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You're Pacific University program today and in the broadcast the follow is based upon the story of education published by Chilton books in June 1962 co-author with your narrator was Dr. Eugene Moleski an assistant superintendent in charge of teacher recruitment for the New York City Board of Education. By presenting these excerpts from our book The Story of education we are hoping that you are listening audience maybe better able to understand the whys and wherefores of our own American schools. Our topic today a moralistic education. Most American religious and educational traditions can be traced back to the Protestant Reformation. Catholicism in fact as well as in name was a universal religion in western Europe in the 16th century began. But the next 200 years witnessed a series of religious revolts the gave birth to new church organizations destined to play an important role in both Europe and America. These were backed by economic resources of the middle classes and military powers of the national states.
Protestant reformers of course were motivated by intense spiritual convictions. But throughout the history of the church heresies had been stamped out. So it can be said that the Reformation was primarily successful because of the economic and political conditions of that day. A Protestant isn't denied the claims of Catholic pope and clergy of being the authoritative interpreters of Christian doctrine. Theoretically according to a newer viewpoint the individual gained salvation directly through faith rather than through any mediation of an authoritative priesthood. If carried to a logical conclusion Protestantism should have allowed each person to interpret the Bible and to believe exactly as he pleased. Such a tolerance was theoretical It was far from the actual picture. In practice most Protestant groups assume the role a persecutor of dissenters and so far as possible use civil powers to enforce their convictions.
Such was the spirit of the times as reflected in political economic and religious life. Playing the leading role in the education as well as religious aspects of this reformation drama was Martin Luther Borden 14 83 an Augustinian friar teaching philosophy at the University of Wittenberg. Long before his time the social humanist had been attacking the moral evils of the church. Critics had persistently demanded that the clergy lead Pura lives that ecclesiastical leaders earn their big incomes and that monasteries make more useful contributions to society. Most of the critics before Luther had accepted without serious question the church doctrines. It could be only a matter of time however before humanistic interest in the study of original Greek and Hebrew sources made in Atlanta ball the questioning and attacking of theological beliefs and ecclesiastical practices. Noteworthy is the fact that when the break away from Catholicism did come there was rather an even
distribution between the outstanding selves you humanists who left the Catholic Church and those who remained in it. Protestant substituted the authority of the Bible for that of the church as an infallible rule of faith and moral practice. Acceptance of the doctrine that innate depravity led the reformers to contend that only an abiding faith in God's mercy can effect salvation which depends largely upon knowing the truth. In order to know the truth one must be able to read the Bible which of course makes ability to read an essential part of each individual's life. Please note that religious moralism as an aim for education was not original with the Protestants. Nearly all primitive and ancient peoples had based their educational systems upon religious and moral rather than intellectual concepts. Jesus had fuse religion and morality in his teaching but the medieval church had proceeded to sacrifice morality to an
exclusive interest in theological doctrines and ritualistic observances. Reformer such as Luther and John Calvin born in 15 0 9 can see education as the preparing of Christian men and women for a glorious life here after by providing adequate training in the duties of home occupation state and church. Religion was looked upon as the highest interest in life. To bring about the desired close interdependence of character and religion. A Christian education must develop physical mental and moral powers. Wherever Protestant influences were felt schools attempted to integrate the three ideals of intelligence social virtue and individual piety. If such an education were to be effective everyone would have to go to school. Loser is said to have been the first man to advocate compulsory education. He insisted that the state authorities either establish schools themselves are compelled the people to do so and do the essay for the sake of church and state. Each
family should be required to send its children. Training of young people should be a state rather than an individual matter he thought. Because parents with their whims are so unreliable. Luther went so far as to predict a future existence in hell for those youngsters who are being allowed to run about too freely swearing stealing and doing whatever they so pleased. In Germany and also England the Reformation did bring about a control of the schools by civil authorities. One finally Luther was able to get for both church and school the guardianship of the state. Thus planting the seed from modern day state and national control of education he did not contemplate the secularization of education. The divorce of public supported schools and church control. His thought was that a ruler derives his power from God and as God's representative he has the responsibility of caring as much for the spiritual as for the material interest of his subjects. As for Calvin he believed the
state was obligated to make laws for the organization and support of schools that would be operated in accordance with the ideas of the pastors. In other words he would have the church leaders control education. That's what later happened in New England where Calvinistic doctrines dominated. Protestant education was intended for work rather than play and the work must be for the glory of God. The Reformation curriculum was a religious one based upon the Bible. In those vernacular primary schools as established throughout northern Germany by Johanne Bogun Hagen born 14 85 to carry out losers education ideas the subjects taught included reading writing religion singing crafts and physical training. This represented quite an advance in elementary education but the curriculum products and secondary schools in universities remain largely a continuation of humanistic subject matter. While Latin Greek and Hebrew are considered necessary for proper understanding of the Bible.
Luther did urge the addition of history mathematics natural science music and gymnastics. In the university's biblical interpretations began replacing scholastic theology in England the dominant aspect of education became character training on the theory that the stressing of good manners was a means of attaining good moral conduct. Protestant reformers were intensely interested in problems of method although what was done didn't get very far past the theory stage reading in elementary schools usually consists of the formal pronunciation of words memorizing the answers to the questions of the catechism with very little opportunity being given for intelligent comprehension of meanings in the secondary schools it was mostly a matter of memorizing rules and declensions in Latin grammar and the learning by heart of long passages from the classics. Despite the beautifully sounding theories to the contrary most of those early Protestant classrooms became gloomy and sometimes terrifying environments.
Under a rigid form of teaching in which characteristically the discipline was extremely harsh. The church dominated the individual in school even though theoretically he was supposed to be determining his own beliefs and conduct through his own interpretations of the Scriptures. In reality however it definitely was a matter not of teaching how to think but rather what to think. And those European countries which had effectively checked the Protestant Reformation movement a great Catholic Counter-Reformation was taking place. The Council of Trent lasting from 15 45 to 15 63. I lemonade the more offensive abuses that have grown up in the flushed unchallenged days of church history clarified her doctrines over which most of the controversies had arisen. Consider all important was an educational reorganization was the result the teaching orders began to spring up.
There was a widespread establish in the new schools in which teachers had been very carefully trained for their work time permits but brief descriptions of two of the more important of these. The Society of Jesus was organized in 15 34 by Ignatius Loyola and a Spanish nobleman who had been converted to religious service while convalescing from battle looms. The Jesuit schools for boys only had as their purpose the training of highly disciplined and loyal leaders to advance the cause of the church. Specifically the educational aim was to develop a Christian gentleman and a Christian scholar. The Jesuits gave special attention to physical education and encouraged sports and games. In fact in everything both in and out of the classroom a high degree of motivation was used. Developed were elaborate devices to stimulate rivalry. Individuals were paired against each other. Classes competed and honor societies were organizing which membership was gained only after stiff competition. Throughout their entire history
Jesuit teachers in both secondary schools and colleges have had the reputation of excellent scholarship and exceptional training. Brother another Christian schools Another important teaching order for boys only was established in 16 84 by Jean Baptista LASSALLE. In their elementary schools designed for children of working men and the poor. The atmosphere was deeply pious and natural activities of people severely repressed. Taught where reading writing arithmetic and religion. Christian Brothers were the first to grade elementary pupils in the classes according to their abilities. They also devised a method in common use today whereby the child recites to the entire class and not individually to the teacher as previously had been the custom. Also noteworthy where their normal schools and which for the first time children in practice school classes were used to train the brothers more effectively for their work in teaching.
During the Reformation some effort was directed toward providing wider opportunities for education among the masses. In all the European countries the class structure was too deeply ingrained to make possible at that time any completely democratic conception. Why more education opportunities were being given to the lower classes. They did not receive the same kind or quality of education as the upper classes. Both Luther and Calvin had much more interest in the classical type of secondary school than in elementary vernacular education. Still deeply entrenched in the reformation where the traditional Irish Socratic concepts was brought down from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. However the seeds for our free universal education were being so and the efforts being made to our providing at least the rudiments of schooling for all. Encouraging to hear the proposals being made that girls should be educated as well as boys. In the Netherlands the Dutch Reform Church set up what
probably were the best for their schools in any country in Europe. Stimulated by the practical needs of its commercial cities. The Dutch schools taught the three R's and religion to girls as well as boys. These doubtless had an influence on the Puritans in England and America as well as on the Dutch settlers. At that same time the Catholic teaching orders and nuns were showing increased activities in the establishing of schools. The conduct of the pupils in all these schools was carefully supervised. All students were compelled to engage in daily public and private devotions and attend confession at regular intervals. Jesuit methods of discipline were firm but were free from the brutality so common in other schools. Corporal punishment was used only as a last resort in extreme cases of misconduct. And. When it was use was never administered by the teacher but by a special teacher called the correct hour. There was
frequently a delegation of disciplinary powers to various people officials. A forerunner of our modern student government activities.
The story of education
Moralistic education
Producing Organization
KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents an overview of moralistic education.
Series Description
This series presents various excerpts from the book, "The Story of Education," which traces the evolution of education. The excerpts are read by the book's co-author, Dr. Carroll Atkinson.
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Narrator: Atkinson, Carroll, 1896-1988
Producing Organization: KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 64-38-11 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:13:28
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Chicago: “The story of education; Moralistic education,” 1965-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 25, 2024,
MLA: “The story of education; Moralistic education.” 1965-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 25, 2024. <>.
APA: The story of education; Moralistic education. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from