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Educational radio's ambitions toward national and international coverage should be encouraged and supported given commercial radio is unmistakable and perhaps irreversible. Local trend there is a decided national stage in building educational radio as a major instrument of national and international communications. The NE our Public Affairs Bureau and the any other network could well serve as the starting point. Radio moreover should be included in our plans for satellite communication. The body as you just heard was that of Gerald Sandler executive director of the national educational radio network. One of our featured guests this week on the NPR Washington forum a weekly program concerned with the important issues before us as a nation. This week a continuation of our special condensations of the recent Senate hearings on the proposed public television Act of 1967. This program was produced by the national educational radio network. There are the facilities of WMU FM American University Radio in
Washington D.C. I many our public affairs director Bill Greenwood. Members of the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on communications who studied the proposed public television Act of 1967 included chairman John O pastoring of Rhode Island Sen. Mike Munro ne of Oklahoma Vance Hartke of Indiana Philip part of Michigan Russell Long of Louisiana Frank Moss of Utah James Pearson of Kansas Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania and Sen. Robert Griffin of Michigan. They heard from a variety of witnesses representing the radio side of the educational coin and it is this presentation on behalf of educational radio which we will condense on this Any our Washington forum. You will hear the voices of Misters Sandler of any R.. Willard bill should tell of the University of Washington Mr. should l is also a former chairman of the Capitol Correspondents
Association. Also to be featured will be Dr. Frank Rosie of the Albany Medical College. The testimony on behalf of educational radio was presented by all of these and many other witnesses. The lead off witness however was Mr. Gerald Sandler. My name is Gerald Sadler I'm executive director of national educational radio a division of the National Association of educational broadcasters as the Chairman and members of this distinguished committee during the past few days I've been very pleased to hear the kind statements from yourself members of the committee. Senator Kennedy Congressman pepper and a number of distinguished witnesses about the need to incorporate educational radio in this legislation. This is the very first time in the growing national dialogue on book Public Broadcasting that radio educational radio has been introduced indeed incorporated into major legislation which is destined to influence the future of a national communication system in this country. Naturally everyone in educational radio is excited
expectant enthusiastic but despite the kind words that have been expressed in this hearing room the real story of educational radio has not been told and indeed is not known. We are not the glamour medium. And we are well aware of it. An opportunity like this one does not come to us very often. I do not intend to make an elaborate statement here about the accomplishments of educational radio these are contained in my statement and my attachments. At the outset I want to make it clear to you Mr. Chairman that I am not talking about educational radio competing with educational television. I'm not talking about educational radio taking dollars away from educational television. I'm not implying that educational radio is a superior medium to educational television or a panacea or any other words we could find. But I can do no better than to echo the statement. Of Senator Edward Kennedy who pointed out eloquently that in our excitement and enthusiasm to usher in the full development of educational television there's been a tendency to obscure the value and importance of educational radio. Before I go any further I'd like to make one thing
clear. I'm proud to endorse this bill as eleven sixty the public television Act of 1967 on behalf of the 346 educational radio stations of the United States. And as executive director of national educational radio I am proud to endorse this bill as it now stands. What I have to tell you is contained in greater detail in a report which has already been submitted to you for the record. For your convenience a copy of the summary of that report has been attached as Exhibit B to my statement. This major research study which I'm holding up right now is called The Hidden medium. A status report on educational radio in the United States and was prepared for any are by Herman W. land Associates Incorporated of New York City with the aid of a grant from the Ford Foundation. Do we have that report. Yes you do sir. Then we link operated by reference. Thank you. One of the most basic set of findings in the hidden medium deals with the harsh realities of educational radio is poor financial position. These are based on
135 respondents to a 25 page questionnaire. Some of these findings are frankly alarming. Let me illustrate. Approximately one third of the educational radio stations must operate on less than $10000 a year. 53 percent of all stations have less than $25000 a year for their total operating budgets 73 percent have less than 50000. Indeed only six stations have budgets over $200000 and most of these represent multi station operations. Why people on educational radio adequately paid 5 percent of the station's report no salaries at all. Another 5 percent pay a total of less than $1000 yearly to their staff. 10 percent pay a total of less than twenty five hundred dollars annually all together. Thirty seven percent pay less than $10000 in salaries each year and a total of 68 percent less than $20000 in salaries. We really run these the students. There are a
great many stations particularly the low powered ones 10 Watch operations that are run as student operations in whole or in part and this accounts for many of these statistics but I might add that even even the most well endowed of these radio stations with very very few exceptions have to depend on student help part time help and non-paid help a great deal of the time. How much money is available presently for program purchases. And I think this is a very key finding a very telling one. Thirty three percent have less than $1000 yearly to spend for this purpose. Another 25 percent less than twenty five hundred dollars. Only 5 stations in the entire survey report program purchases over $10000. And believe it or not six percent sadly report that they have no money at all for this purpose. In spite of these severe financial restrictions important community services are being performed at least 43 percent provide program material on tape to local organizations such as
PTA civic groups schools and so on. They also broadcast a wide range of programs in cooperation with local state and national organizations. Another illuminating finding in the report is the degree to which educational radio stations supply programming to commercial stations they have by greatly enlarging their audiences. According to the survey at least 59 percent of the stations do supply programmes to commercial outlets and some stations as described in the hidden medium do sell to more than 100 stations Weekly. One surprising aspect of the findings deals with outside sources of programming. While all respondents utilized a variety of sources both domestic and foreign. The total number of hours of programming supplied by national educational radio is greater than all other sources from all over the world combined. The stations were asked whether they provide programming services to specialized audiences such as shut ins handicap positions and so on. Thirty eight percent replied that they presently are engaged in this kind of programming. Fifty
eight percent of the station's alter their operating schedule during the summer months. Many of them staying off the air entirely during that period. All too often a key factor in making this decision is a lack of sufficient operating funds. While these specific findings are but a sampling of the rich documentation in the hidden medium describing the services of educational radio. The Federal Communication Commission current effort to develop a table of allocations for educational fm should be pushed to a successful conclusion says the report. Such a table is essential to the assurance of adequate national coverage in the development of statewide networks. As Fred Friendly has stated Mr. Chairman Educational Television will show us the picture. Educational radio will stir our imagination. Together they can and must play a dynamic part in the communications revolution. I'm delighted to see educational Radio's new forward thrust says Mr. Friendly. The Chairman I'd like to end on that note looking towards the full
working partnership of these two great media educational radio and television on behalf of the many storied mansions they must serve the American people. If I may Mr. Chairman I'd like to move on to other members of this panel now to fill in the details. All right let me introduce next to Mr. Bill should dial who many of you of course remember as a veteran correspondent for the ABC and CBS network of Washington. I have a a statement Mr. Chairman I would hope would be entered into the record. The burden of that statement is largely the story of educational radio in the single state of Washington. I think there is also a rather interesting phase of that which talks about some of the conversation here yesterday about interconnection. And I am very strong for interconnection particularly in the state of Washington. I will not
attempt to take your time to go into those details but I hope that story will be read. You want to come out. Agree with what's been said here this morning but part of including. As an equal partner. You know in this public. Broadcasting Bell I see some danger in calling it public broadcasting because it will be shot in the pub you know. I mean I said it is more than a public television. And I agree with the statement that the people of this country have not taken radio. My own experience. Every two weeks the to my comma go to 17 radio 40 17 television 45 radio stations approximately. I had the privilege of vendor for this program. Right I recall it very well and my experience has been that about the same number of people mentioned that they're heard it on
radio as mention that they're already done television and usually involve driving around in their automobile so that. Radio has a mission. It has an important one and certainly educational radio may serve to counter radio and I heard you imagine. What we need. I think what we need to be hearing is. Our families really thought if we can present them annotating way and happen Interestingly enough to capture attention. But I'd like to hear thoughts that are not. Always accompanied by zap and banging and are not staccato. Were all of us. Living in the country of the
world and this increases tension to the extent to which educational television and radio can do it and that's a very great thing that. I would like to see. A genuine effort made to bring measure back and really thinking and. Some like you have a habit in a world that's moving very fast. And perhaps the next generation may have a chance to appreciate. Those things which are beautiful things which sensate. Those Americans that are worth preserving. And not go away at the end of each day go to bed every night remembering only how many people were right and how many people were lost in some sort of a tragic accident. But often I don't get a bad show that is getting right now is very good for a laugh.
Before my trip to 17th last I would've agreed with you when I was 60 and that then I agree with you. That I agree with that go with it. I don't believe it is now very discouraging to our next witness that one thing I neglected to mention in introducing Mr. should Dell in addition to his many many years as a network news man. He's presently associate director of the School of Communications at the University of Washington. I'd like to call on next Mr. Russell Mr. Russell jabbered vice president for university affairs at Boston University. Boston University is the third largest private university in the nation and it has been is and will be urban in character urban by conscious choice and not by accident. In the view of its trustees and administration. Boston University has a
positive obligation to work on the problems of its own city. One urban educator. Jay Martin klatch e chancellor of the University of Wisconsin put it this way. The social scientist the philosopher the artist the engineer the natural scientist through their respective disciplines can all touch every aspect of urban life its culture problems of pollution and transportation land use its disadvantaged people in all their ghettos. Crime and poverty as well as beauty and its design. As the university pursues the solution to these problems we are finding more and more dramatic evidence that one of the best tools in our kit is noncommercial or Public Radio. We are finding in public radio a super Boateng show for urban progress. It has a unique quality of serving on one hand ever increasing numbers of discriminating
listeners and on the other hand of serving the most specialized kind of audiences. Compared to television costs as we know radio cost about a fraction. But X exceptional dividends await the citizen stockholder. As the university pursues the solution to these problems we are finding more and more dramatic evidence that one of the best tools in our kit is noncommercial or Public Radio. We are finding in public radio a super Boateng show for urban progress. It has a unique quality of serving on one hand ever increasing numbers of discriminating listeners and on the other hand of serving the most specialized kind of audiences. Allow me to give briefly examples of this diversity. First service to the entire community. Last spring when a printers strike shut down five Boston daily newspapers. Boston University moved quickly to help Bostonians obtain much of the
solid news they were missing by the blackout. While it was for the most part business as usual on the commercial radio and television channels WB You are clear it out five hours off its regular programming during Prime evening time to present an emergency newspaper of the air. During the five weeks of the strike WB you are logged more than one hundred fourteen hours of news columns editorials and commentary in depth. To date this emergency news service has one. Gratitude of a great number of Bostonians as well as three regional and national awards for quote filling an important need in the highest traditions of journalism. Close quote. The second example of public radio programming is one that sought to serve minority tastes when the old Metropolitan Opera House of Broadway and 31st in New York City closed its doors a year ago this coming
Sunday. An important area in the cultural life of the United States came to an end. When WB You are learn that no commercial radio or television network nor a local New York City broadcaster was planning any in-depth coverage of this historic event. The station took it upon itself to bring this occasion to those unable to attend and to preserve the event for the future. With the assistance of a grant an aide from national educational radio WVO I was able to resent a moving documentary account of the last 24 hours in the history of the old man. Narrated by Walter sleighs act. On April 21st 1967 the program caught on 31st will receive a broadcast media award for signal accomplishment and higher standards in local radio broadcasting. A similar fine arts program designed for a highly selected audience as a series of thirty nine half hour
documentaries on the entire history of the old Matt. Hall of song. This series of them describing the Ford Foundation financed status report and educational radio as quote one of the great musical documentaries of recent years in any medium. And Mr. Chairman the whole thirty nine programs were produced with a grant of only three thousand dollars. Mr. Chairman I wish to take this opportunity to thank you and the members of this committee for their generosity and allowing me to speak for educational radio and for the urban university and to endorse the bill now before you. Thank you thank you very very much. And I must die I must confess. I've been a member of the Congress now going on my 18 here member the United States Senate. I've been a member of this committee practically all of that time. And this testimony today has been a revelation to me. And you can imagine. What it means to the people on the
outside. The tremendous job that's been done by educational radio. And. I repeat again. I'm surprised that I knew so little about it. And I've been connected with this committee for a long long time. But Mr. Sandow said it has been very under promoted. But I believe the first time you don't come before this committee is not. Speak specifically about having radio yes or no. When you call on your mic Do you have anything. Mr. Chairman I'd like to turn next to a leading medical educator in this country and an important innovator an educational radio Dr. Frank and Woolsey Jr. the associate dean of Albany Medical College of Union University. It was I who originated and developed the concept of utilizing broadcasting facilities in a manner which allows
two way radio communication. The original purpose was to assist practicing physicians gain pertinent information relative to their own continuing education. But I would like to present to you information concerning the use of radio broadcasting and two way radio for education. I think it's understandably difficult for those who have not heard or participated in to a radio instruction to fully comprehend the education know potentialities residing within this technique. This method preserves the all important instructor student relationship. Since an interchange of questions answers and discussions takes place almost as easily as it does when the individuals are face to face. It is also important to realize that we have no lack of visual components. Visual aids are used extensively since the participating students
gather in groups where the two way radio facilities are available. Others participate at home where they are supplied with visual materials associated with the program and the visual components include mimeograph materials and projected transparencies distributed in advance to each participating group or individual are participants then within the groups view and discuss discuss they given slide an outline or a chart at the same time in the Albany network this year I've had the pleasure of paying for a total of 27 dollars and to buy two slides. Now the term two way radio is technically incorrect. The facilities used are not those for amateur or commercial two way radio purposes. This is however two way communication which is made possible technically by utilizing noncommercial radio broadcast stations the educational stations whose broadcast transmitters
are fed by multiple remote broadcast pickup transmitters which are low license to the broadcast station. Everyone listens to the broadcasting stations everyone listens to the broadcast the station is broadcasting and everyone hears what it comes from the radio studio and from each of the multiple remote broadcast pickup locations. You will note that this two way system utilizes a noncommercial weapon broadcast station at its basic facility. Obviously everyone tuned to this station will hear everything broadcast by the station each participating group located in the several community hospitals utilizes a remote broadcast pickup transmitter to transmit questions and discussions to the FM broadcasting station where their transmission is transferred to the broadcast station transmitter. This
results in everyone tuned to the broadcast transmitter hearing everything coming from the broadcast station studio and everything coming from the participating groups. Various days on this. Thank you. Fifty percent of our income has been obtained through donations from the participating hospitals we have received support from pharmaceutical organisations and I would like to mention we kind of were very proud of the fact that as of two days ago we were the first medical college to be approved under the cancer heart stroke legislation for an operational phase a regional medical programme and in this development we are expanding the two way radio facilities and incorporating the use of the multiple acting facilities so that we can carry on a more extensive education simultaneously with the same facilities. In conclusion let me emphasize if I may Mr. Cheney Mr. Chairman several points two way radio is well-established as an
important and effective method for practicing physicians. But as potentiality is yet quite undeveloped the consideration of radio in education should not be limited to that which can be accomplished within our country. Satellites will add the exciting possibility of national and international service on a scale not yet available. Think of the contribution the United States can make to the health of the developed and underdeveloped English speaking world through two way radio communication. In this connection we have a range then conducted several two way conferences between Albany New York and Sydney Australia. We are in the process of developing conferences with New Zealand and with Great Britain. Telephone circuits in case of the Australia Network transmit the program to open California where the information is transferred to what is known as the compact transpacific cable. And this completes the link to Sydney Australia.
In Australia numerous groups of physicians participate. These conferences have been stimulating and successful. Satellites will use will make such international Two-Way conferences and training possible to areas where it's badly needed areas where professionals are truly isolated where the medical profession is often years behind the developer. The important developments in the field and doctors are indeed limited in number. Gentleman I abused my allocated time with the hope that you will appreciate the need to encourage and expand educational radio. With the M approvals and multiply that equipment. Through expanded two way radio broadcasting activities and with adequate financial assistance. Radio should rapidly evidence of vigor which will represent a major contribution to this nation and bring justified credit to those men of vision and
dedication who will make the contribution possible. Frequency for pregnancy dollar per dollar per man hour of effort more education can be pork coming from the medium of radio them from any other means of mass communication. Thank you Mr. Chairman. The best way I can get back to back. I'm glad you think you've been listening to another condensation of testimony before the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on communications hearings were held recently by that committee on the proposed public television Act of 1967. Members of the committee who listen to the testimony or Senator John Roll Pastorius of Rhode Island chairman of the committee MIKE MUNRO ne of Oklahoma Vance Hartke of Indiana Philip a hart of Michigan Russell Long of Louisiana Frank Moss of Utah Scott of Pennsylvania James B. Pearson
of Kansas and Senator Robert Griffin of Michigan. Today's condensation featured witnesses speaking on behalf of the radio aspects of that bill. It was a two hour hearing. Naturally this represents only a very minor portion of all the testimony given. You have heard today the voices of Gerald Sandler executive director of the national educational radio network. Bill should al of the University of Washington a former chairman of the Capitol News correspondents association and Dr. Frank Woolsey of the Albany Medical College plus spokesman for Boston University. You've been listening to another edition of the NE our Washington forum. This program was produced by the national educational radio network through the facilities of W am you FM American University Radio in Washington DC. This is Bill Greenwood inviting you to listen again next week as the NE our Washington
forum features its final condensation of those Senate hearings featuring the spokesmen for the three major commercial radio and television that works. This is the national educational radio network.
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NER Washington forum
Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, part four
Producing Organization
WAMU-FM (Radio station : Washington, D.C.)
National Association of Educational Broadcasters, WAMU-FM (Radio station : Washington, D.C.)
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
Senate hearings on Public Broadcasting Act of 1967. Highlighted testimony of Jerrold Sandler, executive director, National Educational Radio Network.
Series Description
Discussion series featuring a prominent figure affecting federal government policy.
Public Affairs
Media type
Host: Greenwood, Bill
Producing Organization: WAMU-FM (Radio station : Washington, D.C.)
Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters, WAMU-FM (Radio station : Washington, D.C.)
Speaker: Sandler, Jerrold
Speaker: Shadel, Bill
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-24-7 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:36
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