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Well the kind of a depressing story circa there and one might approach and understanding impatient people with the government and with still the Congress was the victim of circumstance largely on its own that are here that it was not the kid. I did not talk to one who was really that bad of Congress and the groups where the plight of who could be blamed on the brooding reservoir gratitude for Congress is golden and dry and the pimp of the founder of the leadership to shift responsibility to the need for the didn't vote. While such was the general picture when I arrived in India in May 19th think the nine and a half months before the 4th general election. Now let me think just one word about the sort of the mechanic
these elections were for the election. Five hundred and twenty members nor how corresponding to the British House of Commons or the local house of the people. There was also an election in every one of the 17 state in India for some three thousand three hundred thirty seven members of the lower house of the state legislature. Now the electoral system and this is a rather important election system it is very very similar to ours that is they are saying the member districts and the high take ball but we don't think much too much about that because normally in the United States and most of the important elections there are two candidates running. But in India with more of the constituency and tested by more than two candidates the winner seldom has a majority of the vote.
And there are no old primaries are run off elections in India. The nomination itself is a very important one. The way that went on here are interesting the fights which took over getting the ticket as they call the nomination and then the displeasure afterwards and leading often times troops breaking away from a particular party or joining another party. The general elections took place over a period of two or three days in February of this year following that election in May and I won't have time to deal with it in any detail you had a presidential election the presidential election is not like Alors the president is elected he is merely a figurehead or have been in the past although even that is controversial everything's controversial and the president is elected by the elected members of the state legislatures and the members of the
two houses the national parliament. But the complicated though that the members of the center although there are far fewer of them have exactly the same number of vote as the members in the faith that is nobody have one vote one have the different numbers of electoral vote for the first term for the presidential election was also a controversial matter with the Congress on one side generally a poney opponent opposing candidate the part of the board by most of the opposition parties. Well over this whole period of nine months and certainly didn't begin here but it became particularly acute controversies of one kind or another strike mass march and agitation. Police firing on demonstrators. I don't know I'm not sure that use the term police brutality but they had other expressions which meant the same thing
and firing was on strike. Firing on many groups including thousands of students in the high schools and colleges and several colleges universities. A good many of the route the north were closed for most of the year in a couple in that went to find that the day before the college that quote I never knew whether it was simply an accident or not. When I went to Iran to meet a couple of three months ago and found that the universe of that university of Parana also closed the day before I began to wonder about the effect of my visit. Well there were unruly themes in parliament in the legislature I thought him particularly from a debate and a dozen people speaking at one time the speaker was unable to control them this took place not only in the locale but the Opera House the Ross lab of which the whole had been a realm of the
date and dignified place before and led to the suspension of members of the parliament to arrest of many of them. There were also many disputes between the Congress leaders from the Congress especially as I thought a moment ago about individuals who didn't get picked the party nomination and of course the path to death by some of these people and the thing that factor there. And if they didn't get their way and gloating of course some of the holy men who were fasting for the abandonment. The absolution. Well the general added to the people that I talk to on this kind of thing as well as some of the leaders up in the Punjab threatening to fast unto death was let the damn fool star that it would be good riddance. I mean that was a general attitude of people in Delhi that I talked to were in the summer of 36 there were there were at least two very
large mass marches in Delhi. One was stated by the leftist body frequently by the Communists but it was rare or not kept under control and then on November the theft perhaps 100000 people including women and at least 15 parliament manning a complete Council after the hotel in which we were stoned in the windows broke and I hate to tell it about myself but I went out in the morning about 11 o'clock and took pictures of the procession up to about one and back to the hospital where we had learnt and went back to my room and read a while and then about 4:30 I want to venture out I had called a meeting that professors who were around their way through the election to go out at 4:30 and I found the whole city was under curfew. That our hospital room saying the windows had been broken and
sitting back shows the academic culture I didn't know what was going on in the world I might as well be here in Oregon. But anyway the situation was very very tense. There was a great outcry in India and I assume that world wide publicity was given to this rather curious affair. It so happened that I got home I was digging out my clippings and I kept the newspaper sensational thing I was looking at the newspaper. When my daughter came in and brought the evening copy of that you would regard this was the first I had known about in Detroit. All I can look at those two papers together. Well I think it was rather minor in terms of destruction of people a lot of destruction of property as compared with either Newark or Detroit and I suppose with this for now I think that. I read both
American newspapers and got the New York International Edition and read the Indian newspaper it was very difficult to deal with going to hell a factor here. As a matter of fact I've read both of them. This year I still have difficulty in making up my mind. But I'm inclined to think that people of one country who read their news about another parent are rather prone to be true. It's characteristic of the whole I continue to get questions are Indians all over India are one my postman came up and said well you happen to be home and anti-American never struck me that way before I felt rather I think I was a little more though not all with revolt any more than the United States where course we're not so sure.
However this is true of India and Indians are not so sure that this is true. Well how much of this. It was an expression of genuine disciplined tanto at least taken advantage of by the Federal Opposition party but that the punk had a hand in the parade at the very leftist parties were involved in many of the mass advocating a weapon volatile and certainly than parliament and the legislators was poor at the poor but the methods were were probably staged for perfectly legitimate political aims to get rid of the Congress and most of the individuals and groups who left Congress and afterwards condemned it in good terms that only after they were denied or modified with their somewhat therefore somewhat respect to the political part a number of independents were in the contest and some of the party the most important of which was the so-called DMK was
confined to only one state and all of the Congress really contested strongly throughout the country although even in that case down in the. They use the facilities we thought it was one third litter one third Christian and one third come in it's quite true that the 20 percent Muslim only in that state was sort of written off in the beginning Congress really had no chance. But aside from the Congress of the DMK in the state of the draw there were six parties whose names could be taken seriously but none of them could possibly win a majority either at the center or in the state. And one of them had a really wide net worth of the lead and that included the two common of the parties the CPI or Communist Party of India sometimes called the right and the market definitely left this party of that in nineteen hundred and sixty four partly the result wholly as a result
our attitude divided between attitude toward China and the Soviet Union and we were trying to live them in competition between these two groups was particularly keen especially and with all the socialists were also divided between the PSB your project Socialist Party a relatively same group of people whose policies are not particularly different from that of Congress and the FSB or United Socialist Party a more militant group with a few very able with an adequate leader. On the right what if there's a fourth party was formed in 1959 and the Congress cooperating it advocates free enterprise and would be quite congenial. American political scene although favored by heavy industry its support comes from the former principal who command a wide following in the former Prince and last but not least
they point out that we can't hear her fondly which was formed in the early 50s and advocate a return to what it regards as the virtues of traditional Indian food. Yet it does condemn the discrimination of the past and certain practices. Whatever the faith. Who party actually at the practical number of Muslim members appears to have a vote in the election and in New Delhi The Happy mean legislative body in the Territory economically will condemn capitalism and to have long advocated by none of the things the way it is on the make and it may well change and well be respectable when all the parties agreed on a few things Congress was rotten to the current
it was largely responsible for India's economic plight its foreign policy was bankrupt by the loss the prestige and leadership among the country and especially by the current Congress and pleaded by almost any means. There are remedies for but the first task was to defeat undoubtedly the feeling of the people that it's time for it to mean. After all 22 years and the first of the opposition leaders for political power for its own sake as well as men were strong in the election but the campaign to fight all this was fought largely on bread and butter are probably the issue and Congress reforms are non ideological pretensions and part foreign policy arguments probably swayed your vote. Nor did he even make much of it in America and except
in Kashmir which the Congress could not take any chance of losing the campaign was freely and on the whole fair we thought the press was certainly free and exercise and freedom sometimes with a vengeance against the ruling party. The book stole the symbol of the Congress party. The pictures of it with just a just a bony skull of Congress and prosperity. The difficulty of course while that more to the opposite side from the fact that no one could possibly gain with joy it would probably be worse than the con or so it appeared to me that Congress had been successful generally not only in 52 but in 57 and 62 although it's popular vote for local members drop 30 percent between 50000 and 62 to 44 percent and never have commanded 73 percent of the thing in the local.
I'm going to vote and then probable it would come out the winner. Unless the opposition parties were able to combine their pork barrel with agreements were broken and there were and accept what Congress would put down the middle. And if they have a party clearly it was held together by the left wing column in the Congress. Absolutely in the first rule Congress would win in the home of Congress and it was probably in the Congress Congress would certainly win the majority. Or given the election for the outcome would depend on two factors First the voter proponent and secondly the behavior the opposition party now one might have caught under the third. As I have described that the voters would turn sharply against the Congress. One
wonders what would happen in the United States if one party when the situation was such in India. However in or were all pretty clearly determined in the state and the tender election the Congress vote only between 4 and 5 percent and had the opposition split in the previous elections Congress might have lost a few states as well as a few seats at the center but the changes would have been minor. But ABBOTT Well women have so much your grief to fill in for an operation party rather than in voting behavior was largely responsible and to the surprise of the moony the strange coalition were sufficiently strong to defeat the Congress and so they do its majority in the local Sabah to approximately 60 and although Congress gain votes in only two states in Madhya Pradesh right here in the South Center and over in
the game only in those two states. Actually it didn't lose its greatest loss was not over 7 percent in the state of Baja in India's largest state. Eighty five million it would be the eight it would be the Fed with the largest state in the world were independent. That one state of India lost was only four point two three four point two three percent and Congress came out ahead in the in the local legislature. But its victory eluded her but they were short lived. Within a month a group of congressmen broke off from the party or split or joined the opposition and saw its leader become ephemera fate overtook the Congress in the newly formed state of Haryana Punjab with again the second time and the southern part and on the 8th. Why the same thing happened there. Now perhaps the Congress's greatest victory and the greatest irony that has taken place is in this
state a moderate with predicted that Congress would move but instead again who want 19 percent vote and they come for the world majority in the legislature. But within the past month how do you think congressman broke away and in conformity with the pattern in your opinion Haryana joining the opposition and have the satisfaction again of seeing later become chief minister and that the attack on Congress continues unabated. It will be catered by a statement issued by the ex-congressman and new chief minister. I quote the order of loot the reign of terror and peace the blood have come to an end Mr DPM minister of the defeated Chief Minister has been the worst tire to ever rule the state it is the day of deliver the last was a particularly bitter Bob because Hitler had first used in 1939 when the member when the members of Congress resigned from some of the provincial legislatures that that term went through with these three states laws added to the loss in the general election.
Congress is now in control in only eight states and including. The government controlled the remaining comp about India's population and out of the illusions are in control of the DMK that I mentioned a moment ago won a clear majority. Much to the surprise of everyone including the leader of DMK it was predicted that Congress would win a clear majority Kamaraj your home state. But not only did Congress move camarade the Congress was defeated by a 28 year or longer. The little kids program was an economic program of the big 3 but bigger issues seem to have been the DMK is opposition to the imposition of Hindi as the national language that can weigh what I might call camel Knight for them and local issues. The location of a steel mill in the St.. But here again the
collusion. The coalition was the deciding factor the media here that the DMK got slightly fewer votes in Congress 41 to 42 percent but it elected one hundred forty two members. The lead was ready but then with a clear majority due only to the working of the coalition and could explain the outcome. In the local Congress one hundred eighty five hundred thirty five for the opposition. There are 20 think support it would mean a non-Congress coalition government. Or it might mean a Congress coalition with some of the party it might mean a nother general election the outcome of which would be third in the political picture or at the center of the opposition fairly even divided between the left and the right I'm a little bit thinking that everybody in the on the left the left party the four Left parties have about seventy eight or five hundred
twenty members of the CPI have the left has about 19 apathy P.I. right 23 and 71 the former in the latter 35 the left and right with the popular vote about 17 percent and now with difficult political coloration of many of the smaller parties and independent from left and from the. Some interpreters coming to the right and the other walk in with only one. Over here the India government definitely party won with the support of a former Prince. It may or may not be coincidental. Quite a coincidence but it was probably only in the most backward. It is also the worst victim of
Congress in this room on the leathern the left in weapons and Bihar and also important in cold in the absolute at the present time would have law run across the Congress Michel and the opposition in the drop. Well I thought some of
that alone. There were wild rumors and would be postponed or they would be the last. The Congress not only relatively has not really given up. Moreover the Congress with their political power from the center to the Congress will dare who impose on the non Congress when the current whether the federal system will work. Now the term the problem of the
call although Congress and the clothes and the plume that's rather dirty. Do not argue with the latter home in a minute long who minister or rather their Lord and that is the party wing out of the parliament and the parliamentary wing of the party are not two years ago I think it was as I was talking here folks on the. Front tier of democracy. I think you made the Pope should have remembered anything that two years ago. What I've said to the
more I still speak here is one thing that I still think it is democratic experiment is the boldness of all if you does that it will be achieved. You have been listening to the Institute on world affairs a series of lectures and discussions held each year on the San Diego State College campus. At this session the principal speaker was Dr. Charles P. liker of the Department of Political Science University of Oregon the institute brings together noted leaders from all walks of life who would dress themselves to the perplexing problems that face mankind.
The Institute on world affairs has examined those trends in politics economics science and culture which shaped the world in which we live. The institute has been an open forum attracting the authorities on international and national problems from around the globe. It has been a sounding board for military as well as moral issues scientific and saw here logical in congruity as a racial order and disorder. Human progress and human deprivation. Indeed this institute succeeds in its objective to challenge the minds of men with a very perplexities that challenge the world. It aspires to understand world dilemmas by seeking truth through the knowledge of its speakers. Presentations at its yearly sessions are concerned with matters of great international significance and reflect a wide spectrum of viewpoints backgrounds political persuasions and fields of specialization.
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Toward a new world
India: The politics of frustration, part two
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San Diego State University
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the second part of a lecture by Dr. Charles Schleicher, University of Oregon.
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Lectures recorded at San Diego State College's 25th Annual Institute on World Affairs. The Institute brings together world leaders to discuss issues in politics, culture, science, and more.
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Producing Organization: San Diego State University
Speaker: Schleicher, Charles P.
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-9-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
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Duration: 00:29:11
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Chicago: “Toward a new world; India: The politics of frustration, part two,” 1968-12-07, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 21, 2024,
MLA: “Toward a new world; India: The politics of frustration, part two.” 1968-12-07. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 21, 2024. <>.
APA: Toward a new world; India: The politics of frustration, part two. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from