Voices of Europe; Klause Kammler and Huguette Kailat
Voices of Europe Milton mair American author and broadcaster lecturer and professor in the Institute of Social Research from Frankfurt University has been recording the voices of Europeans were alive and sensitive to the conditions of life which surround them. Today he interviews first Mademoiselle who get Kayla Mademoiselle who get is not an ordinary French girl. The fact that she speaks English itself is significant because most Frenchmen simply don't bother to learn English as most Americans who have gone to France discovered Mademoiselle Huguette was born in Paris in one thousand thirty. The daughter of a French colonial official when she was a month old her father was assigned to the French colony of Madagascar as Governor-General and there will get spent the first 11 years of her life returning to France upon her father's retirement. She finished school in Paris and then attended lends to to day to day. After three years there she has just finished her political studies. Here is Milton Mayer.
You get. You are full of political wisdom now just as I was your age. I want to know more what you think of the world you live in and what you think of your father's and my generation. I try to answer that question although it is a very huge one and I. And my opinion about it is not. Always the same. I mean it. It is a question that I ask to myself very often and I do not answer it in the same way each time. I think the world in which we are living is a terrible one but
also it is a passionate thing to live in it. You mean you would rather live in a bad world which is exciting. That in a good world which is dull. Yes perhaps. And the cause I think that. And not only bad things you know well but they are also very beautiful and exciting aspects. What are the carob things about our world you get and what are the beautiful things. The terrible things are the first the progress of science and all the new discoveries that we make every day. And the Web is
making and it is it. Going from adventure to adventure we don't know where we are going and where scientific discoveries will lead us and we try to understand the universe and discover its laws and its mysteries. And that is a very passionate thing but it is also a very I mean they enjoy us too and sometimes I cannot tell for the feeling frightened about it but the beautiful things about the world we live in that attempt to that tape
Perhaps too. To know what we are and what is our world and to try to make our world better. And better and that every man who will be able to enjoy life. You get what do you think are the worst mistakes that your father's generation and my generation made. The biggest mistakes. Yes I think they have. They went wrong when they believed that the world in which they lived was. It was a good world and
that it was. Did you believe that. It was ruled by eternal principle. And. And they didn't say most of them. The changes that took place in that society and perhaps they didn't get dumped quick enough. That changes. But I think that is a fact of any generation and I don't want to reproach them anything stronger because they say we must try to take example on their qualities and there were
coverages there were full of the spirit of enterprise and wisdom too and I don't like to speak to talk badly about her generation which has come before and but do you think you get that. Yes. Your generation well change things or will it simply repeat the mistakes of mine. Oh I think. But men are not perfect and they will always do make mistakes. Still some of those mistakes won't be repeated. Do you think that the young people of France know something which their elders did not. Your friends at the institute
that you gotta keep. Do you think they're politically wise or that they have learned something which their parents and their grandparents did not know. I think that they are understand better the problems of our time because. There haven't to get rid of old principles or old fashioned ideas. You mean history the history of the time they're living in has got rid of these things for them. They don't have to get rid of them for themselves. Yes what are they what are the young people of France of your acquaintance enthusiast take about I would do most of your fellow students believe in the United Nations are a United States of Europe or what.
There are many tendencies in the actual French youth and it is difficult to give a general idea about my generation. A gret part of young people are a rather pessimistic about the future in front. I think they do not believe that peace is possible. At any rate for the near future why are they pessimistic. What makes what makes them pessimistic. It is not only the last war and the history cooler events that have taken place
all the last years but that is something deeper which is rather a cultural fact and where does it come from. I think the influence of some literary movements the influence of existentialism for instance and of certain a philosophy of the last century. Our life has been very strong. Part of me you get yes. Are the are your friends less religious than their parents and grandparents were.
They are less religious in that sense that. They do not believe in. In this special religion for instance many of them have lost their face in their own religion in which they have been brought up. I mean cattle are protest in season. They are looking for a religion and they have not lost this religious spirit and it is why they are so in trouble because they need an ideal and they are looking for eat. You get one hears in France in Paris rather a great deal about the idea of a United States of Europe. There seems to
be a great deal of interest and activity in that direction. Do your friends have much faith in the idea or are they enthusiastic about giving up French sovereignty for example and forming a genuine United States of Europe out of they look upon this movement. Many of them look upon this movement with sympathy and they would like us to join an European Federation because they feel that Europe must be strong and must be united. Now and do they mean the whole of Europe or Western Europe.
It it would be very hard to get the horde off Europe. Federated in the same block. And what do you yourself think you get of the Federation of Europe. My say. I myself would like very much that prospect to become to become realized. Would you be willing to be a European instead of a Frenchman. No it did I. I think that the European Federation could know what
it would be. If you notice unity well and because the only different countries of Europe are so it's not similar and we must keep up in No. To a certain extent our dissimilarity is why if they are a product of our own national spirit and culture. It's. Then you would not you yourself would not want to give up being a French woman in order to be a European. I want to be at the same time. Frenchman and a member of a European fitted nation.
But do you think that such a federation in which French men remain Frenchmen and Germans remained German would such a federation in your opinion solve the problems of the world. Oh no I don't think it would. What would. That the European Federation would be would sort of only a very small part of the world problems and most of the problems must be considered and solved on a word skid. Thank you. You get I think perhaps you do have a great deal of political wisdom though I'm not sure that you learned it that you acquired it at the Institute for Political Studies. Next in Berlin Milton Mayer interviews her Klaus comer.
Mr. mayor Klaus Comair has lived under democracy Naziism communism and again under democracy. He is a bit young for all this experience. He is 23 but then he was a bit young at the age of 15 when he was conscripted into the folks Dorma the people's army for the last ditch defense of the city of Breslau in Germany in May of nineteen forty five. When so he where he was born the son of a schoolteacher was taken over by the polls at the end of the Second World War. Klaus and his family were expelled as Germans and they went to the state of touring India which
was first occupied by the Americans and then by the Russians who still occupy it. Klaus you have not only lived under a variety of forms of government but as I understand it you have attended school and university under Naziism communism and democracy. How do you compare your three experiences your three lives under three forms of government at the age of 23. Yes. As to not Susan. In 1945 I was 15 and a half year old
and I think it's not possible to say anything about this time I want to have seen this by conscience. But the following years I saw the revolution in eastern zone two years I went to school to high school. I didn't go to India and then in 47 I came to a university for Shell University. In India in the Russian's own when I was two terms for two terms and then changed to Leipsic also a town are going to go to town and said Sonia and Leipsic was also is also in the Russian zone. Oh yes it is also in the fashion zone. Klaus did you have any difficulty getting into the university when you left highschool where it was it is it and was it easy
for young Germans in the Russian zone to go to university. Oh yes it was very easy I know that from my class only two persons one a friend of me and I and I myself. Came to university at first. It once wished that more people who had been in war came to university for gentle human. Motives and then. Political men who were in concentration camps or had anyhow fought against netizen in an underground movement or so. And the people who were by their parents are by any related as
known as Nazis or so where not came not to university but if one was anyhow member of a party or cultural organization or trade union. Women's Council or so it was possible I think. But this was a condition. And now what actually were conditions like in Leipsic universities under communist control. In the time when I was in jail I think it was a rather liberal time. I have not seen any. Intolerance ie it was a rather. Free studying. Would it compare with the times of
the Weimar Republic in Germany. It would be not right to say that any how communistic communist influence and liberal was defined but this changed in forty eight and forty nine and has been to today. Do you know about the currency reform in Germany haven't also determined this university evolution. Well now when the communist controlled universities changed from what you say was a liberal Democratic program what was the reason for the change. As far as you know it. And what form did the change take. How did they how did they become different Klaus.
For example the students where they were held in in the first few years in maturity and then there they became. Great scholarships and in any way the ration is in this time where. There is much little or Asians and students had extra for Asians. It was a very important thing. And the is all the material things we are not in the first years. We are not compound with any political conditions. And this I think in from forty eight this changed. I understand but in what way did it change. What did these
universities become. Why you were still there after forty eight. The students who were out in the university or remain there but they knew of students who would come would have come to the university. No more I was not no longer possible for dependents from from upper classes and middle classes to come to going to events and these students who already read there became no longer any any material no no money no scholarships and so on. And in this way it was reached that the students became more and more prone to terrorism and they the students who came from middle or upper class so-called bourgeois family they were continually reduced in number. Oh yes and how did the curriculum
change did the form of study the subjects are the manner of teaching also change. Some professors were expelled from university but I think that there are no very many. Other professors were came into pension and. But no. No hard measures were done and the Communists thought it would usually might come to the point that the students would finish their studying and younger and Prada Tarion students were the only one who found the university. Klaus did you feel at the end of your period of study at the University of Leipzig that you were being indoctrinated through the curriculum
through the study that you were being indoctrinated with communism or that an effort was being made to do that. I thought it was done in fact but that vote was reached by thought not only as to me but more of some of my friends. It was it was not so much reached in this way. The connection with the Western Germany and Western Valiant was. Great enough and education by parents and so on was strong enough to. Prevent this and when and why did you come to Berlin and Klaus. I decided to go to Berlin in 49 and to go first to east end. It was as I had no related also in Berlin. I
took this way it was called changing of colleges in universities in eastern zone this was no difficulty from Leipsic to eastern Berlin to university in eastern sector. And I was there one time. I say only to have it not so difficult to come to western Berlin I lived in western Berlin and then after this one time in Hobart university changed to. Who would have a politic was the school for politics the hope sure for politics also in the Russian sector of Berlin Oh no it was not in the Russian Czech That was in the British sector of the best sector. Well now what was your experience like at home bult university in the Russian sector of Berlin. What was the university there like it was a little bit
more tolerant than in Leipzig and Vienna and I think that was the motive was the that. Reston Berlin was so new and traffic and so on in Berlin prevented the. University getting cut off from Reston area and papers newspapers and books and so on. Klaus tell me now why you came to Western bird land. Why did you finally leave East Berlin and you transferred to the Free University in West Berlin is that right. Yes. Why it was no longer two to live in a decent manner. And anyway one was compelled to a political and social things which couldn't be longer any longer run not no longer possible functions in parties
- Voices of Europe
- Producing Organization
- National Association of Educational Broadcasters
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
- Episode Description
- This program features interviews with two European students, one from Germany and another from France.
- Other Description
- Interviews with noted Europeans on a variety of subjects, conducted by Milton Mayer, American author and broadcaster, lecturer and professor in the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt University.
- Broadcast Date
- Global Affairs
- Media type
Interviewee: Kammler, Klause
Interviewee: Kailat, Huguette
Interviewer: Mayer, Milton, 1908-1986
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 52-37-62 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “Voices of Europe; Klause Kammler and Huguette Kailat,” 1954-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 9, 2022, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-1c1tjm1x.
- MLA: “Voices of Europe; Klause Kammler and Huguette Kailat.” 1954-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 9, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-1c1tjm1x>.
- APA: Voices of Europe; Klause Kammler and Huguette Kailat. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-1c1tjm1x