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The following program was originally released in 1967. There are strings attached to all the music of the next half hour goalie. It turned out that that and that and that fit that bill they produce it in a variety of ways and for many different reasons all the peoples of the world have names at. Michigan State University Radio invites you now to a program of music around the world produced and hosted by Martha lookalikes. A vibrating string produces sound waves. The pitch of the song depends upon the length of the string the quality the sound is dependent upon the thickness the material on the construction of the string and the way in which the vibration is initiated. And then he song can be amplified and modified by means of further resonance. Numerous varieties of musical instruments operate
according to these few basic principles. Some societies use few or no stringed instruments whereas other societies have several different kinds of string instruments which are an important part of the musical tradition. When removing the strings can be set vibrating in a number of ways. One of the least common way is to let them be blown by the wind and wind with the best known example of wind blown string instrument is probably the Aeolian harp name for it was who according to Greek mythology was the ruler of the winds. It consists of several strings stretched across a sounding board and when the instruments hung in a tree the breeze vibrates the strings and we're hearing a Southern soldier moment of South Africa coming in accompaniment to the sound of the single spring wind blown Les IBA an instrument often played by the boys who herd cattle on the hills. A piece of bird quill attached to one end of the string probably counts for the tone quality.
When we were in the room. One of the more controlled ways to set a string vibrating is to strike it with a light stick or a padded hammer. This is the action that produces a sound of the piano in the clavichord. One of the non keyboard instruments played this way is such emblem of Eastern Europe. We'll hear one in a Romanian orchestra. With.
Strings can also be made to vibrate by means of friction with the bow. There are many kinds of boat instruments including the violin family which was also heard in that last election. Most of the classical and much of the white popular instrumental traditions of the West are based on violin family. Another type of instrument is usually bowed as a neck that's longer than the body. It's sometimes called a spike because the round handle projects through the body of the instrument to form a spike at the lower end. Larger instruments of this family rest upon the spike similar to the playing position of a cello. The smaller instruments are usually just let dangle. According to tradition this instrument originated in the north Iranian district of Kurdistan but now it's spread over much of the world it's had Muslim influence including India and Southeast Asia and it has various names according to the area which is found in Iran it's called Comanche and here it's playing variations on a mode in the classical version style.
But it's also called Turkey plays a typical fisherman's dance in the port of tribes on the Black Sea. But the end. On Crete It's called the lira and it's often accompanied by a type of long necks. To move.
My. Feet. Yeah. Mama in Arabic it's called a bob in Russian in Bulgaria it's called. Hooved and it's used to accompany ballads playing ensembles and as it does here play for dancing. The melodies strings are made of good. But there are also a number of sympathetically vibrating lawyer rules. For her.
A few bowed instruments occur in Africa. For example let's hear a common man of Kenya using a bowed lute to create an interesting harmony and rhythm pattern with his singing. In it and you never know.
Let me. Well to the west a group of Gundam in a new gun. Having added a lawyer and a drum to get a different effect. By the way the song he's singing says people born in Uganda should love each other. Something maybe all nations should
look at. But I'm glad I am I was. There are several kinds of lutes visitors harps guitars and other plucked or strummed string instruments in Africa. We've played several examples of these on other programs of the series. One of the more unusual string instruments found in several areas of the African continent is the musical boat. Often it's a separate boat from the hunting bow though the Bushman probably do use their actual hunting bows. The string can be either plucked or struck with a light stick or grass. The sound can be resonated by putting one end of the bow in the mouth by attaching gourds to it by setting it on a bowl of pot a basket or a metal vase. The pitch is controlled by pulling the ends of the boat towards one another.
Your little world or little bit of good will you're going to be able and it will go for you a bit about it. This musical Bowl being played by Randy man of order and he has a good resonator. I hope you don't let it go or mobile doing mobile don't you. You know when you're bored you know where to go. What. The next boat played by a blind ol musician of Rhodesia is Miles resonated. It was recorded right next to the singer's head but you'll hear how the sound is still so light that a small rattle almost covers it up even when they are resonated to make them louder. Musical bows are usually used mainly for playing for oneself or a small close group. And. Then.
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Musical vote can be rigged up to be a one man band. On a radio program I played it an example of a girl whistling while she was playing it most resonated both this Wang a man of Mozambique alternate playing the bow with gluing on a blade of grass all the while shaking a rattle on the stick he uses to strike the bowstring. But if. You. Do any of you recognize this instrument being played by petty men of South Africa.
What brought me that no blood in my mug. It's not a hard visit there with buttons it pushed down all the right strings for instant chords in the 20s and 30s the autoharp was one of the most popular foreign manufactured articles in Africa several hundred thousand were sold in South Africa alone. But nowadays only a few people still have them and played. My. Part. A real heart is distinguished from other plucked instruments by the fact that the strings are perpendicular to rather than parallel with the song board in the Mexican state of or through. The harp is an important element of the string placed the typical bends with into that area. When hearing the harp and two guitars playing the well-known the bomba.
Of course string instruments especially various kinds of guitars are prominent in Latin American music. The guitar came to the new world with the Spanish and it developed in Spain out of the string instruments of the Arabs who invaded Spain from the eighth century on. There are debates about whether certain instruments originated with the Arabs or with the Greeks. But the fact remains that both groups do use several different string instruments nowadays and seem to have done so for a long time. The considered the queen of the instruments hiders culture and the precursor of the European lute and man when he was here played by Him been a newbie and traditionally new bands have used only production instruments but he then is developing a new tradition by expressing the seams of his people on a traditional Arabic instrument.
Muslim influence also played a part in developing the North Indian classical style of music sometimes called Hindustan music as opposed to Carnatic music. The classical style of South India most of the Indian classical music being heard in this country these days is of the Hindustan or North Indian school either sitar usually played by Ravi Shankar or sorrow it is played by Ali Akbar Khan. These two men are considered among the outstanding musicians of India. Both of them learned their music at the feet of all the off funds father was dead. Khan whose own training is traced back to his teachers teachers teachers teachers teacher etc to the famous Thompson court musician to Emperor Akbar in the 16th century. Whose dead son is responsible not only for the training of many of the best North Indian musicians but also for the present form of the instrument played by his son. It's a road. The same road began as a modified rubab the type of boat instrument you heard several. Examples of the beginning of the program. This was in the 13th century a court of salt on a law.
And at first it had got strings and was bowed. Then later it was played with a plectrum and in the 19th century metal strings were added. Today's a road has a body a skin covered belly in a middle finger board which allows subtle glides and shakes. It has 25 metal springs tenor played with a plectrum a typical going to for touring a melody to its enjoy the rhythms in the other four tuned to the dominant notes of the piece and the other 15 strings are sympathetic. A middle Brewer it increases the resonance. In addition to the set of two drums called another string instrument is heard in accompaniment. It's a long Nick Gordon's moment usually with four open strings to the notes of the piece being played in providing the continuous back.
That was all he asked for fun playing a piece of Morning Raga. As I've mentioned before it's difficult to give a complete idea of Indian classical music and presenting it like this since each performance is actually a long improvised development of a particular pattern. This is true of both the north and south styles on whatever instruments may be used. I'm going to play some songs Indian Vina music but first let's hear just a bit of Ravi Shankar playing a comparable passage on the sitar. To hear the difference in sound between Soto and Cythera. This is that was developed from the vino which we'll hear next. Like the sorrow that has mellowed a grown and sympathetic strings five melodic to drone and 13 sympathetic strings each to a different pitch. This is this much on the order of madrasa one of the best known Vina players. His musical
career is very unusual in that he didn't have a good master but rather he taught himself and he developed his own distinctive style. The vein in its present form goes back to the 17th century with the name Xena refers to a very ancient instrument often appearing in Indian art especially associated with some asperity goddess of heart and learning. The main body of the film is car from a single piece of wood 24 brass frets affixed on wax a Legitimist him to Venus for Millet he springs in three domes drains which provide a background similar to the time where some things arose in the. Indian room told me there is a single to hit a drone each tuned to a different pitch.
If you read the vocal technique program you may remember the South Indian singing let's compare it to the Vienna technique. Those are just a few of the main string instruments used in Indian classical music. In addition there are many different kinds used in folk music plucked strummed all shapes and sizes and tones. If you listen to the theme song when it comes in at the end of this program you'll hear one kind.
In Korea there are many instruments including several string instruments which are a Chinese innovation with the basic Koreans as they're called is claimed as an indigenous instrument from the kingdom of the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula though it does seem to be based on a Chinese prototype. The kayak room is a large instrument. The player sits on the floor with one end of the instrument on his lap in the other and on the ground it has a six communal bridge at one end and a movable bridge for each of its 12 strings. The guy at whom has formerly was formerly a board instrument has now used folk tradition where hearing a piece called Autumn which betrays the autumn sky the drizzling rain and a solitary walk in the garden.
And next we'll have a Japanese version of the wind of autumn as described in the cold. A song composed sometime in the early 19th century based on a famous Chinese poem The composer who invented a special tuning for this piece the quartos about six feet long 10 inches wide and has 13 wound start strings with a moving bridge for each one. The player wears ivory plectrum on the thumb forefinger and middle finger.
Coming to the end of our time I would like you to your little Russian dance tune played on the Russian national folk instrument like a banjo.
Join me next week. Do your children songs and nobodies from all over the world. We have presented music around the world with Martin Nicolas producer and commentator and we invite you to be with us again next week at the same time for music around the world. The only. Thing. That you can do
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Music around the world
Producing Organization
Michigan State University
WKAR (Radio/television station : East Lansing, Mich.)
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/500-8911sq0f).
Episode Description
This program focuses on string music from around the world.
Other Description
This series, hosted by Marta Nicholas, presents music from all parts of the globe.
Media type
Host: Nicholas, Marta
Producer: Parrish, Thomas (Thomas D.)
Producing Organization: Michigan State University
Producing Organization: WKAR (Radio/television station : East Lansing, Mich.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-37-10 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:38
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Chicago: “Music around the world; Strings,” 1967-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 19, 2022,
MLA: “Music around the world; Strings.” 1967-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 19, 2022. <>.
APA: Music around the world; Strings. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from