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New Directions in social sciences. This is the second in a series of programs prepared by the listener sponsored station KPFA in Berkeley California for distribution through the National Association of educational broadcasters. These talks delivered before the annual convention of the American Psychological Association in San Francisco point to new developments in man's exploration of himself and the world he lives in. The address we bring you now was delivered by friend cell Xander of the Institute for psychoanalysis in Chicago. He will speak on extensions of psychological concepts France Alexander. And me. All chimes.
Are pretty gentle. Next thing you know people say please and such. Never on a mistake or four for me. Similarly we need power. Intuitively recognize that and accept that
love and play as a child. In spite of the great amount of attention. Most simply say ascription empty when I pick up on some variation with psychosomatic. A psychoanalyst to these numb broccoli. The manifestations of said. Psychological arc of rationalistic twentieth century including animal psychology. Remarkably neglect these normal utilitarian aspects of human and animal in complex. And central to loss of trust that agreed to say about plate outstanding contributions of three three she loved her that spent strong women and particularly. The most competent. And propound your play was advanced by Frederick show up
in his on the aesthetic education of man. The essence of his view is contained in a quotation from show up which I'm taking from car Grove comprehensive on the play off man. Occult nature has indeed granted then creature the mind of a priest more than the medium necessities of excess. And the badness of animal life has allowed the gleam of freedom to penetrate here and there when hunger more longer parliment the lie. And more often he appears for again to fight. Then he is unemployed. Powers fine and other are. The pins that build them as we see is why are the horse and exuberant plans. Spend in any malicious activity in their. Joy of excess. Insects rock
in the sunshine and it is certainly not always the one that we hear in the middle of the M.. There is only that place freedom these manifestations but not from our necessity only from an external numbness is. When someone is the most of the 46 and plays then I superabundance of energy forms this more than overflowing light. Just jump on for the first plate as the expression of mental and physical exhaustion. Best known and most important influential last album Spencer Stuart is included in the last chapter of his principles of psychology. Spencer spear he's essentially identical views show life namely that play is the expression of draws and according to him inferior kinds of
animals are for maintenance of life. I am a more efficient organized and their strength is not entirely needed for survival. There remains a surplus of vigor he can't say which is no longer to the satisfaction of the immediate needs. This excess of imagery is ready to be discharged simply Ferrand of functions adjusted to the satisfaction of basic biological needs are of the time order some of them are mobilized to action at the time. Or perhaps to me and one extra for a considerable period. It's the next form and the form of Spencer in addition to the principle of surprise imitation and my pettish it's
important to know I mean the kind of play acting with car grown in his famous one with plenty of animals on the subject. Sure I've spent a critical amount he prefers Schiller's original formulation and question Spencer namely the significance of imitation and repetition. He accepts the basic concept and finds this jab but many things that neither she nor Spencer accounts for the specific kind of play which is characteristic of the nature of the activities that I caught that. The beauty of all the highest ones by their medium animal of a particular species is member have and uses his voice marking the natural I'm surprised himself
fights with other animals for avoids them. He's not on our thing is government fundamentally changed and there is little. Plan for serious instinctual activity and there is a surplus of nervous excited patient then such instincts find expression even to start serious serious Aki that get a scrap of paper spray their young bearishness with his brother the dog which after a long confinement three months aimlessly about. But such action side exactly what they mean. And sure looks for Spencer's contributions. I haven't run in some that are great. A similar feeling of as the manifestation of surprise excitation not needed for the serious
and expanded this theory however not only to apply to play but the art erotic phenomena following right in consider and bleak. If only from memory by station section the larger concepts of sexual. He wants the view that the right process the fundamental dynamic plants the principle of stability in the darkness the homeostatic principle the principle of economy and the principle of surplus and life is a dynamic equilibrium which requires requires constant condition in every organism that are in control in Mecca they reach a stable state ism and take a state under which the lie process is possible to me that these conditions are optimal for the life force. In the most
basic function. The central nervous system concept in sustaining homeostatic sconce comes in us by the very process of life and by a changing environment. This principle. Right. The principle of stability. Obviously not progress in man homeostatic function can be studied psychologically and therefore we justly can refer to the epidemic which is the executive branch as the mental of the mental apparatus accomplishes homeostatic that internal sense of the perception in terms of disturbances physical chemical or perceiving them as
some external sensory perception environmental conditions the gratification of its need. Not function declaration and perception. You know let go of the past. And finally on it by force. From the function. If the protection from excessive. The second fundamental principle is there that the functions of the principle of you know which everyone is born with one condition of inference. Which are useful from one thing constant condition within the necessity for
all the normative functions just consist of such a mapping. They do not require conscious effort and just exceptional MANPADS of the element and explanatory functions in the choir. But the long haired. Man in contrast to animals must learn. And a petition which regularly inhalation and. Behavior patterns adequate for maintaining psychological and become automatic and I perform meaning at least groping experimentation Ryan and I and then that addition of the other behavior which had been found by
I don't refer to them are other forms of groping. Next to the principle of stability the most basic standards just require experimentation by class. Our command became this general tendency is of great import. TAR is the second face of the army consolidates by repetition not the stability principle expresses the tendency to mean constant optimum conditions for the right one and the only it is not sufficient. Animal behavior. The tendency toward stability is far defined by the principle not enough name in the world economies tend to perform there on their static
function. This minimum expenditure of energy steam car interchangeably. The principle of economy of the inertia principle if you want that power that you need laziness of every living up. To a large degree. So not completely. It corresponds to the repetition compulsion of these two principles to get the most of life. Their vantage of the organ is the principal economy is are the energy saved by automatic behavior can do you realize tomorrow meet my own situation which requires robbing experiment from back on and on and on is the expression or progress mechanism if I make the argument I have an energy that can be put to back I mean.
It's important to realize these advantages. In our competitive conditions change and on growth opportunities. Change change and change on this by a clash of the parish and now cannot like an infant satisfy his needs. You must learn to walk and eat independently and ultimately satisfy many of them the. Development the continuous flow principle of economy appears in this connection. Connection is inertia which impairs the organ which marked satisfactory in the past but which is no longer our right guard fixation. You often discover that when conditions become difficult and more are
often. Than a mere accident of behaving you have turned to me after them say. This disposition which our reconnection prove it has proved one of the fundamental fact of psychopaths our. Changing conditions require flexible and in other words act hard respond. Which are few at the moment might operate in another. The capacity for sudden shift of the most highly developed functions of the Possum-Man. The integrative function of the. It's. On their ability to learn from past experience and exercise reason in abstraction and if I don't buy my
mommy and reason then is able not only continue behaving in the ways he has found useful in the past but to change the sexual situations required. Right is a continuous problem between the arcana standing on the principle and the challenge of development. Change circumstances were not new. In spite of the universal principles of stability and inertia can explain both biological phenomena which consists in there another mission of life by humans and then the response for understanding. Propagation and plate and I've been there an hour of our work the car culture. And I introduce understanding of these phenomena principal
loss and relationship between three bet dollars. From the substances and the oxygen that are shown with tension for you and for the expenditure of energy to maintain the minimum function homeostatic active in warming lost in weight and and finally expenditure represented by a proper nation and by erotic play pool active in the metro not in the way I want to get you on the farm. Propagation is not the kind of enemy function the protection of germs. Probably population has grown beyond the limits of the individual biologically
it follows the propagation seen mom of. The process of growth. There's a natural element when the cell reaches their production of food and emission on the step that the biological unit reaches a certain size of substance and that becomes impossible because it's organized and reached its limit. Individual stops and propagation is a means of releasing all of the longest star plus fuel to the surpluses are for disturbing sums the phenomenon is not much different than the fact that it grows its reaches an optimal size.
Beyond that the administration term mechanics of operation becomes so complex that it cannot be done in one unit and it must divide right. Energy which is not needed to maintain life of the person. Is the soft of our sexual activity in needs satisfying about state incorporating and replanting out made them in the age and the rapid. In spite of the McMansion in the form of growth that is still much for me that store excess. That is these means the movie is released in Iraq to get its explained. The preponderance of erotic surplus labor in this expanding dream playing this power have normal humans is what is our and exercises them and their
master is a cheap and different functions become integrated in a look there with passion for independent access and not a plate for the sake of pleasure is the first. And they look to his leash of the functions acquired during the late is the same. These may be a paradox. But the prong dependence upon the parents makes him. Option of plenty of up to those the energy saving principle and the view of surplus and their will and combine to maintain life and permit repetition makes useful functions are dramatically the same which can be used for good and proper and experiment. According to this being the aerobic money of an activity on the fact that these activities are great in a
complex but after a few What form of that problem is my hunger and I subs a subset of satisfying complex action. You're 50 in the environment which is not supporting anyone but eased and a minute set. Our psychological motivational force can become part of more or less complex structures consisting of subsidiary homes which have to be reached before the abdomen can be up to a hundred must then think very cool around. Then you must walk to the icebox you must take it out and then you structure behavior which round step must follow them
must precede the next. Now our psychological process can become part of such complex structures but they can be explained the same skin themselves without being subordinate to any other election or excite concert for the elimination of an obstacle interfering with the ratification of the hungry man in uniform. Thought them economy next to act as a means of reaching your goal. This is in contrast to the erotic expression of the form of sleep a chair after a small animal does not have any aim then the pleasure from inflicting pain and from his mastery over something even more helpless than me. If this pleasure sensation is intense then it may be accompanied by an action of
the sexual organs and these I want sufficiently tested for a picnic. If that carries a heavy knapsack and planning it he does it not for the sake of suffering is not accepted but he endorsed the peace. Hope for an argument that peckish after reaching to have bar and for. The Miss Ocky conference in contrast may inflict inflict pain upon the foremost reason the premium for the gratification of things from enduring pay offs for these me opting in a frankly sexual connotation and curiosity has been mentioned before and you can read an article for Journey of it on St.. Miss you on a plane please. Sexual properly
in amount of penury or sublimated for it is the thought of aesthetic pleasure from products of you know of it that the playful animals often are the form of exploration for its own sake for more and. Others. It is not necessary for the example that these. Are not the expression you and I are friends and to pity and anticipate that between you and pleasure a function of our body. In the first category. The motivational forces of a complex such behavior and infer
Thomas concept of structure. Everything can be. The most important forms of the exercises which are the act of man. Right. Beyond the pleasure principle illustrates this phenomenon by describing the playing off a child the child for the wooden original piece of strain. Probably wander around it never occurred to him for example to please take this after him on the phone and saw police often missed it but he kept throwing in response to the numbers given by the strain over the side of his little car so bad that he would disappear into it then said significant on the op and the wheel went astray and out of the cot again repeating it so the appearance was joined there.
Frog explains this game the child is motivated by the impulse to gain active mastery often the painful situation linger meet the object it is a subject or form of I am going away at the same time by the beginning the object the child Marmont only the disappearance but they're here so she she mastered the master of reality. Right. I mean that in place of among chess complex company example. Nothing is the play off man gives an exhaustive description of the most diverse play acting begins with this question of the use of the sensory apparatus. He refers to the pleasurable sensations of combat the charm which do not serve any of
the purpose except the pleasure they provide for art in handling every object which comes into his reach. You not only exercise this is Mark Mark in a playful need but also the sense of a stimulus of touch. And I want all the examples. Which is explain the pleasure coming from touching a new cast member. And then the closure for the past. The sensations of hearing sight which can be our exercise only for the sake of found interest in from the coach and on the historical point of view that in spite of the painstaking and exhaustive description but practically painful activities of the body
and mind he did not recognise the kinship on the other hand and then of the general the Romany are these playful activities that they are not in the study of the serious task of flight in other words they are subservient to men and utilitarian.
New directions in social sciences
Extensions of psychological concept
Producing Organization
pacifica radio
KPFA (Radio station : Berkeley, Calif.)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
Franz Alexander, Institute for Psychoanalysis, Chicago, "Extensions of Psychological Concepts."
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A series of talks delivered before the annual convention of the American Psychological Association in San Francisco.
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Producing Organization: pacifica radio
Producing Organization: KPFA (Radio station : Berkeley, Calif.)
Speaker: Alexander, Franz, 1891-1964
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-10-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:30
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Chicago: “New directions in social sciences; Extensions of psychological concept,” 1958-02-09, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 25, 2024,
MLA: “New directions in social sciences; Extensions of psychological concept.” 1958-02-09. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 25, 2024. <>.
APA: New directions in social sciences; Extensions of psychological concept. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from