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You're Pacific University program today and in the broadcast the follow is based upon the story of education published by Chilton books in June 1982. Co-author with your narrator was Dr. Eugene Moleski. An assistant superintendent in charge of teacher recruitment for the New York City Board of Education. By presenting these excerpts from my book The Story of education we are hoping that you our listening audience may be better able to understand the whys and the wherefores of our own American schools. Our topic today humanistic education. The Renaissance has come into historical uses principally as a term covering the period of the 14th 15th and early 16th centuries. Modern times are said to have begun with this movement known as the Renaissance which represented a speeding up political economic and religious changes as well with intellectual and artistic ones. The chief characteristic of this
period as it affected education was the growing secularism which had already become a strong though not a dominating force in the later Middle Ages. Humanistic education represented a rebellion against conservative forces in which two quite different developments occurred in Italy. Individual humanism stressed personal development culture freedom it produced a revival of classical learning and Paganism in the north However it was a social pact with humanism demanding reforms and living conditions and moral life both in Italy and the northern countries. Humanism had two phases. The first fresh original enthusiastic the second narrow and formal. Francis Petrarch morning thirteen hundred four known as the first modern scholar insisted that the best portrayal of the develop and
imperfection of human nature is in classical rather than medieval literature or in pet projects enthusiasm to re-establish the glory of the Roman Empire. He searched indefatigably for a lost classic manuscripts. Although writing much lyrical poetry in his native Italian It was his accomplishments in writing classical Latin on which he prided himself that stimulated by such an outstanding leader many humanist asserted the values and superiority of the classical over the medieval or corrupted Latin as the best expression of the human spirit. And above all else they stressed style by the 15th century there also had been developed an active interest in reviving classical Greek. Soon there after Hebrew was promoted as a scholarly classical language. Since the city States and Italy were the first in Europe to become wealthy from the trade that followed the Crusades. That is where the renaissance humanism took root.
Also Italy had been the ancient home of the great the Roman culture so its traditions had persisted more strongly with the Italians than elsewhere in Florence as a typical example. Humanism was fostered by the fame edits the family of bankers and rulers who spent large sums of money to build libraries and to subsidize such artists as Leonardo da Vinci. Although most of the Catholic Church hierarchy look at scans at this new movement in due time even some of the pope's one being Leo the tenth proved I didn't patrons of humanism. The humanistic course of study at its best provided for the gaining of a facility in reading writing and speaking a basic Latin and extensive study of poets and prose writers both Greek and Roman and familiarity with the lives of ancients through our reading of history and biography. The attempt was made to develop a joy of living and inculcate an appreciation of the beautiful also opened
up to the scholar was an important field denied his medieval predecessors. Nature study physical training received attention from the humanist. Not only in the form of swimming boxing fencing writing dancing but also in diet and hygiene. Social department and manners were stressed as essential aspects of moral education. Writers emphasize the importance of good moral training even though in practice. Personal Stand is might often give way to license just as so notoriously had been the case in the later stages of the great the Roman civilisation so idolized by the humanist. Moral education definitely was not limited to a beauty and to religious authority the attempt was made to make it much more practical in its application to life situations. Thus freedom of thought creative activity and self-expression were the aims of humanistic education. A striving for the expression of individual personality through art that it's your nature study architecture
and music. Versatility and well-rounded Inus were stressed as it was felt that a blended combination of ability and background and they had been run to meet new situations from the path of the most abundant life. The humanist Aim not for life hereafter but for getting the most out of his time on this earth in the way of personal satisfactions based upon high idealism and a sense of adventure. His education was to be the means of living a fine rich full life. The Italian humanists in fact. Bought from the Greeks their idea of a liberal education. The harmonious development of the mind body and morals humanism at its best RE nudity emphasis upon individuality and personal self realisation. The education of the Renaissance was intended mainly for the youth of the upper and wealthy classes. The primary interest of the chariots was in the development of scholars and clarity for its future
leadership. The rulers were interested in surrounding themselves with trained and loyal followers who would be gentleman as well as scholars. The middle classes wanted that type of education that would permit them to break into these two charmed circles. The first classical secondary schools were the Italian court schools which furnished the model for similar schools in other countries. The gymnasium in Germany. The correlation of these say in France and the Latin grammar schools in England and colonial America. These court schools were so named because they were founded and maintained by the ruling dukes and princes of the Italian cities in connection with their courts. It to these dictatorial rulers was ambitious to make his particular city every noun center of humanistic learning in addition to establishing schools they founded libraries and museums subsidized scholars and artist. Even though the court schools were supported by the ruling family most of the pupils paid
fees. However the children of the poor Court retainers were taught free since the schools were limited to boys those girls whose parents could afford it studied at home under humanistic tutors. Boys were admitted at the age of 9 or 10 and remained until 20 or 21. Being on a boarding school basis dippers were educated both in and out of the classroom. Many court schooled at first set out to rival the work of universities especially since the latter were still antagonistic to humanistic learning. But as the work of the university became more liberal and with continuously being raised to a higher level the court schools became in some degree preparatory institutions in that they taught be opposed to read write understand and speak Latin. The skills that were essential for undertaking university work with ease and profit. Important contributions of these humanistic secondary schools were the new methods devised.
With the invention of printing textbooks became more plentiful obviating the necessity of lectures by teachers. Written themes began to displace all this potations that had been so common in medieval schools. Latin and Greek were treated as living and not dead languages and self-expression was continually stressed. Discipline was unusually mild because punishment and threats of punishment were not needed as Modis for learning. The fact that higher post of honor and activity in the life of the times were open only to those who had been thoroughly trained in the humanistic manner proved to be a sufficient motivation without necessity of resorting to severe disciplinary measures. Noteworthy was the fact that the stern repressive asceticism of the church schools was absent. In northern European countries humanism aimed not at attainment of individual happiness but in social reform and improvement in human relationships. Classics translated and properly
edited where the educational tools to be used to eliminate the ignorance of the common people and also to attack the greed and hypoxia church state and business leaders literary training had as its objective a religious and social purpose rather than personal self development. The Italian humanist took religion very lightly so there was practically no conflict with the church. But the early social humanist bitterly attacked the moral evils within the church while accepting its theological doctrines. Later many of them joined the breakaway movement from the Catholic Church known as the Reformation. A moment spirit toward a democratic pipe a humanistic education rather than the aristocratic class education of the Italians was a nun monastic teaching order founded in Holland thirteen hundred seventy six known as the brethren of the common life. Pious and humanitarian in spirit. They
assist the poor scholars to support themselves and proved so successful in teaching backward pupils. That many schools were later placed under their supervision and in due time they opened their own institutions. Rejected were formal and meaningless methods and substituted was much of the broad literary spirit of the Italian Renaissance. Northern humanistic educators were especially interested in the problem of method. Their theories proved far in advance of the actual practices of the time. Yes today areas harassments born in 14 66 authored two great educational classics in which he advocated a careful study every child's nature and the liberal use of games in play and schoolwork. He attacked the harsh methods of discipline of his time and propose more humane and attractive means for bringing a child into line. I Rasmussen considered it the business of a teacher to help the student. Not to display his own learning.
I Rasmussen tats no merit at all to be setting the child with difficulties merely as difficulties. His introduction of some independence an individual out of the end of the learning of lessons was most welcome in an age addicted to Verbatim memorizing and a slavish imitation of the later a style of Greek and Roman masters. I specially Cicero. A few words should be said about Ciceronian ism. The over emphasis upon style and sentence structure in the Greek and Roman classic writers which became so prominent humanistic education from the middle of the 16th century on. This was a largely superficial imitation based upon the idea that to create one must first imitate the masters of style. The trouble proved to be that but few ever got me on the stage of imitation and the curriculum became limited to a few select the classics rather than a wide reading of the ancient literature. Of course the end evitable result
was the Ciceronian ism became as narrow as it rejected Arius the tally in scholasticism. Thus humanistic education became narrow and formal instead of calling for a wider meaning of ancient literature is that the curriculum was limited to a few selected classics. The aim of the school was to develop a fine style a correct form of expression. The old rejected scholasticism with Aristotle as master and dialectic as content returned in another and no less natural form was Cicero as master and linguistics as content. Universities of the Renaissance remained relatively free from secular controls. Probably because of their long struggles during the Middle Ages to achieve autonomy from both church and state. They received a great deal of criticism for being so conservative in retaining scholastic methods. And in France the king went so far as to establish the call as to France as an institution of higher learning friendly to humanism.
Series
The story of education
Episode
Humanistic education
Producing Organization
KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-2v2ccw8q
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Description
Episode Description
This program presents an overview of humanistic education.
Other Description
This series presents various excerpts from the book, "The Story of Education," which traces the evolution of education. The excerpts are read by the book's co-author, Dr. Carroll Atkinson.
Broadcast Date
1965-01-01
Topics
Education
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:14:01
Embed Code
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Credits
Narrator: Atkinson, Carroll, 1896-1988
Producing Organization: KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 64-38-10 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:13:30
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Citations
Chicago: “The story of education; Humanistic education,” 1965-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed November 30, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-2v2ccw8q.
MLA: “The story of education; Humanistic education.” 1965-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. November 30, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-2v2ccw8q>.
APA: The story of education; Humanistic education. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-2v2ccw8q