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One plus one equals three. There were 400 people. For that figure. It took only one century to double again. Today there are well over three and a half billion of us sharing this planet. Demographers tell us that by the year 2000 the world's population will swell to almost seven billion. This series of programs is about this problem
about what happens because plus one equals three. Writing them out made their way down on the shelf about when they want to eat. It. From my
mouth to go. That Iran would not. Get in at 8 a.m.. On. The air. What a nice These are great glories gold and rich wise cultural anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. And you don't you know the mind is nature. From and from and of time taken centuries on. This man suddenly 90 years ago before man had begun to infest space. Conceived at that time when men would be in space. Consider that men in space would be able to look up on the far far off the small celestial or the small
rotating orbit and looking at it closely examined it and sought to be green green from the matter of time out in the oceans. From that that you're on land and perceive that the world is by a green celestial flute. And looking more closely saw that upon this beautiful green celestial fruit there were some blemishes some pathological tissue like Gray in for these extended dynamic tentacles and he perceived of course the blemishes upon the world life had damaged them a sweater and did the studies and works of man and asked Is man but a planetary disease 1069 and transplanted Scotsman spoke out against the city macaque chairman of the landscape architecture and regional planning department at the University of Pennsylvania is well known for his condemnations of man's outlook on the environment. I know something about big cities and I would say the hearts of all of them are unsuitable for human habitation. That in fact it is which are generated physical social and mental
pathology and they will continue to do so. That wooden is inflicted upon people that are living and wounds to be inflicted upon children and bomb that a festering indictment upon us all. And they have simply got to be reconstituted. But people defuse the motor human and violence. Whether or not we agree with the macabre assessment of our cities. There is an urgency about topics he tackles and no particular concern maybe more urgent than the matter of man cities for it is in our cities but the majority of people live hand by a simple extension of this fact. Most babies are born in cities and most people grow up in cities and cities are the most graphic examples of our population problem. In 1964 there were one hundred and thirty nine metropolitan areas in the world with a million or more people. Three of the city suburb areas in New York and London and Tokyo. Had over 10 million. 19 of every hundred people in the world live in cities of 100000 or more people. Half the population of North America or one out
of every two people on our continent live in such a city. What attracts people to these concentrations of human population. DR MICHAEL Spock Koski assistant professor of family relationships at the University of Illinois in our data speculated on the reasons behind such individual decisions. During an interview with the ways guy slips what factors are involved in the decision of a family or couple to live in a particular place as opposed to another place. And I think you hit on one of the obvious ones in bringing up this question in terms of companies moving people around but other things I think are even more important. For instance desire today with our mobility and the opportunities for jobs especially in the middle and upper income brackets. I think a lot of people are making movies on the basis of where they want to live perhaps they haven't lived someplace before. I would like to live there. I want to give it a try maybe they're getting away from their parents. This is a factor in moving I think sometimes
whether this be just young couples or for that matter even older couples. Convenience 2 makes a difference in terms of living in the big city urban areas as opposed to living in a suburban shopping center area as opposed to living in the rural area I think what is more convenient for the couples involved or the families involved makes a big difference again. Do they want to have to have two or three cars as opposed to one or none. This is a factor family and friends. And do you want to be near your family as I said earlier. Moving away from but some people move toward There are many families that stay in a community in a locale for years and years and years perhaps three four five generations. I noticed the other day in the newspaper there was a story about a rather rarity. Sixth generation living generation family in Pensacola Florida where four of the six generations were in that locale and the other older generations were in Arkansas unusual and first of all from six
generations but unusual too in that they stayed together. I think this is something many people don't think are our friends too. You know. Some of us do count on our friend relationships to maintain something even though the job may not be exactly what we want maybe the community the church the friendships we have developed these things are very important. And also another one availability of resources I'd like to throw out here and not just money resources but other things recreational facilities housing what it costs as part of that sure but what can you get what is offered. I think these things sometimes influence moves. What about the quest for status of some Aries being this a significant factor is this something that's. Well it might be yeah it depends on the social group certainly that you come from and the value systems you've incorporated. Certainly in communities there are places that are good places to live and poor places to live the other side of the tracks kind of concept comes into this
I'm sure. But even so you find some people who really don't care who make their own place whatever it is and are satisfied with it others who are very status conscious keeping up with the Joneses and the old trite statement is there certainly and some people will go way over their heads. I have seen some articles on the affluent needy people who are earning like twenty five hundred thousand a year who are tremendously in debt because they're trying to go where they should to go in quotes whatever that means. The reasons outlined by Dr. Spock Koski have been in operation for over a century. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution cities started growing at an extremely rapid rate. The jobs generated by industrial production attracted more and more of the rural population to such European and North American cities as London New York and Chicago. And cities grew by leaps and bounds today 83 World cities claim more than a million inhabitants almost half. Thirty nine of them are in Asia. There are 18 in New York nine in
North America. The Soviet Union and South America each have seven and there are three in Africa. And on the phone from mine it will not be known that I don't. Not that it wasn't long time I was not around with it. If you go on a bit then you may get it read. But let them get on down on that. One. In one week long long way. Cities are three dimensional. They cover a land area and particularly in the 20th century they are growing up and using vertical spaces while. A skyscraper and high rise office and apartment buildings are more and more a part of cities around the world. But their shapes are landmarks in this country and the Empire State Building in New York. The John Hancock Center in Chicago. This combination of sprawl and
stack. Has allowed cities to accommodate with at least some success of the rapid rise of our population. But are increasing urban problems may well point to fundamental errors in the development of our cities. One problem that we have yet to control is the combined problem of pollution. Population concentration and transportation. Dr. Malcolm Sharp is a professor of plant pathology at the University of Illinois in our banner. And a well-known expert on the relationship between air pollution and plant damage. In conversation with the ways guy Slayer's explained some aspects of the problem. Dr. Shurtleff is it possible for pollution to damage plants to the point where the life of the plant is endangered. Yes in fact this is becoming more common generally of course. So we see the damage to plants as a scorching or discoloration of the tips or margins of the foliage but word pollution is heavy such as near cities or where traffic from
automobiles in buses and trucks and so forth is have a why then plants are started off color and may die in time. What about the possibility of plants failing to produce let's say the desired grain or seed or fruit something like this. Are there pollutants that do do this kind of damage. Yes in fact all the pollutants will cause growth suppression and with growth suppression one of the since the blossoms of fruit are very easily damaged by air pollutants of course this is one of the. First things that happens is that the flight plan simply doesn't reproduce and of course as far as a farmer is concerned if he's growing tomatoes. And no blossoms and no tomato fruit while he's essentially out of business. All it relates an economic disadvantage to say nothing of the fact that it damages the food supply too right. Could you explain in non-technical language for those of us who don't have a botany or plant biology background how pollution particularly air pollution in this case damages plants.
Well I'm sure that the scientists the chemists and the biochemist the physiologist would like to know actually what happens inside the plant is rather difficult to to know because it happens rather quickly and in these air pollutants combine with the normal products inside the plant however we do know that the great majority of air pollutants Andor through these stone mates which are the breathing pores and about 90 percent of these are on the under surface of the leaf so these gaseous air pollutants then come in through the stone mates and then combine with the water vapor inside the leaf or perhaps with chemicals. That are combined with the cells in the courses. In many cases causes death. Or disruption of normal activities of the cell resulting in. A collapse of the cells death of the cells and perhaps killing of the tissue. Is. Damaged due to pollution to plants a widespread
thing in this country at the present time. What you mean widespread from California New York. Yes I would say it was very widespread. In fact are we getting pollution damage for instance. 30 to 50 miles away from a source where it may be a major city such as ozone being produced by car exhaust going up as a giant cloud and being transported 30 50 miles and causing damage to plants and of course we know that power plants or plants that produce or burn excuse me large amounts of soft coal will kill pines and other susceptible plants maybe 30 miles or more downwind from where the air pollutant was produced. And of course our major sources of pollution are in in near large cities or major factories or where vehicle traffic is heavy so I would say it was widespread and you can find damage from the air pollutants essentially everywhere in the United States at the present time. What about the greatest concentrations of plant damage due to air pollution I was assuming that
because you hear so much about the smog Los Angeles has a problem. I understand that New York City has a problem in surrounding areas are there other areas. I would say that all major cities have an air pollution problem whether they want to admit it or not whether they want to attract or distract tourists but certainly Los Angeles has had the most publicity and the simple reason there is a course they have a mountain range backed up and you have the prevailing winds off the sea. The pollutants build up is no where for them to escape except between the mountains and the result is that when you have still air. Warm down say cool down below and warm up above what we call an air inversion in the pollutants sort of build up like you fill up a bathtub. And this is where we have the damage now. Here in the Midwest say Illinois other plains states were lucky in that we generally have a lot of wind. We don't have any geographical barriers to. Air pollutants moving out and of course becoming diluted so generally near major cities where we
have geographical barriers a topographical barrier is where we have major source of air pollution at sea at the present time. What about losses due to vegetation damage. Is there a lot have financial as well as plant loss due to this air pollution. Well it's been a number of estimates made in the last several months in years and we estimate for instance the total damage to vegetation in the United States today is around 500 million dollars now in California they've made better estimates or perhaps we should say guesstimates in other states and they estimate that their losses approximately one hundred twenty five million. And this affects some 16000 square miles. Now this 500 million of course is damage in reduced quality in reduced productivity in reduced lumber production. This is visible damage. However we get what we call invisible damage and I think this is
the lack of production of vegetable plants fruit plants. Of all types. And this is rather hard to measure as I mentioned blossoms don't form or blossoms drop off fruit doesn't form. And tomato growers for instance he's planning for an open an early market. And if the crop is delayed two weeks why the price of tomatoes goes from 30 cents a pound down to 10 in the sensually he has lost his his business. That 20 cents a pound is an awful lot in the economic picture of a farmer for a year. Right. Particularly when he makes perhaps 70 percent of his income from the first. What we call a first cluster or first two or three close to picking. One of the basic sources of pollution that cause the kind of damage we discuss and we mention SASCO we mention automobiles. Are these the primary kinds of sources. Are there others. Well I would say that automobiles and other internal combustion engines and we can throw in. All buses in trucks in air planes in this they make almost 70 percent of our
total pollution air pollution damage in the United States. Industry are combined is around 20 some percent and you can put in power plants and so forth so it comes up to perhaps 30 percent. But the automobile of course our numbers are going up tremendously and I think this type of pollution will be even more important lest we get good control devices on. Automobiles and airplanes and other types of traffic. Is there going to be is this going to be the answer to it or if we don't take any kind of step are we going to find ourselves in danger in our plant life on a rather much broader scale. Yes I would say so because our plants are damaged down in the range of perhaps a quarter of a part per million of a certain pollutants such as. Oh sulfur dioxide or ozone or fluoride to it. So part per million is rather small one part per million is equal to 1 inch and 16 miles. So a quarter of a part per million would be one inch in
64 miles. That's a mighty small amount. And plants incidentally are damaged at lower concentrations then generally affect humans or animals or affect changes in materials like paint cloth rubber and metals. So I think we've got to go really look at plants as chemical detectors for. These air pollutants and realize that all life on earth is dependent upon green plants. In fact I have a sign on my door maybe you've seen it it says Have you thanked a green plant lately. Is pollution damage any recent development. Oh gosh no. It goes back seven or a hundred years in Europe where they were of course had a lot of open burning. And we've had serious problems. You remember about hockey are the detective in Charles Dickens talking about the terrible London smogs of say a century or so ago and this was simply due to high smoke and high sulphur dioxide of
course London now is much cleaner than it was say a hundred years ago. In any modern American city what chance does a plant. Let's say you were a tree. If you decide that you're going to put a tree or a small plot of ground that you can put into and you decide to put this tree out. Considering the problem of air pollution and so on what kind of a chance does that tree have. Well I would say it depends a great deal on the type of tree and certainly landscape architects and those. Responsible for selecting plants to grow in certain areas and nursery and so forth should know the. Relative rank susceptibility of different types of trees for urban in an urban environment now. You've all read the Tree Grows in Brooklyn. And this tree grew well in Brooklyn because it was resistant to air pollutants this is before coarse a good many people were talking about this but. I think people who live in
cities who plant plants or grow plants know the plants that are resistant to smoke and grime or what have you. Is work being developed. At being done to develop let's say an urban plant as well as I will plant let's say in terms of garden vegetables or petunias or what have you. Well that's rather hard to say because research of course is going on in a great many places at the present time not too many garden vegetables resistant to smog or ozone or pain and or fluoride have been released but I'm sure that we have a bank of this resistance election from making observations over a period of years and I'm optimistic that we'll be able to grow plants if we can keep our air pollution levels at the level that they are now. However if they do increase more automobiles more industrial factories this type of thing why then we may be in trouble in the
future. One of the most serious problems for instances around the Los Angeles basin where. They've lost essentially in the last few years a million 300000 pines. And they have made selections for this and are reforesting the areas where the pines have been killed and again we have tremendous variation between different species and it may mean that instead of growing say the quarter pine or the Monterey Pine where you'd like to you may have to pick another. Species which may or may not do as well in that location as its predecessor. But I'm optimistic I think that we have the brains and know how and the ambition and the money in this country to do almost anything we want to. The question is how bad do we want it. Dr. Malcolm shirk those comments point out that no matter where you live you do have a stake in the city and how it treats its wastes. How this influences quality of home life. The capacity of any given area to sustain a population.
And this question is going to grow in importance in the war since the dawn of recorded history. Cities have shown a great tendency to grow. As the world population has grown up cities have absorbed larger and larger share of this population growth. And a steadily growing share of the available land. In 400 B.C. Now the average Greek city took up a land area of just under 2 square kilometers. In one thousand sixty eight Athens occupied two hundred fifty four square kilometers Paris 11 hundred London sixty point one hundred and fifty New York ten thousand fifty. In the case of New York it is becoming a part of the Great Eastern Seaboard City extending from about Washington D.C. north to Boston and a bit beyond. This megalopolis this giant concentration of people buildings and highways covers almost a hundred and thirty nine thousand square kilometers. I want Does this mean to be individuals who live there now to those who live there in the future.
And. Then. Me his thoughts and more back to him and dad of big big bird looked through the graveyard tag and demanded their magic if they do. Brad said we have a good lawyer and by. Why is there a bad thing. Me back up by bad car every day
just an update for. One of the most talked about books in the relatively new area of human biology is Robert adres the territorial imperative. As a fundamental part of his thesis. He sets out to prove that man like many of his fellow creatures needs a certain amount of space to call his own. We'll be talking about this morning future program but for now we'd like to point out that no matter where you live some sense of home is important. Whether it's in a quiet countryside or in the crowded cities. Each of us seeks a place of his own. What does the growing population doing to these places we call our own our farms our cities indeed our own homes. Join us next week at this time when we will be discussing this problem of people and space and food. You have been listening to one plus one equals three four. Five.
Series
One plus one equals three
Episode Number
2
Episode
Where People Live
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-610vv24d
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Description
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No description available
Date
1971-00-00
Topics
Social Issues
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:27:43
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 71-5-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
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Citations
Chicago: “One plus one equals three; 2; Where People Live,” 1971-00-00, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 4, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-610vv24d.
MLA: “One plus one equals three; 2; Where People Live.” 1971-00-00. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 4, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-610vv24d>.
APA: One plus one equals three; 2; Where People Live. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-610vv24d