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Do not phone then staple on mutilate this card. The slogan of the computer at the University of Illinois radio service presents a series of programs about you and the computer from banks to hospitals and from airlines to music. It's application in this team and these programs will give you a glimpse of these countless applications and what they mean to you. Do not fold first became a reality because of the power struggle that is written in man's history through the ages with whatever weapons available men have fought wars. One of the newest weapons is the computer. With a rapid calculation of today's digital computer. Man has added a new tool of warfare to his arsenal. In fact this nation's interest in defense prompted the first development of the present day computer during World War Two men in the United States Armed
Forces wondered if the pads of projectiles might be quickly calculated. IBM Harvard and Bell Labs joined their research teams in an effort to build a modern computer to prepare trajectory tables for firing shells. Since that time the armed forces have been a leading impetus in the development of new computers and their applications. The air rage brings new challenges for the computer. As larger planes leave air bases across the country computers are hard at work in the control towers and on the aircraft. This jet may be departing from a runway under computer control. Auto pilots have been brought to the point of total control of the aircraft. Sergeant Lester McCurry chief of the automatic flight control branch at the Technical Training Center of Shinobi Air Force Base in Rantoul Illinois sums up the abilities of today's auto pilot.
It is currently possible to completely control the aircraft from takeoff to touchdown with the pilot with the pilot making a gesture of periodic. Unmonitored counter system to monitor his other navigational equipment ensuring that the automatic flight control system is functioning satisfactorily and is on course. But why have such an automatic system for modern aircraft. One of the most important reasons for an auto pilot is its function during a special message such as the interception and destruction of enemy aircraft. In order for Obama to be sure that his armament will hit the enemy aircraft he must have a stable base from which to fire the autopilot helps the aircraft to hold a very steady course with a minimum of sway during flight. Even if weather conditions might tend to push the airplane off course and autopilot will maintain proper speed and angle of climb and altitude for a specific mission. Smaller aircraft might right
themselves automatically. By the very design of the plane but larger aircraft may veer off course and never right themselves. Sergeant McCoury explains how this situation is corrected. For a supersonic aircraft to perform missions in all types of weather with a high probability of mission completion it is necessary to control the flight path of the aircraft with electronic steering signals from attitude computers regulated by radio and radar components. This creates a need for a complete electronic control of the aircraft. It is normal in an aircraft to make a coordinated turn by coordinated turn we mean that the aircraft neither gains our loses altitude during turns. The amount of rudder required to produce a co-ordinating turn is a function of the aircraft roll rate the amount of aileron deflection and the speed of the aircraft. Since all of these are independent of the attitude computers in the radio and radar signal
input and independent system has been designed to produce a coordinated turn when the ailerons are deflected reducing the attitude signal input to a mere pitch command and it will command the turn coordinator system is a very essential feature on modern high speed airplanes. Since electronic control of the control services is available for stability it is also used to give the pilot assistance during other phases of the flat including the approach to the runway during all weather conditions. Now when we speak of our weather conditions we're. Thinking in terms of range dark fog low cloud coverage as are any time when the zip zero visibility exist. It is now possible to control the entire flight of an aircraft with electronic signals whether from the ground or through programmed packages stored in the aircraft. The C-141 aircraft is a temple typical example currently in use by the Air Force. It is
the largest transport type aircraft in the free world and it employs the very latest technology an electronic flight controls from takeoff to touchdown. Not only do computers fly today's airplanes for the armed services but they train the pilots who manned the aircraft. Students in these classes are seated at a special counsel which mirrors the actual cockpit of Air Force aircraft. Sergeant Dick Wentworth instructor and such an instrument trainer corset she knew Air Force Base compares these trainers with actual planes. On the conditions it would appear on the instruments would be exactly the same as he would get in here. The only difference would be in that he would not have the actual feel of flying
with the instruments themselves would indicate almost exactly the same thing and they would indicate if he was actually flying in here. How can this be done. Sergeant Wentworth explains. It was made possible through the U.S. We have several. Computers you might say. It depends on what you mean by computer. Mainly we take care o electrical signal that is generated by the pilot himself or the person who is flying the trainer. He may lose a certain control such as the control stick or the throttle. And this in turn feeds and electrical signal into our computer unit. Which takes this electrical signal test possibly depending on
the computer. Several other combines these and actually gives this a movement of the small electric motor which in turn and use the actual dials on the instrument faces. Not only ordinary fly can be simulated by computers but the full gamut of emergencies. Pilots can be faced with a burned out engine. Our frozen motor in these air force trainers. Depending on the trainer we can come up with just about anything from all the way from having to run out of fuel up to the point where we can actually cut these engines off. And making a greyish. With some of the basic ones. I'm running out of fuel. When you stop these engines at any time we cause any indications that ice is
forming up on the aircraft and making it every year and so forth. We came and simulated flying into rough air. We get very conditioned to fly that even actually flying through an area where the air was very turbulent and it gives this indication of his injuries. Simulation of actual flight even extends into outer space as astronauts aboard space craft and write themselves for lift off. They leave behind months of training before a computer monitor them. I haven't checked. On. Ignition. Whether it's a prop plane or a Mercury flight men have been trained by computer
to man the controls. The armed forces and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration no longer need to hazard valuable equipment and training exercises aircraft that may cost millions of dollars or not to use by inexperienced pilots. Instead they fly in simulated cockpits. Astronaut Al warden explains why simulators are also part of the space age. Back in the days of the aircraft when we weren't. Concerned with spacecraft and even prior to the jet aircraft there were really no such thing as simulators to learn how to fly an airplane you merely went up with an instructor. And flew the airplane for an hour or two and of course sure by that time you're pretty well checked out and as aircraft got more expensive and more complicated. It really became too much a risk to entrust an airplane to a pilot who had never flown before especially the single seat aircraft that we were building in the country at the time so the idea of simulators came into
being. You know the simulators were built identical to the aircraft cockpits were the same and they flew much much like the aircraft would fly all of the indications to the pot were pretty much the same. However this was done in conjunction with flying the aircraft. A pilot would fly the airplane a little bit or the aircraft a little and then go into the simulator to practice his emergency procedures. Well now when we get to the age of spacecraft we don't have the luxury of being able to fly with an instructor to learn the systems and learn how to fly the thing. So the only alternative is to do all of this training in a simulator and train completely to the best of our ability. Prior to actually flying the spacecraft itself. Still another use of computers by NASA is planned for a future astronauts Thomas bird chief of the Computer Technology Branch at NASA's electronics Research
Center in Cambridge Massachusetts outlines a need for computers on board spacecraft. In looking ahead we see missions becoming more complex and longer in duration. This trend has a very definite impact and the computers that would be involved in such systems as we look at Apollo we see the requirement very clearly to have the computer participate in scientific measurement. And another area where the computer will play a vital role would be in evolving in presenting to the astronaut modifications in his work schedule. That is to say the sequence of tasks that he must perform during a given period of time during a mission. Mr. Berg summarizes the whole purpose of this project.
The main goal is to relieve the astronauts of the more routine tasks that he must perform. And therefore utilize more fully his his real intellectual capabilities and by having the computer participate in this way we in essence get more out of a given mission. So therefore we see a cooperative interaction between man and computer where both function as an integrated team each performing the task it is best suited for. And so computers travel with man and his exploration of space. Such space technology combines the knowledge of almost all sciences physics chemistry thermodynamics electronics and mathematics.
Such an incredible mass of information would overwhelm any system that did not use computers. For example the problem of speed demands computerization out an orbit of 18000 miles an hour. Scientists cannot afford to spend weeks making calculations to discover systems are out of adjustment. Real time computations are a by word in the business of space exploration. Even the sun comes closer because of NASA's bank of computers. Careful analysis of data obtained from observation of the sun may give us important information about this life giving source. Dr. Robert Jastrow founder of the Goddard Institute in New York City explains this process. For example consider the Sun the source of the light of the energy by which we live. This is the source of our energy it's extremely important to us and intellectually significant to understand how the sun goes through its life. What happens when its fuel has been exhausted. How the sun came
to be in the first place. But we can't get into the sun and study these things and we can't wait around long enough to find out experimentally what's going to happen to it when it gets older. What we're doing is in the computer where going into the laboratory and studying the sun. So right with the way we get at that question. Is to write down some basic physical or theoretical equations that describe its structure and its evolution. We put these equations into the computer that is we put them on cards and put them in the computer's memory that we put into the computer's memory into the tapes and other memory devices. A description of our hourly conditions within the sun from the center to the edge and then we arrange things so that the computer sets about righting the conditions which in now exist in the sun. Putting those conditions into the equations that describe its structure and its evolution and
solving the equations to find out how much energy passes out of the surface in a certain small amount of time how much new energy is created at the center at cetera. There's a lot of arithmetic in doing that because that everything's very complicated in the body as weak as the sun or another star. But the computer does this arithmetic at the rate of 100000 multiplication for second. And because of this great speed we can carry on this calculation and we can find out what happens to a star like the sun from the time it's born out of the cold gas and dust of outer space to the time that it expires. That's an interval of 10 billion years. And you have to do a lot of time steps to go through that sequence. You can't do it by hand you can do an abacus or even with a thousand graduate students working desk calculators. See the computer also lends a helping hand. The Navy tactical data system depends on the
calculations of today's computer. All the fighting and maneuvering of a task force is coordinated from the bridge of one ship. That ship serves as the center of information about the detection location tracking speed and identification of enemy and friendly ships aircraft and missiles. It then recommends a course of action. The Navy also maintains a navigation satellite system information from satellites in orbit around the Earth is tallied by computers to determine the exact location of each satellite. Ships at sea may then lock into signals from these satellites and discover their exact position. Computers on board ships and submarines aid in calculations of this position each time a satellite passes overhead. The changing pitch in the radio signals coming from each satellite give the clue about its location relative to the ship. Such a change in pitch is known as the Doppler effect and is like the differing pitch of a train's horn as it passes you. This kind of navigational system is not complicated by bad weather and is far more exact than celestial observation.
Submarines no longer have to surface to determine their location ships can be more certain about hitting a target when firing a missile at any point on the globe. Ships of the United States Navy may be sure their position hundreds of miles from land. Even the safety of individual citizens in the United States is part of the computer age. One of the earliest systems which used computers in real time was the Air Force's sage complex sage or a semi-automatic ground environment was devised as a part of the air defense command of the United States. Every
moving object in the air and around the United States was put under surveillance and identified as hostile or friendly by means of this system. Now see AJ has joined the North American Air Defense Command or nor add to detect and deter a possible attack nor that has gathered the skills of Canadian and American armed forces to come for ten point five million square miles which housed 200 million people. No ad spots more than 100000 aircraft daily in this air space and from 600 to 1000 of these aircraft approached this continent from beyond our borders. In addition normal Add must keep tally of more than 1300 man created objects in orbit. How can such a job be handled. Army Lieutenant Colonel Jim Lee is the chief of the information for NORAD's explains the means to this end. The primary method to detect aircraft can
of course is by radar. The northernmost might have radar to call but just generally want to hear tonight. Any aircraft then flying from Europe or Asia on a great circle rapidly toward Catherine. The state would have to cross the July and I would probably be detected there. All of the populated portion of Canada and most of the continental U.S. United States and is also covered by overlapping blankets of radar which we call can take us coverage also off our east and west coast and over the Florida straits we have on constant 24 hour patrol airborne radar stations which are easy 121 aircraft made by Lockheed. They have about five radar report with these. Then we can extend the whining capacities for several hundred miles off our east and west west coast and watch all air activity over Cuba for example.
But if a hostile missile does approach North America how does a computer help detect and deter this script and why are computers necessary in this process. The threat of attack from intercontinental ballistic missile whose time of flight would be on the order of 30 or 35 minutes from launching bases in Europe or in Asia against targets in Canada or the United States. A man made a manual system probably is impossible. After all these ballistic missiles travel at close to seventeen thousand five hundred miles per hour it's absolutely essential then that in our decision making process. We get as much open possible up in front of them by computers which can act in real time. There is no delay between the receipt of information and their insertion of that information. The circuitry in the project to get that information to give us our answers. Our computers take a look at a missile shortly after its launch from Europe or Asia and plodding along a little trajectory could tell us where that missile was launched from. Also by
taking the characteristics of at minimum sampling at it it is a proceed along that path. We can predict the course that that missile will take and with reasonable accuracy predict where that warhead if it can continue to follow that that path will impact at what time a woman now no human being has no room for human beings arm with slide rules and calculating could possibly want information at the same time have an automated ballistic missile early warning that French lieutenant colonel Mathieson continues his explanation of NORAD's use of computers in daily work archive our computers. Cars are human brains drawing a great deal of information which might be necessary to call upon during the course of a date activities for example take the case of the eight hundred twelve hundred planes coming from from outside of the garden then no one could remember that all these lights or do or what their characteristics should be.
Therefore we extrapolate from international flight plans which are carefully is literally filed by all international flight the information we need and this information is stored in our computer memory circuits. Then we get an aircraft flight only approaching the continent which does not correlate or match up with the information that our computers feel it should match. Then we may very well generate what is in our terms called a track or an unknown track in the event of an unknown track and there are certain steps we take we need to be let out to attempt to contact the aircraft by radar and by voice communication with the pilot so that perhaps it might weigh in or explain why it is not on board. If that fails we cannot then to establish or to communicate. We may have to scramble a pair of jet interceptors. They are flying so the pilots make blather and literally fly alongside our craft and take a look at it. And on the spot.
I await such functions of computers at NORAD's are only the beginning of the list. Countless other tasks are being carried on by computers at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex. Help help us to control our communications. Somebody help them help us determine exactly what the status of our forces are what we have ready and where to what amounts and how quickly they can respond. I don't store information on the number of aircraft types that are currently over flying us. How do you others are used to simulate exercises so that we may train and test our forces at a still of a drive. Visual equipment. Which sorts the tens of thousands of bits of information we get daily from our state system and other systems and then put it into usable pictorial form and put protection on large screens so that our command staff can make a decision that still others. Help us track catalog in particular but for all the manmade satellites that
explain around the earth. Even in the battlefield the armed forces are adding computers to their arsenal of weapons. A command in the field will soon utilize a portable computer which will give him information about weather conditions logistics transport roads troop movements and other factors of the battlefield. A recent issue of military review explained the value of such a fund of information. It stated the selection of a course of action is based on an estimate of the situation he estimate is always comprised of certain specific considerations. Much of that is repeated of portion of the estimation process can probably be given over to the computer allowing the commander to concentrate on those items that are unique to the particular situation. Just as the sounds of war can be simulated So can the conditions. Computers can take
factors that are being judged in the field before decisions are made and mock up similar situations in training centers emergencies can be handled by inexperienced men but with no catastrophic mistakes because the entire situation is imaginary and exists only within the computer. Thus commanders can lead troops into battle in these war games and make important decisions about tactics size of attacks strength of enemy forces and armament levels. These war games incur no cost except computer time and programming. What does this mean to the average citizen. It ensures that Armed Forces officials have had intensive training in all kinds of emergency situations even nuclear techs. It cuts expenditures on wargames which use up ammunition and other defense supplies both in terms of protection and in terms of cost reduction the average citizen benefits but his use of computers in the armed forces. Today do not follow has revealed a new kind of warfare. War without
Manning computers have been used to pilot aircraft and navigate submarines and simulate atomic attacks on the next program and this series will discuss the hard world of dollars and cents calculated by today's computer each week. The University of Illinois radio service brings you a new meaning behind the slogan of the computer a do not fold band staple or mutilate this card. This program was distributed by the national educational radio network.
Do Not Fold
Episode Number
Producing Organization
University of Illinois
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Series Description
"Do Not Fold" is a program about the growing applications of computer technology. Each episode focuses on how different professions and sectors are using computers to explore new possibilities in their line of work. Interviewees discuss how they are incorporating new technology into their work, what these innovations mean for the future of their field, and how they may affect the general public.
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Producer: Johnson, Jiffy
Producing Organization: University of Illinois
Production Designer: Haney, Edna
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 69-19-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:28:46
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Chicago: “Do Not Fold; 2,” 1969-03-24, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 25, 2024,
MLA: “Do Not Fold; 2.” 1969-03-24. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 25, 2024. <>.
APA: Do Not Fold; 2. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from