets slaves cedar log canoes and copper shields changed hands. Each clan trying to outdo the other in generosity. Gifts were destroyed in the great fires to add to the ostentation and slaves were killed to the accompaniment of a chant. The words of the people I know might not be.
Me. We have never know what we have. They have nothing to give away or destroy. They will go away. Look. Comes out with still another copper shears it is not needed they are already beaten grand in everything but who is he giving it to. To one of the more. But he's been big. Shut him up. Come back. I just made very angry. He's not going to talk to you know he is going to stay with us.
Take the. Grave look like a mess. And for what you have just said. The enemy was vanquished with gifts. But another element in blanket culture intervenes culture wealth and property are measures of status and status is jealously guarded and in such a culture there are excesses of pride that endangered peace and safety. The neighbors are deeply concerned with face resentful suspicious and hostile such personality traits seem to the blanket to
be the very nature of man. Another aspect of play could go to comes to the fore. The strength of clan organisation and clan loyalty. I must prevent that. If I can get between my sacred grizzly bear. Do not fight do not fight. And there will be justice. Do not fight. There will be retribution. No no do not to make walk like a grizzly bear and the raven crest. There will be justice. We know the grisly cries stunned the raven Christ. If there is
justice we shall not make war so great is the cup. Never have the nine yeah. Fate or didn't justice of the high mouse belong to the Council of Chiefs. He was the son of a great chief. Slain fighting against the clock. Was a brave warrior and he has given have raised his prestige high but he is not kidding. And so we do not ask for the death of Cockeye but the warrior from your clan who is to die must be the equal of high mass in bravery Wales and prestige chosen will not dishonor your house at the least to be the equal of the dead mice. We would not never planned bisector of facing less than you have lost.
We are the people who fear the higher than all others in the world of the people who feed others in the world. The head band of the new clan and the head man of the kind hearted clan choose the warrior was the murder of several warriors were selected by the end of the hottest Jeeves. They were not of the rank of the slain civil Warriors suggested by the kind hottest chiefs were according to the Chiefs a far too high rank to be sacrificed for the slaying of a minor noble. The haggling went on for the full day and not until sundown did they settle on a warrior acceptable to both plan. I shall go to him then and inform him and tell him to prepare he will bring honor to himself and to the slain high mouse.
So that justice be done. How do these kids get stood up by pledge you to die to die. My chief you are to be slain in combat. You are to die great. Yes I am to die great my chief. Prepare for the battle because I shall prepare us. That guy who slew us speak we have weathered together many storms on the open water. Us and together have hunted along many trails back to back. We have fought off the hide the cookie Util and the raven plans. But now I have forced you into a battle alone to die for your class.
The great cry could not die to make good the death of the lowly high mass. I know that one day you will die in a manner equal to your noble rank high in songs of the night and in stories the name of gas will be remembered and handed down. I shall prepare for the combat in the time that is yours to choose my fasting begins at this hour. I shall want a while to bid farewell to my brothers and my wife and young ones. I shall speak to the wolf and the grizzly bear and then I shall be ready. The day of the execution. Throughout his ceremonial it's grizzly bear his bare head piece with the eyes and ears of abalone fail and he stepped forth from his house.
His clan were assembled on either side of the clearing where the Khan had as long during the flood climbed the mountain on the sticky river and a grizzly bear and a mountain goat followed them. People stopped and stopped and when they moved again and follow at last and kept with the claws and the teeth. In the time we have had the bare skin. We have given away many many. It is for this reason children as the chief one owning the grizzly bear. Doctors went on at considerable length. This was the custom among the clink of the Indians
telling of the deeds of his clan and his ancestors and ending with his own history. Then he looked over at the Can hottest one of their number in ceremonial robes and with painted face had moved out from the others. A shell tipped spear in one hand knife in the other. This was the man that was to slay him in mock combat in mock but glorious combat. But before he had come far back to Scotland and raised his arms. Stop. Come no father. Who is this you sent to fight with me. Gogu Co. Fought in but three battles and in one of which he ran. What emblems Can you show me. Much did he pay for his bride. Was it ten blankets and one old canoe. At the only feast he ever gave. He was mercilessly shamed.
Send me our warrior chief to do battle with me where the two crane. Shaking him pale with anger and humiliation Daucus turned and strode back into his house. We're proud of their warrior Daucus this moment would go down in their legends that Chris was aware of his greatness and he would accept death at the hands of no warrior less noble and brave than himself. So it was to be so it had always been noted that standing there felt they'd taken on a new prestige felt more closely bound together as a clan. They waited with staring black eyes for the kind hardest to rectify their blunder. The cat had his cheeks gathered in council and because brooded in his house he had come out to die. But death had come to him in a miserable guise and he had refused it. Now
he must prepare again. I have faced death many times. I can face it once more. But I was prepared to meet it as a friend. I cannot. But I shall go out again to keep our plans at peace and maintain the high of my plan. Do we not say there is no greater act for a good Indian. But I shall miss many things. Ghosts ghosts Chief took the neck of the greatest chief among the kind of high days has come forward to offer another poet to slay me in combat. No doubt guess or is it the slaves they often are. Tell them I shall defend myself and strike back if they do not send a warrior worthy of me I shall kill him and fling money after him to pay for his costs
because their greatest chief so great is the subtle friends come forward to join you and come but he invited you to come. The highest honor he sais is due you. So he will fight me. He is confident you are worthy. I shall go to meet him. That plays grizzly bear a cloak on him once more. I ach hand him his spear and my knife the better. Gus and Grady I go to my glory. And my death. Just move forward with the life brave step to me and execution.
From the sticky thinks about the lives of the nine yeah yeah children. I am very glad you took pity on me. No I am going. I. And so as we already know that because die with pomp and circumstance with head held high. He died in a mock battle with a man of high honor the might easily have slain. I have seen no braver death on the field of battle than his death. My hands this day have his body laid out in St.. Bob do you have a noble and brave warrior. I brought shame to the nine yeah yet plan. He removed it. I shall raise a totem pole in his honor the great cause of Ojai of the
Kenyan tribes shall carve it. It will tell of the greatness of us. So has gone to the highest heaven. And so doctors still went to the highest heaven. And we learned the darkest brave act was inspired by religion as well as by clan loyalty and personal pride inflicted religion death in battle was a sacred death that had its reward in afterlife but that this sacrifice was considered even more sacred clan woman shrine this deed is a sacred symbol on its totem pole as inspiration for its future generations. With the peace that gathered once again. It's with me for a man of noble rank from each clan off of themselves as hostages
messengers by every one I can man I crossed over to their respective enemies and brought back the hostages. Now the mood of the ritual changed the peaceful spirit took over. The hostages were transformed into dear gentle peaceful calm and still for days they fasted in the houses of the church. Then their fingers were tied together. They were going out to eat but only that they left the peace for the fights. They ate from stone slabs. The peace was to be lasting the Come-Outers had been humbled at the pop lights held in their honor and were withdrawing from the fishing grounds of the menu along the sticky river. Also that I knew I had a tone for the killing of the kind How does warrior highness my master I am feeling very lonely. I am singing
inside and I am crying above myself. The hostages then put on the ceremonial robes of the humming bird the salmon traps of the Russian representative of peace and address the clans. I heard nod my head toward you. The deer has now gone in among my play and. We feel no anger. Just. Dance of. The piece was placed on their head. So peace was publicly proclaimed the ritual ended. If you were to make it in you you'd sacrifice your life just as readily.
And of course it would seem a perfectly natural and inevitable thing to do. After all you'd share the Plunket loyalty to the clan. You place the same sharp emphasis on status as everyone else in your culture. Every attitude in every religious belief would support your sacrificial action and action which seems strange to us only because we belong to a different culture. We have become known as reporters of odd behavior among distant people strange customs do have a curious fascination that makes anthropology fun to study. But what began as Curiosity has led to new understandings of people ourselves included. The first step in understanding the strange customs of other people is to see that they are the products of culture just as our own customs are. And you can get an idea of what a culture is if you think of it as the total ways of a people. The manner and means by which they have dealt with the problems that face on societies the varied ways of behavior will seem a lot less strange to us if we realize that
there's nothing innate or inherent about them ways of behavior are learned. Whether you're a twink Indian of the last century or a modern American living in New York culture then includes a lot of things the accumulated technical knowledge of people employed to get a livelihood. Attitudes and beliefs. Yes and even the feelings which people expresses are learned as a part of culture. Taken all together these various elements harmonize so that each culture forms its own peculiar pattern. If we are to understand why the people of other countries think and act as they do we must learn how to appreciate the cultural forces which shape their behavior and feelings. The importance of cultural understanding was recognised during the last war when anthropologists were called on to help in understanding the enemy. It's even more important to understand the motivations of other people. If we are to maintain peace and if we want to know ourselves more fully we will have to recognize the cultural forces which set our own behavior. This
we can do best by using other cultures as a mirror in which to see ourselves. What we want to do is to show how recurring problems in human social life are met in different ways by different people including ourselves to form the rich diversity of the ways of mankind. Dr. Walter Goldsmith associate professor of anthropology and sociology of the University of California Los Angeles. I was going to stand in for a murderer. A study in culture in the series ways of mankind produced in the studios of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Toronto by Andrew Allen and. Script by Len Peterson. Original music composed and conducted by me. These programs are presented and distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters. The program you have just heard is made possible under a grant from the fund for adult education an independent organization established by the Ford
Foundation. This is the end E.B. Radio Network.
Ways of mankind
Stand in for a murderer
Producing Organization
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program, "Stand in for a Murderer," attempts to show the different ways that cultures deal with issues in order to help listeners understand and respect cultural differences.
Series Description
This series is an exploration into the origin and development of cultures, customs and folkways in various parts of the world.
Broadcast Date
Cultural awareness.
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Composer: Agostini, Lucio, 1913-
Funder: Fund for Adult Education (U.S.)
Host: Thompson, Ben
Producer: Allan, Andrew, 1907-1974
Producing Organization: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-39-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:10
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Chicago: “Ways of mankind; Stand in for a murderer,” 1963-12-23, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 20, 2024,
MLA: “Ways of mankind; Stand in for a murderer.” 1963-12-23. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 20, 2024. <>.
APA: Ways of mankind; Stand in for a murderer. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from