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it's cs we will get some are staying in a boarding house in guatemala bit benjamin lundy and the two black abolitionist william hawkins and jacob green our watkins is quite well known he writes to dance or colonize a shown as quote a colored baltimore and in freedom's channel which is a black abolitionist they go ok it is very very difficult to prove he gets it gets two very important ideas from african american abolitionist out like watkins and baltimore james ford and in philadelphia and that is
his criticism of colonization as a racist movement as not a genuinely anti slavery movement and he gets this notion that the united states should be remade into an interracial democracy because african americans in rejecting colonize a show and i'm not asking to remain in slavery or put secondhand citizenship data mining for political equality to do some back to extremely important points that garrison gets from hayes encounters a wave of black abolitionist and free blacks and various northern cities when guest is jailed for life
no harm the people in his cell all mostly slaves slaves being held as punishment or slaves being held to be shipped down south in the domestic slave trade and ghana's ten they're really in khan to slavery face to face for the first time as such he has seen sales people you know he's been exposed and i say we sentence but actually meeting about with a slave men and women being held in wretched conditions faced a separation from families and communities are i think that's when gas realize just how enormous the evildoers and he is done to the court as being he actually says that he's ashamed that he hasn't done more about slavery at its as if he realizes that most white americans i'll be libya's to this enormous
suffering and she owed just the enormity of slavery and i think that was again one of those transformative experiences that he had like his encounter with ninety or his encounter with that abolitionists this is interesting i think he realizes that in order for abolition to takeoff white americans need to be awakened that few white americans like ham who can completely empathize and identifies with the plight
of african americans needed to bring attention to their plight now benjamin landy who's a minute man and abolitionists had already been roughed up on the streets of baltimore for being an abolitionist so garrison knew the risks he was taking he hints self was imprisoned for light bill for calling attention to the center of unseemly dealings of a slave trader i guess since he's the definition also freedom of speech freedom of the press but he realizes that in order for the abolition over to takeoff white americans need to be involved on that african americans in fact have been protesting these conditions since the inception of the republic but that he needed a new abolition movement to encounter this second slavery that the united states was experiencing
the fans jail while for the discourse and so as olson student loan servicers yes sir what isn't as well i think today we have a much stronger because his
conception of these rights freedom of speech freedom of press freedom of assembly that it was not as if these rights were unknown everyone revered the constitution and a lot of americans revered the bill of rights those first ten amendments to the constitution that ensured these rights and when the federalists violated this object has said and jeffersonian republicans rose in defense of the freedom of speech and press already in the eighteenth century so these issues with egg maybe not as well articulated as we have them today but it was not as if they did not exist there was a discourse are armed civil rights and political rights and civil liberties at the united states as a public hadn't country had in fact adopted and right from the moment of adopting the constitution the abolitionists gained their first converts amongst white americans
actually were the very issues of civil liberties and the violation art the freedom of speech freedom of the press assembly when abolitionists are attacked in the north are now marked constantly their prices are destroyed ardent when they begin their massive petition campaign using the us mail us postal system on though ismail centre fear to a bird and they have the sanction of state governments of the federal government and a lot of people like garrett smith william j descended crom you know the famous revolution family on the people upset really enchanting they are moderate anti slavery men and they're upset that slavery and so violently challenge their rights of white men off white man's democracy so
abolitionists and actually ironically games its first life disappearance and then all over the show civil liberties over the violation of the us federal mail or the phone of course to hank gas and it imprisoned hamm well a mob attacks against abolitionists and the first converts the first early converts to get sonia some as it would come to be known we're actually white americans were extremely disturbed at the violent reaction to the abolitionists some may not have even sympathize with that message but date did not want to tolerate such open my patients of seven of the case were so who was
were one of them when guests end up against printing been a parade on january first at thirty one his subscribers are predominantly african american two thirds of the subscribers african americans his agents are predominantly african american these agents for the newspapers who you know got new subscribers aren't the people who seem to skew immediately and adopt hayes so uncompromising rhetoric against slavery and to praise him for taking such a strong stance against colonization and for black equality i'm african american so in its initial years actually collaborator as carson himself put it apple was the newspaper of the colored people he says the support at white men to not as deliberate aquinas more
subscribers and by the end of the decade it has or two thousand subscribers aren't even then a strong minority remain african american they remained loyal to that paper so i guess since in may show supporters are african american and he's often mistaken for a black man and he sees that as the highest compliment to his work and he goes to england and he meets the thomas fall buxton the british abolitionists and parliamentarian and buxton is astonished he looked at garrison and he said and i'm are you sure you begin with garrison and i guess it says yesterday's as i was taught to a black man and tear gas and said i'll take that as a compliment and did this are not just happen to him once backed a couple times in the early days yesterday
in eighteen thirty bed bed he has actually moved to its immediate isn't and is making these speeches against colonization is audiences are mainly african american the supreme court and in a way he replicate a little bit of levity spot to he does get some white supporters that happened for instance gives them a hundred dollars and not only does he bailed gessen out of the jail and out of portable city jail but he also gives him money seed money to start the library there are disorders james fourteen they're wealthy black abolitionist a sail maker from philadelphia gives and fifty four dollars and twenty two new subscribers com so he goes to new haven then
they're sunni and jocelyn as a girl one of the early white comets to immediate hazem and that he's a minister to a black congregation i'm so he does acquire some white supporters early on that the mass base of immediate as i'm in the early eighties hip easy to add thirty one is a month's free blacks and gas and knows that he published as his address to prevent people that he has repeatedly and northern cities where he publishes his pamphlet against colonization he includes the resolutions and meetings are free african americans in protest against the american colonization society as it forms these very important links with the black community at this point and in fact their support is crucial to the launching of deliberate and his movement it
is yes so samuel may assert unitarian minister who whom here's garrison and again it's one of those early converts to immediate his son ahmed me and that happens in many of garrison's and city early white common words that iraq taken aback by hayes the farm uncompromising militant language and the cricket show guess it always is that he set this rabbit fanatic and that his language is so provocative but in fact one of the things i'm guessing gets from african american abolitionist is not just a program against colonization and for black rights but also dan militant rhetoric if one reads black abolitionist like they would walk his appeal to the colored citizens of the world and eighteen twenty nine which guests
interviews at length in the first few issues of deliberate an unflattering a it's really reviewed anonymously so we do not know who reviews at a deliberate it carries these lengthy reviews of the appeal where he quotes from it will be a time many times are and that you can see that garrison adopts also the militants ties and the rhetoric of black abolitionism so when mia tap and china had for his harsh rhetoric he wrote he says that this sort of rhetoric is needed to literally combat the indifference doubled libya in which white americans are living completely blind to the existence off the enslavement off millions of black americans and that's why he says he has mountains of ice to melt scott fredrick f
bomb i'm i think he had needs head and jacki lyden beach and some others that while they important a religious faith as reformist because evangelical think that as in the audience and they're put off i guess it's rhetoric and they put off by even his stance on immediate his son and may feels that in garrison moderates his rhetoric a little bit he might win more converts amongst lights and garrison realizes that what america needs in that time is shock therapy they had to be shocked into realizing the enormity of slavery and there it's interesting that african americans never asked him to moderate that his language in fact they always say highly complementary things to hammers and his language his newspaper i'm glad tidings to
them they the buick said it that praise him and i think you know we've got stains guess said in his radicalism because all the wire that whites asking him to moderate his rhetoric he's getting exactly the opposite reaction from african americans i think that the south became very defensive after the publication of the gas since liberate her and not tennis rebellion and zapp more than this scared especially popular northerners like the mayor of boston harrison otis aka soprano waste that seven there should be so sensitive to gases use paper which is this morning's paper which did isner simply stays mainly subscribe to by african americans but it never turned his rebellion coming into heels
off for publication to liberate air and the heels of david walker's appeal which had been found amongst african americans in different port cities in the south up alarms southerners they feel as if they are going to be attacked from vivian and without and that if the abolitionists rhetoric lavish this ideas that will appeal to slaves you would get many more nat turner's and seven has made that link even though we do know and that link even existed on a seventy me there's no evidence that that china ever read garrisons newspaper me know walker's appeal that was in the vicinity there in virginia norfolk virginia the further up the man that i was out but there is no link bad the perception from a lot of the southerners as important i think it's also important to point out that our and the notion that southerners became in a tent about slavery in response to garrison
in response to the rise of the abolition movement or by that time his rebellion is not entirely true southerners had proven to be quite militant on the slavery question and the eighteen twenty is that there people in south carolina arguing that slavery must be defended at all costs it is at this time that you had the nullification crisis or the federal terror laws and south carolinian slave holders argue that if the federal government can pass tariff laws not to their liking they will next the next day abolish slavery soul that kind of very and so intransigent pro slavery stance that southerners talk in a way predates the rise of abolition i think many historians looking back have argued that southerners became more militant and defensive in response to abolition in fact a
thing abolition becomes more militant in response to southern intransigence well scientists have an enormous amount of property hedonistic than slavery on the side as ira began her sad slave societies in societies that depended on slavery is the mainstay of the economy of their societies and politics in these cases are very much you know formed around the protection of the institution ah so i think southerners realized the steak very early on and cheering the missouri crisis northerners astounded at some speeches defending slavery as an unmitigated good and you could even go back to the constitution to mention and find a handful here and there from georgia and south carolina defended slavery reading militancy and even the african slave trade
which everyone sort of agreed was pretty heinous so so it has i think very quickly at the turn of the century the stop the nineteenth century knew that slavery was what defined their society and certainly armed slaveholding politicians who tended to dominate the state governments of these areas pablo been quite unapologetically times in defending slavery armed by the eating twenties i think southerners react violently to innocuous petitions from quakers from three african americans demanding that the slave trade to be stopped or that week that's not be kidnapped into of the domestic slave trade which also happened regularly india would react pretty vehemently
to these very deferential minute petitions so the seven as they did not really differentiate in the tone of abolitionists and offer them any kind of anti slavery any kind of critique of slavery was a threat and they responded forcefully what was b i think a great poster campaign was away for abolitionists to test one of their major tactics and that was moral solution person waiting slave holders that what you're doing is wrong and that you should immediately stop at an abolitionist and advocated it was an abolitionist john rankin who had persuaded his own brother to stop by it and setting slaves wrote these letters and slavery and a
drum begin to conduct an underground railroad gas and discovered rankin published today his case again in the eighteenth haiti's only get any other armed mormon apostle ok ok all right so much that meets chess title again what it is los angeles the poster campaign was a way to illustrate the advocacy off moral suasion art of persuading slave holders that slavery was wrong i am dual garrison came up with the tactic of moral suasion it was really the tappet brothers the executive committee of the new yorker about the american anti slavery
society in new york city that actually puts that tactic into operation and it was he was ten men who is a good manager of the society who sort of fink's of this idea and it is the tap and fortune that finances at the publication about delicious packets and they decide to mail these pamphlets to southerners prominent southerners are asking them and to sort of understand that slavery is an evil that it was a say in an n and what's or crockery a crime against humanity i and faith he sent out these campus to the south and pretty soon i in charleston south carolina and garrison and tappan are being burned in effigy and what is a federal crime in the us mail is being interfered with and abolitionists literature is being
taken and buoyant and public squares and i think that shocked abolitionists the new southerners would oppose them they did not realize the depth of the opposition i think that they had like many people who were charter the indictment and optimistic view of human nature and a notion that verge of my triumph over sordid self interests it was perhaps a naive you that it was one that they needed to test and they realized in fact after the great poster campaign that they would not be able to convert southerners in herre about slavery in fact at the annual meeting of the anti slaving with meetings that's it sorry the annual meeting of the anti slavery society soon after garrett swear unambitious from upstate new york said why that's now should be concentrated on converting the north
because the north also had proven to be resistant the day abolitionists found but how ground with most nations and in fact one could argue that most of asia india and worked better in the north than it and i didn't discount it was also the southern response the powers that be in the south made sure that was the way she would not work because if the abolitionists were being mobbed in the north in the south abolitionists were being seen as akin to say rebels on they would be whipped as a more stress i was in nashville tenn hi baby talk there that imprisoned and threatened for speaking out against the abolition of the speaking out against slavery for opposition and so southerners made show that they would be no freedom speech on the issue of slavery in the south this is when the south sort of knows is itself completely on the issue of slave we owe you and you were
not putting your life into danger if you criticize slavery but by that time the south if you did you were taking a serious risk and it is the reason why the gritty sisters are forced to leave charleston south carolina in order to become a dish that's what he tried other southern abolitionists like james moroney a force in the south in order to join the abolition movement there would be no abolitionists in the south and in a way it was forcibly stamped out i am so maybe the abolitionists were being naive but it also explores the tyrannical and undemocratic nature of slavery for many northern whites who were bought into the message of publishers them again
American Experience
The Abolitionists
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Interview with Manisha Sinha, part 2 of 4
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Manisha Sinha is Professor of Afro-American Studies at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She is the author of "The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina" (University of North Carolina Press, 2000) and "To Live and Die in the Holy Cause: Abolition and the Origins of America's Interracial Democracy."
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American history, African Americans, civil rights, racism, abolition
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APA: American Experience; The Abolitionists; Interview with Manisha Sinha, part 2 of 4. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from