Special of the week; Orville Freeman and Angier Biddle Duke
NO ONE News man in the nation's capital can ever expect to cover all of the day to day events in that busy city. News conferences press statements receptions luncheons and so forth and which pronouncements are often made which affect our futures and the future of the world. Today from Washington the National Association of educational broadcasters visits briefly with two new government officials in the Kennedy administration. These men are U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman and the U.S. chief of protocol and Biddle Duke. First we travel to the office of secretary Freeman for some remarks on the success story of Agriculture and agricultural education. First of all may I say that I hope that the negative attitude which has been so prevalent in connection with agriculture will be dispelled and replaced by one of positiveness and some optimism. Actually I think we can
say and document the saying that agriculture is the number one economic success story of the economy of the United States of America in terms of its product Kitty. The results are truly fantastic. The average American citizen works approximately one day to eat better than anyone in the history of the world with a few exceptions. In other places of the world they work at least two days in many many places three years and in many many much more than that. And so if you're using really sound criteria of saying how many hours do we work to eat and eat well why agriculture is an overwhelming success. And yet we tend to hear an emphasis
on surplus and subsidy rather than a recognition of the great success and what it has meant to our country where now one person on the farm feeds in the neighborhood of 20 to 24 people releasing them for doing other things. And whereas I repeat and dollar and cents figures are not very good comparisons if you take the number of hours worked where we work in this country far less than anywhere else in the world and eat far better actually since the end of World War 2 the productivity of the average agricultural worker has grown three times as fast as that of the industrial worker and the net result has been the tremendous productivity that we have. Actually we've invested very heavily in agriculture throughout our history and we're getting wonderful results from it. You want to go back to the Homestead Act of 1862 which
might well be said to be one of the foundations of American democracy and freedom. You go through the establishment of our land grant colleges the agricultural campuses the research and then realize that today we have an extension agent and a homemaker in virtually every county in the United States of America to apply the knowledge and the research. We have a super program of education and this is an example of what education can do and that it is done. Now this is not to gainsay the fact that we have had some troublesome problems in connection particularly with certain kinds of commodities. And today when we talk about surpluses and I say frankly I don't like that word. And I find the semantics of Agriculture worrisome in regard to many phrases used. We're actually talking only about two things are really about one and that's in the field of green.
Because of some pluses that are costing us heavily to store and handle our almost entirely wheat and feed grains. And I hope that as we progress here that we can in a sense engineer and direct this magnificent productive machinery into the paths of things that are needed here and also all around the world. More proteins more oils and that kind of thing. Now this of course isn't going to happen overnight. This is a long term program and I then asked What's the plan and when do you think you'll solve the problem. And I might say I would say they'll probably never be a solution nor any date. This world is changing rapidly and agriculture is changing. Perhaps more rapidly. And so it's a question of making progress. I'm not speaking fluently in terms of any particular time when you have solved the problem and I put that in
quotation marks. And so we hope that we can move in that direction. As we know go through the process here for example of setting price of ports that I know you're interested in. We do it in many ways I think with an adequate information. I've talked on occasion about a food budget. Again let me just say in describing I generally thought I hope a year from now we will have some pretty hard figures as to what would be needed in the normal channels of distribution to feed and clothe our own people. What would be needed by way of our supplementary programs of direct distribution or food stamp plans. What would be needed and desirable in terms of our foreign economic program and the countries that we would hope to be working with and what we would want and when and that we would seek to direct our decisions based
upon this kind of fundamental information so that we can kind of shape this magnificent productive machinery to bringing forth the things that we need at the times we need them rather than in a sense to Helter-Skelter tend to produce more of certain things and we can use at a particular time or place. This is the the philosophy with which we approach this assignment. Recognizing that it is a very complicated and a very difficult one. And as some of you have said to me on occasion that being secretary of agriculture is not the easiest job in Washington and Nonetheless it is one that is more than challenging and in my brief opportunity to serve. I have thoroughly enjoyed it. We put in quite a few hours in this office as have all of the staff here and I hope that we are making good beginnings. That was United States Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman. Now
across Washington to the luncheon meeting of the Women's National Press Club where the new government chief of protocol the honorable NGO Bittle Duke is speaking. Ambassador Duke and of the Foreign Service in 1990 and served in Argentina and Spain in 1052 he was appointed ambassador to El Salvador the youngest ambassador in United States history. Since then he has been active in supervising relief work in Laos Austria and Yugoslavia. And as a representative of this country in Africa and Latin America. Now here is the honorable NGO bit to describe his job as he sees it. To return as I am returning to the State Department after seven years of exile. Is gratifying and. It is a challenging opportunity. As chief of protocol as Francis Lewine I said it would appear that I am concerned with the ceremonial aspects of American foreign policy. Only
what is there cannot be a ballad without a source a shadow without substance. So there cannot be meaningful diplomatic formality without implicit significance and sincerity. If protocol then is the form inherent in that form lies also the content of Foreign Relations. And I mean to put as much substance into foreign relationships international human relations if you will as I possibly can. In a democratic society like ours with a long and proud tradition of equality egalitarianism if you will political becomes as well the Maidan of simplification. Therefore my question must always be how can our office be helpful in making it easier for foreign policy to be conducted in the best interests of the United States. And in many cases the answer to that would be to rely on the tried and true time tested formulas that have
worked out in past practice. I will not change them. It will be no changes merely for the sake of change. Now it's quite tempting. I had meant to fall for the superficial charm of the oft quoted charm of the idea of abolishing all the ground rules or the formalities and ceremony governing diplomatic practice. And of course that would be just about as sensible or as intelligent as accepting all traditional protocol blinding blindly without analysis or understanding its mission and function. Dean Rusk and I can particularly remember his words when he administered the oath of office to me. Dean Rusk has consistently maintained that he wants an analysis of what is essential in this field and what is not essential to the effective conduct of foreign relations. And. I'm happy to say that a large step forward in this area may be possible very soon. As many of you may already know a new international conference
on political matters is to be convened at the end of the first one since 1915 since 1815 this time under the auspices of the United Nations. The conference starts tomorrow. And its purpose is to formulate a Convention on Diplomatic intercourse and immunities. The United States is participating and our State Department is sending over an eight man delegation. I personally regret that this date March 2nd makes it impossible for me to go or for my deputy climate Congar. But our office will be well and fully represented at this important six week conference. Now the main objective of this meeting will be to obtain international agreement on a uniform standard of diplomatic rights. And procedures. Something which of course is badly needed in modern times. The United States for example has been far more liberal in granting privileges and immunities to foreign personnel than most other countries and it is hoped that our liberal position will be
endorsed by the other nations represented at this new Vienna conference. When the United States government also hopes that ceremonial matters will be simplified at this conference this meeting will take up the functional needs of diplomatic missions everywhere in the world such as exemption of buildings owned by foreign governments from taxation and zoning regulations exemption of building materials from customs duties uniform methods of handling diplomatic pouches and so forth which no similar conference is ever taken up before on an international scale. What is not settled at this meeting. Well I hope be referred to regularly scheduled conferences so that we may continue to update accepted practice. But we also have policy problems and this fail which cannot be decided for us. Internationally I am thinking of our own Washington problems the problems which are our own. And let's discuss for example the currently general
acceptance of the value of entertaining as a method of implementing foreign policy. Now it seems to me that both the press and public and I might say also the government appears to agree to the to its effectiveness without much question. In recent testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee both the prospective ambassador designate and their interrogators have discussed in some detail the need for a larger representation allowances the questions have sounded and here's the point. The questions of centered more around how to get that increase. Then on an analysis of the need for it now I would seriously suggest that an objective and careful survey be made of the function of and attaining as an arm of diplomacy. I see the gleam in Howard Beale's our eye on this one. I've often wondered if the. Staggering sums of money we
read about are really essential to the conduct of our missions in Paris London and Rome. Is it true that our ambassadors must spend so much to make friends and influence leaders in intellectual and labor circles in government in the church press and commercial circles. Perhaps it is but if so it should be carefully documented and buttressed by realistic thinking. Personally I am rather prejudiced. I've been exposed to the shotgun approach to official hospitality and some of the inconclusive even counterproductive results. On the other hand as a junior Foreign Service officer and large embassies in Madrid and when Osiris. I've worked under Chief of Mission who carefully zeroed in on time money and objectives when entertaining and I'm not convinced that the size of the representation allowance is a determining factor in the success of
our mission. My experience I must admit is not broad enough to be conclusive and I hope with more thought and study would go into this field. Here in Washington one of the interesting challenges connected with this is that face is the new protocol chief is the diplomatic inflation. In 1940 there were some 40 missions accredited here. And today there are 93. And by the year's end there may be over 100 20 of these are embassies from nations which have recently established their independence. All of these new missions have much in common. They represent young and vigorous countries to a greater or lesser degree uncommitted and they present ideological struggle. It is my most earnest desire that the representatives of these new lands who are already in Washington know who will soon as stablish their embassies here should feel that the United States welcome them warmly and
with as much genuine interest and curiosity as that which they have concerning our own country. Now there are some people in these new countries and persons in our own country who regard each other and sometimes glare at each other over the broad expanse of oceans with certain misgivings founded in no small degree on ignorance and a certain misunderstanding of the historical processes through which America came into being only a relatively few years ago and through which the new nations have been coming into being and are coming into being lately. The United States has its African and its Asian critics who accuse us of imperialist designs. Or of a desire to maintain the status quo throughout the world. You and I know of America's passion for change. We know about our cult of progress but a broad prosperity is equated with conservatism and a static society. And thus we are
completely misunderstood. The African and Asian nations have their critics in the United States who think of these areas as underdeveloped. And with a lack of sophistication. The term underdeveloped as it applies to the economies of Nations is an increasingly outdated term and is no longer used in government circles. All nations in the world including the United States in the USSR are underdeveloped in terms of their ultimate potential. If we consider the present condition of mankind the still lingering helplessness of man struggle with himself. And against the physical elements of our universe and we project our thoughts to the great strides of the human race as a whole can make an understanding understanding first itself and in conquering this earthly environment. How puny indeed appear all of our gadgets and mechanisms and machines in relations to the common hope of all men for the conquest of the universe and in
releasing the potential of the human race. Yes we're living in an underdeveloped world in a developing world a significant thing to ascertain is a nation's desire its resolution its determination to develop if possible in peace. Which of the developing nations of the world and which of the static nations. Fortunately all the new nations which are now entering into the sphere of world politics have high hopes and a great deal of zeal for their developing countries all in different stages of escalation. This then the bond between us. This then is the common bond that common desire. To better our human life. It is of course the task of the enlightened Supriya the newest nation of the Indonesian of the Togolese of the American indeed of the enlightened Russian to convince his fellow countrymen of the
common bonds we share that much work lies ahead. And there is much to do for all mankind. None of us can afford to waste time in petty stuff astri. Why complicate our lives by creating inexcusable misunderstandings. We are coarse and we recognize that a nation ourselves less than 200 years old and like all the lands of the world. Our country attained its status of Independence forged in the processes of evolution and revolution. We were voted against Europe and I'm still conscious. Of the bonds that unite us with Europe. We came into this world as a new underdeveloped nation in the time of our great grandfathers. We are a land of recent immigrants from all corners of the earth. Many of them became Americans less than one generation ago. And I myself. AM For example married to a first generation American immigrant and my children therefore can be labeled
hyphenated Americans. So I'm particularly conscious of this type of heritage part of our heritage is the seed of evolution the quality that all Americans share of never standing still. But this is not a unique American quality and we share our impatience today with most of the modern. And restless and changing world. We're particularly conscious of this restlessness and this ambition of the high goals for which the new nations have set for themselves. Now the new American generation which you ladies of the press. To such a large degree the spokesman. This generation coming into its own today admires the vigor of the new generations that are coming into their own. The world over. We Americans admire national pride we admire economic progress and the desire for independence from those interests which may be out to exploit the hopes and aspirations of any new country. We're apt to make friends among sovereign
equals route to enrich and to be enriched. We do not want independence. Rather we do not want dependence satellites. What we are looking for is a healthy independent nationhood which can maintain and can share a power position in world brotherhood as equals among equals and as such to take their place in the Parliament of Man. One word of advice if unsolicited advice is desired is to say to these new countries be able to guard and to guard your independence jealously as jealously as we have guarded ours. I think it's now safe to say that we no longer consider those who are not with us as being against us. In fact our basic concern is not of the growing independence of other nations but their ability to maintain it. It should be my endeavor as chief of protocol. To see to it that the ambassadors and their staffs
from these new nations get all the proper assistance required in order to carry on their mission among us. Visiting delegations on the official level Well I can assure you I would be greeted in the same spirit. They will be assisted in penetrating to the heart and core of America to see us at home intellectually politically spiritually and productively. Our country is so vast and so extensive a person newly arrived here has a hard time in making a synthesis of our national character. And diplomats in particular who remain in our country for only a few years or perhaps just a short time need all that could a C and understanding that we can give them in a bad awaiting our land for what it really is. Now it's with this in mind that I'm especially aware of the need for a cultural and social center here in Washington which will deepen relationships between a multi-faceted national life and
representatives from overseas. Congress will soon consider a Foreign Service Center as part of Title 11 section 11 a one way of the U.S. information educational exchange act of 1948 and amendment which would provide club like facilities to bring our government people educators Benen women in labor and business artists and journalists together with their counterparts from abroad. I would like to give my support to such a foreign service center or international club to be founded in Washington under initial government support. Now such a club is not a new idea and when I speak of it I'm thinking as much or more. Lower ranking embassy personnel in Washington as I am of those chiefs of mission the rising secretaries and attachés who are the ambassadors and sometimes the prime ministers of their countries tomorrow. Now. Although protocol
is not in a position to direct citizen participation in other power diplomatic matters perhaps we can channel the interest the intense interest that already exists here in Washington and throughout the country through such civic organizations as the night breath veterans groups women's organizations. And in this context I would like to draw attention to a colleague and friend Katie Lacan and to her activities. I'm sure there's an area here where she and I can be mutually helpful in seeing that interested citizens groups are more effective in revealing the real America to those who visit us. Many of our guests and visitors look at us at first with a certain skepticism but always with great curiosity. Let us channel that interest. Now I see my work. In the State Department that has having to do with a broadening or is a changing of my particular assignment. But
more as a deepening of the functions that have always been associated and performed as part of the duties as chief of protocol. I can say that far from being concerned with formalities only. Our office has always functioned within a microcosm of the entire field of international relations and our contacts with the visitors and permanent missions accredited here. We do have an opportunity to personalize policy in some instances to explain it in others and to give an example of our goodwill and with the hope that we may facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of our country and its policies. And the president United States with his secretary of state and the area specialists decide the course of our policy and our official attitudes towards the policies of other nations and other international organizations. That policy must not be jeopardized or interfered with by private individuals
pursuing their own irrelevant views. I see it as an integral integral part of my job and protocol to do the utmost within my power to avoid incidents for a buy at say a barber here in the district or a drive in theater attendant in church may have a detrimental influence on the success of our policy by improper treatment of an official guest. Now perhaps my own role is modest but at the very least I am back in the State Department and I am part of the new team in Washington and all through this new administration. You particularly know the atmosphere to be one of purpose determination resolution and will seek to succeed. We are admittedly earnest admittedly serious. With an angry and fiery world around us each day a day of decision each decision destined to affect our lives. We need and I believe that we have the
best of America right here. There is so much to be done and so much to be undone that we know there can be no quick or miraculous changes. We know that as has been said in the inaugural address none of this will be finished in the first hundred days nor the first thousand days. No Will it be finished in the life of the administration or even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. President Kennedy in his inaugural address summoned up the ideas and the ideals which polarized the drive's the hopes and ambitions of our new leadership team in Washington today. Thank God this team is here. And I'm also thankful to the Women's Press Club for giving me this chance to tell you a little of my own role on the team today. God bless. All of. You have been listening to a talk by the new chief of protocol of the United States the Honorable NGO
- Special of the week
- Producing Organization
- University of Michigan
- National Association of Educational Broadcasters
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
- Episode Description
- This program presents interviews with incoming members of President John F. Kennedy's administration.
- Other Description
- Special of the Week #3. Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman and U.S. Chief of Protocol Angier Biddle Duke in separate interviews.
- Broadcast Date
- Public Affairs
- Media type
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Speaker: Freeman, Orville L.
Speaker: Duke, Angier Biddle, 1915-1995
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 61-Sp.Wk.-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “Special of the week; Orville Freeman and Angier Biddle Duke,” 1961-04-10, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 18, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-2r3p0k83.
- MLA: “Special of the week; Orville Freeman and Angier Biddle Duke.” 1961-04-10. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. October 18, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-2r3p0k83>.
- APA: Special of the week; Orville Freeman and Angier Biddle Duke. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-2r3p0k83