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<v Announcer>In commemoration of the nation's bicentennial, WOSU presents Ohio: <v Announcer>Tts people and Its Heritage. <v Speaker>I now look with amazement upon our audacity in attempting a flight with a <v Speaker>new and untried machine in a 27 mile wind. <v Speaker>[Airplane roars] <v Neil Armstrong>One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. <v Don Davis>A little over 60 miles separate Dayton from Wapakoneta and a little over <v Don Davis>60 years separate a pair of bicycle builders from a young engineer and test pilot. <v Don Davis>Many would find it a coincidence that the first man to walk on the moon grew up only an <v Don Davis>hour's drive from the inventors of powered flight. <v Don Davis>Yet our values, our goals, our perspectives on life are in large measure
<v Don Davis>molded by the people and traditions which form our heritage. <v Don Davis>The achievements of the Wright brothers and Neil Armstrong symbolize in a profound way <v Don Davis>the genius of the American spirit, a spirit of competitiveness and determination, <v Don Davis>a love of the applied and the pragmatic. <v Don Davis>Such a world view, if we may call it that, is not the only one possible or even the best <v Don Davis>one necessarily, for each both expands our horizon and limits <v Don Davis>our vision. In many respects, however, Ohio and its people have seemed <v Don Davis>to mirror this practical, individualistic view of the world, so <v Don Davis>much so that some observers have looked upon the Buckeye State as a microcosm of the <v Don Davis>nation. Does it, in fact, manifest this quality or have the remarkably <v Don Davis>diverse and at times contradictory forces in Ohio life, concentrated <v Don Davis>as they are in such a small geographic area, resulted in a culture distinctively <v Don Davis>different from the rest of the nation? <v Don Davis>Geography, history, politics and commerce all interact to produce a culture,
<v Don Davis>and it is that culture, that set of values and perspectives, which we will be examining <v Don Davis>in the next hour. <v Don Davis>Ohio is at once a great industrial and a great agricultural state. <v Don Davis>It leads the nation in the production of Bibles and business machines, cash registers <v Don Davis>and coffins, glassware and jet aircraft engines, machine tools, playing <v Don Davis>cards, vacuum cleaners, footballs and police whistles. <v Don Davis>It is second in iron, steel and autos. <v Don Davis>Yet Ohio is also a major producer of agricultural products. <v Don Davis>Ranking 9 out of the 50 states, the Ohio State Fair - vestige <v Don Davis>of an earlier more pastoral era - is the largest annual exposition of its kind <v Don Davis>in the world. Well, at least Ohioans say that. <v Don Davis>John Gunther once wrote that basically Ohio is nothing more nor less <v Don Davis>than a giant carpet of agriculture studded by great cities. <v Don Davis>In the years since Gunther made that observation, the size of the cities has increased. <v Don Davis>But unlike other highly urban areas, Ohio is noted for its strong
<v Don Davis>republican tradition. <v Don Davis>Ohio has produced no less than eight presidents. <v Don Davis>None of them rated any better than average and innumerable scientists and engineers, <v Don Davis>some of them considered among the most influential intellects in American history. <v Don Davis>To understand all of these paradoxical relationships and how they came to be, <v Don Davis>it's necessary to focus on the early history of the state and its geographical <v Don Davis>characteristics. <v Don Davis>Ohio was the first state to be carved out of the Northwest Territory. <v Don Davis>Joining the union in 1803. <v Don Davis>Scattered bands of Englishmen had settled in the region long before, and it was their <v Don Davis>clashes with the Indians and later with the French that led to George Washington's <v Don Davis>expedition into the area in 1753. <v Don Davis>But it was not until after the revolution that what was to become Ohio began <v Don Davis>to develop rapidly. <v Don Davis>Ohio State University history professor Richard Hopkins: <v Richard Hopkins>Early population settlement in Ohio had a lot to do, I think, <v Richard Hopkins>with the development of politics, because Ohio was
<v Richard Hopkins>the first state that was produced by the, well, <v Richard Hopkins>maybe I ought to call the American colonial or territorial system. <v Richard Hopkins>And it was carved up into a number of land grants. <v Richard Hopkins>The Western Reserve was probably the most famous of these that was granted to <v Richard Hopkins>the residents of Connecticut, the state of Connecticut, which granted it to a Connecticut <v Richard Hopkins>land company, a private company that paid a million dollars or something like that. <v Richard Hopkins>And consequently, the Western Reserve area is very heavily New England oriented <v Richard Hopkins>almost from the very beginning. <v Richard Hopkins>The area from Columbus southward between the Scioto River and the Miami River <v Richard Hopkins>was known as as the Virginia military tract. <v Richard Hopkins>And so that was settled by Revolutionary War veterans or those who bought up the <v Richard Hopkins>the warrants of those Revolutionary War veterans from Virginia and <v Richard Hopkins>was heavily dominated by Virginians who came here often by way of Kentucky, <v Richard Hopkins>the so-called Chillocothe junto or perhaps more appropriately,
<v Richard Hopkins>the Chillicothe gang that dominated early state politics <v Richard Hopkins>in Ohio after 1803, when Ohio became a state, um, was centered <v Richard Hopkins>in this Virginia military tract. <v Speaker>And as a matter of fact, Chillicothe, the I believe it was the capital of the state for a <v Speaker>while. <v Richard Hopkins>For a while, it was. Um, people often think of Virginians as planters. <v Richard Hopkins>You know, they're the great farmers, the dirt farmers. <v Richard Hopkins>But if you look at why there was a good deal of the controversy at the end of the <v Richard Hopkins>territorial period in Ohio, in the beginning of the statehood period, it turns out <v Richard Hopkins>that all of these Virginians wanted to build homes. <v Richard Hopkins>And there was a great struggle to see which of these homes, Chillocothe or <v Richard Hopkins>some of the other ones would become the state capital. <v Richard Hopkins>And that was a very important part of the struggle between the so-called Democrats, <v Richard Hopkins>the Democratic Republicans, the Jeffersonian Party, and the Federalists. <v Don Davis>The first organized settlement in the Northwest Territory was Marietta on the Ohio River. <v Don Davis>Mrs. B.F. Rider of the Campus Martius Museum in Marietta, describes
<v Don Davis>early life there. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Marietta was the first permanent settlement in the Northwest Territory. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>It was established in 1788 by a group of New Englanders <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>who came out under the Ohio Company and Associates to <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>take land in this new country and payment for their service in the <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Revolutionary War. They had been paid off in <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>continental currency, which depreciated in value, and <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>by exchanging the currency for land, they got more of an equivalent <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>for their service. And each share of stock in the Ohio company <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>cost one thousand dollars in Continental script and ten <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>dollars in actual cash. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And for that they received one lot here at the Ford, three acres out <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>in town and eight acres in the county and all drawn by <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>lottery so there wouldn't be any favoritism of any kind. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Now the town of Marietta was planted over in New England
<v Mrs. B.F. Rider>before the settlers actually came. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And so when they had their drawing, uh, in July <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>after the settlement was made, the town was already planted <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>and we have the original drawing of that plan. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>The settlers landed on the 7th of April, 1788, <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>and there were forty eight in the party under the supervision of General <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Rufus Putnam. And uh the uh vote <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>was tied up at the mouth of the Muskingum. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>The settlers came on land, were met by a group of Indians who were friendly <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>at that time, and, uh, Putnam to apartand <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Markey that he had salvaged from Burgoyne's Army and established <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>that as his headquarters and being a surveyor, he laid out the town <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>along the lines that he thought would be right. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And Washington Street was a wider street and the main street of the town.
<v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And that was designated as a business street and Campus Martius, <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>the fort which was to be built as a protection against the Indians, was located <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>on Washington Street near the river. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>The ordinance, as it was set up, provided that <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>all public buildings should be west of the mound on Fifth Street. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Now, that was one of the relics of the mound builders that have been built in seven <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>hundred, approximately 700 A.D.. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>The ordinance was rescinded later because there were no roads and all <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>the traffic was by river. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>So they came down and established their business <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>section down near the river, which was low ground, of course. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And that's the reason Mariota has been hampered by floods all these years. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>In 1823, while Putnam was still living, the ordinance was rescinded <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>and the courthouse was built down on the low ground. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And of course, business followed the courthouse and closed down.
<v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Now the, um, the fort was one hundred and eighty feet square. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>It housed 50 to 60 families. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>That would be three or four hundred people. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And it was considered the strongest one west of the mountains. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>The, uh, one blockhouse, the one on the southeast <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>corner was kept for new families, and anybody that had no <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>place to stay could lodge there until they had a chance to find a place <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>or to build a cabin of some sort. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>The one on the south east corner was occupied <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>by Governor Arthur St. Clair and his family, and the <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>one on the southwest corner, no, northwest corner, <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>belong to the Ohio Company and was kept for any new- <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>or any sort of a public bill meeting. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>They drilled there. They had the church services there. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>And American Union Lodge No. 1 of the Masons was organized in that building.
<v Mrs. B.F. Rider>Any social events were held there and it was more or less of a community center. <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>On that building they hung the bell was sent by Marie-Antoinette <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>because Marietta was named in her honor and she percent this bell <v Mrs. B.F. Rider>to be hung in the tower of the first public building. <v Folk Singer>"Ohio River, she's so deep and wide, I can't see my poor gal on the other side." <v Don Davis>The westward movement of pioneers was met by strong resistance from the Indians in the
<v Don Davis>Northwest Territory, particularly Ohio. <v Don Davis>In the early 1800s, Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, first won notice <v Don Davis>on the turbulent frontier as an orator of great persuasive ability, representing <v Don Davis>the redmen in consoles with the whites. <v Don Davis>His travels took him from New York to the northern Wisconsin region and as far <v Don Davis>west as present day Arkansas. Denouncing as invalid all treaties <v Don Davis>by which Indians gave up their lands,Tecumseh condemned the chiefs who signed them, <v Don Davis>and in most tribes was able to obtain recruits and aid for a stand against the white <v Don Davis>settlers. This activity alarmed the settlers, for they believed and historians <v Don Davis>have recorded that the Indians had considerable support from the British in Canada. <v Don Davis>In November 1811, an American force led by Gen. <v Don Davis>William Henry Harrison was attacked by a band of Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe. <v Don Davis>The discovery of British guns on the battlefield, increased anxieties and pressures <v Don Davis>in Congress to drive the British out of Canada.
<v Don Davis>But equally important, perhaps, was the desire for more land belonging to the <v Don Davis>Indians. When war finally broke out in 1812 <v Don Davis>Tecumseh had assembled one of the most formidable forces ever commanded by an Indian <v Don Davis>and was actually given the rank of brigadier general in the British Army. <v Don Davis>The story of Tecumseh is commemorated in an outdoor drama presented each <v Don Davis>summer in the town of Chillacothe in south central Ohio. <v Don Davis>Anthony Pasentino, who plays Tecumseh, is a student of the Indian leader's life <v Don Davis>and describes his role in the War of 1812. <v Anthony Pasentino>When the War of 1812 broke out Tecumseh saw that as an <v Anthony Pasentino>opportunity that would never come, that would never come <v Anthony Pasentino>again in his lifetime, because the British - while <v Anthony Pasentino>they may have been lacking in some other things at times, tended <v Anthony Pasentino>to honor the treaties more than the Americans did, <v Anthony Pasentino>and the Indians had always had a higher regard for the British than for the Americans.
<v Anthony Pasentino>And, um, after <v Anthony Pasentino>the Tippecanoe business, which didn't really <v Anthony Pasentino>destroy all that much, Tecumseh's dream, yes, the town- the <v Anthony Pasentino>prophet's town was destroyed, but it <v Anthony Pasentino>didn't actually destroy what Tecumseh was trying to do. <v Anthony Pasentino>So soon after that, the War of 1812 broke out. <v Anthony Pasentino>Tecumseh went to the British. <v Anthony Pasentino>There was a British general there who was- we worked with for a <v Anthony Pasentino>year, year and a half was very good. <v Anthony Pasentino>Listened to him. And it was a whole string of victories there. <v Anthony Pasentino>Um, running the Great Lakes region <v Anthony Pasentino>until that officer was killed. <v Anthony Pasentino>The officer who replaced that general was a no good <v Anthony Pasentino>and an incompetent. In one case, there was a fort that surrendered
<v Anthony Pasentino>where this general gave his word that the prisoners <v Anthony Pasentino>would not be tortured, would not be robbed, would not be killed or anything like that. <v Anthony Pasentino>And Tecumseh was away at the time. <v Anthony Pasentino>And when he came back, he found that some of the Indians <v Anthony Pasentino>had killed like about twenty of these captives. <v Anthony Pasentino>And Tecumseh blew his stack. <v Anthony Pasentino>And he had no use for this British general after that. <v Anthony Pasentino>But he was really he was really stuck with him. <v Anthony Pasentino>And it was with this general that he wound up fighting as his last battle. <v Anthony Pasentino>This general would keep retreating and retreating and retreating. <v Anthony Pasentino>And Tecumseh kept demanding that he stand and fight. <v Anthony Pasentino>Finally, it it really- Tecumseh came to the end of his tether and he said, well, you <v Anthony Pasentino>know, if you don't you don't stand and fight with me, <v Anthony Pasentino>we'll abandon you. <v Anthony Pasentino>So they stood and they fought and, um, the
<v Anthony Pasentino>British- the British, uh, fell apart completely <v Anthony Pasentino>or were broken immediately, whereas the Indians on their end of the line <v Anthony Pasentino>broke this cavalry charge that was coming against them and put up quite a resistance. <v Anthony Pasentino>But Tecumseh at one point was killed and his body was never found. <v Anthony Pasentino>And the Indians just sort of melted away. <v Speaker>[Sad music plays] <v Don Davis>As the Indians were pushed further and further westward and peace was restored, settlers <v Don Davis>poured into Ohio. For many, it was only an interlude on the way to Indiana, <v Don Davis>Illinois and beyond. But many chose to stay. <v Don Davis>The Buckeye State's rich farmlands encouraged agriculture, but more significant for later <v Don Davis>development was its strategic geographical position.
<v Don Davis>Commerce from the south and West was made easier by the Ohio River, while the Appalachian <v Don Davis>Mountains, acting as a barrier to manufactured goods produced in the east, encouraged the <v Don Davis>development of industry in the state. <v Don Davis>Added to these factors was an abundance of raw materials such as coal, iron and lumber. <v Don Davis>Cincinnati became the first great metropolis of the West, with a population of almost <v Don Davis>120,000 by 1850, and its location on the Ohio River, <v Don Davis>in effect, gave it access to New Orleans and markets abroad. <v Speaker>["The Lily of the West" by Joan Baez plays]
<v Stanley Lindbergh>For over 75 years, uh, approximately, well, <v Stanley Lindbergh>the estimates vary, but approximately 50 to 75 percent of the American <v Stanley Lindbergh>people learned to read from the McGuffy Readers, and in many cases, <v Stanley Lindbergh>the only books in the home where the Bible and the McGuffey Readers. <v Stanley Lindbergh>So they did have a tremendous impact in shaping three, four generations. <v Stanley Lindbergh>In my opinion, they formed the consciousness of what we now call mid America. <v Don Davis>Born in Pennsylvania, William Holmes McGuffy died in Virginia. <v Don Davis>But while he lived in Ohio, he wrote a series of text books that eventually sold <v Don Davis>over 120 million copies. <v Speaker>Dr. Stanley Lindbergh of Ohio University in Athens:. <v Stanley Lindbergh>The New England textbooks were, I think, of a higher literary quality. <v Stanley Lindbergh>They were also moralistic and all the textbooks in the 19th century <v Stanley Lindbergh>were. In the McGuffy Readers there are certain basic <v Stanley Lindbergh>moral qualities that are constantly being stressed, such qualities as
<v Stanley Lindbergh>honesty, self-reliance, <v Stanley Lindbergh>self-discipline, religious faith. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And a lot of these these qualities were stressed in addition to <v Stanley Lindbergh>such things as uh industry, that is, self-industry, <v Stanley Lindbergh>the drive that an individual should have. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And work- work was was <v Stanley Lindbergh>sacred. That and property. <v Stanley Lindbergh>Property's all important. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And McGuffy Readers, you're taught from the very first lesson not to meddle <v Stanley Lindbergh>with other people's property. <v Stanley Lindbergh>This is the very important thing. You don't meddle with other people's property. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And I think they stress things like that more than the New England readers did. <v Stanley Lindbergh>They avoided certain things that the New England readers dealt with. <v Stanley Lindbergh>Issues such as slavery are virtually ignored in the McGuffy Readers. <v Stanley Lindbergh>This would've hurt them in the southern market.
<v Stanley Lindbergh>When they are dealt with, they're dealt with allegorically. <v Stanley Lindbergh>How does a little bird feel to be caged? <v Stanley Lindbergh>They claim to be nonsectarian. <v Stanley Lindbergh>By nonsectarian, they mean they do not particularly favor one <v Stanley Lindbergh>Protestant denomination over the other. <v Stanley Lindbergh>They clearly are Protestant textbooks, and there are some <v Stanley Lindbergh>fairly subtle biases against Catholics <v Stanley Lindbergh>and Jews, most of which, however, are cleaned out. <v Stanley Lindbergh>They do become all American textbooks. <v Stanley Lindbergh>They are better than a lot of 19th century textbooks in that respect. <v Stanley Lindbergh>But, well, for instance, as a practice exercise iin articulation <v Stanley Lindbergh>would be a long list of sentences before the textbook ever gets started, before <v Stanley Lindbergh>you get to the lessons. And mixed in with those sentences there, there's <v Stanley Lindbergh>a sentence like he detests all papists. <v Stanley Lindbergh>Well, this may teach you how to enunciate clearly, but it also is influencing
<v Stanley Lindbergh>you in other ways as a student. <v Stanley Lindbergh>McGuffy's idea was that the textbooks needed to be more practical. <v Stanley Lindbergh>They needed to be things that students could relate to. <v Stanley Lindbergh>He had a good Scotch Presbyterian attitude <v Stanley Lindbergh>toward education. <v Stanley Lindbergh>He did not believe in coddling a child. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And as a matter of fact in the author's preface to the first edition - <v Stanley Lindbergh>I have it here. <v Stanley Lindbergh>This is- this is a direct quote. Speaking of McGuffy himself, he has long <v Stanley Lindbergh>been of opinion that a mischievous error pervades the public mind on the subject <v Stanley Lindbergh>of juvenile understanding. <v Stanley Lindbergh>Nothing is so difficult to be understood as nonsense. <v Stanley Lindbergh>Nothing so clear and easy to be comprehended as the simplicity <v Stanley Lindbergh>of wisdom. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And the selections are fairly tough in those early readers. <v Stanley Lindbergh>As a matter of fact, the publishers subsequently upgraded a number <v Stanley Lindbergh>of the lessons, moving them first from the second to the third reader,
<v Stanley Lindbergh>then the third to the fourth. A number of the selections that ultimately end up in the <v Stanley Lindbergh>fifth reader started out as as second or third reader selections. <v Stanley Lindbergh>And they were tough. They were tough. <v Speaker>[Upbeat melody plays] <v Don Davis>That familiar melody will forever be identified with the South. <v Don Davis>Ironically, however, it was written by an Ohioan, Daniel Decatur <v Don Davis>Emmett for his traveling minstrel group, lying as it did on the border between the <v Don Davis>influences of north and south, Ohio, supported pro-slavery sentiments <v Don Davis>and at the same time was sympathetic to the abolitionists. <v Richard Hopkins>If you start at Lake Erie, you find the social attitudes being much more favorable <v Richard Hopkins>to the abolitionist and favorable to the black. <v Richard Hopkins>Nobody really- well, I won't say, that's too strong. <v Richard Hopkins>Very few people wanted equality. Considered the black and white to be equal in those
<v Richard Hopkins>days. But the abolitionists in the northern part of the state, especially the Western <v Richard Hopkins>Reserve, tended to be far more toward the equality end of the spectrum <v Richard Hopkins>than anyone else. <v Richard Hopkins>And the farther you go toward the Ohio River, the more toward the other end. <v Richard Hopkins>The complete separation end of the spectrum you come from Cincinnati <v Richard Hopkins>dominated the southern part of the state because of its trading. <v Richard Hopkins>It was the metropolis of southern Ohio. <v Richard Hopkins>And Cincinnati's trade connections were largely with the south. <v Richard Hopkins>The south was very important in Cincinnati's trade and commerce. <v Richard Hopkins>And consequently, the southern part of the state was fairly sympathetic <v Richard Hopkins>toward the southern cause. Cincinnati being something of a leader there. <v Richard Hopkins>Moreover, the Virginians who settled in the Virginia military tract <v Richard Hopkins>carried a lot of those attitudes. It's often been said that the Virginians who <v Richard Hopkins>settled in Ohio were abolitionist Virginians, and in a sense, that's true. <v Richard Hopkins>They didn't want to own slaves themselves. But on the other hand, they were not willing
<v Richard Hopkins>at all to interfere with the rights of others to own slaves. <v Richard Hopkins>They vote on the Ohio. <v Richard Hopkins>The provision in the Ohio Constitution that outlawed slavery was carried by <v Richard Hopkins>only one vote against slavery. <v Richard Hopkins>And there was a fugitive slave law in the state of Ohio. <v Richard Hopkins>It was written into the Northwest Ordinance that there would be no slavery in the <v Richard Hopkins>Northwest Territory. So really, the constitutional convention that met in <v Richard Hopkins>1882 to consider Ohio's constitution didn't have an awful lot of choice. <v Richard Hopkins>It could have argued the situation in Congress, but the chances were since <v Richard Hopkins>the congressional law, the federal law said no, slavery in Ohio <v Richard Hopkins>was part of the Northwest Ordinance Territories, that it <v Richard Hopkins>probably would not have gotten through had Ohio wanted slavery. <v Richard Hopkins>But there seems to be evidence that Southerners didn't want the Northwest Territories to <v Richard Hopkins>have slavery, because then there would be more economic competition <v Richard Hopkins>from this area with the South. <v Don Davis>By 1835, Ohio had the second largest number of
<v Don Davis>abolitionists of any state in the union. <v Don Davis>But perhaps more significant for the course of future events was the period of 18 years <v Don Davis>spent in Cincinnati by Harriet Beecher Stowe, observing slavery <v Don Davis>across the Ohio River and being exposed to the Underground Railroad left indelible <v Don Davis>impressions on her, which formed the basis for Uncle Tom's Cabin. <v Don Davis>The book sold more than 300,000 copies the first year, and its impact <v Don Davis>may be gleaned from Abraham Lincoln's greeting upon meeting Mrs. Stowe years later: "So <v Don Davis>you're the little woman who started the big war." When war came, <v Don Davis>a third of a million Ohioans joined the Union Army and many were led by other Ohioans. <v Don Davis>Grant, Sherman and a younger general who was to achieve greater fame later, Custer. <v Don Davis>Ulysses Grant is not usually rated as a superior strategist. <v Don Davis>In fact, he once summarized his military philosophy this way: The art <v Don Davis>of war is simple enough. Find out where your enemy is. <v Don Davis>Get at him as soon as you can and as often as you can and keep moving on.
<v Don Davis>Much criticism was leveled at Grant because of the heavy losses suffered by his armies, <v Don Davis>but it was he, after many others had failed, who forced Lee to surrender <v Don Davis>at Appomattox in April 1865. <v Don Davis>The period after the Civil War was, for Ohio, a watershed, both in its <v Don Davis>development as a major industrial region and and its influence in national politics. <v Don Davis>Historian Richard Hopkins: <v Richard Hopkins>The industrial revolution really begins around the period of the Civil War <v Richard Hopkins>and takes off after the war is over. <v Richard Hopkins>It's underway before, but it really begins to gather strengthand the factory system, <v Richard Hopkins>begins to appear with large numbers of employees in single locations. <v Richard Hopkins>The beginnings of a rude assembly line, that sort of thing. <v Richard Hopkins>And then John D. Rockefeller uses his Cleveland base <v Richard Hopkins>to build up Standard Oil, which really is the first non railroad large <v Richard Hopkins>corporation in America. <v Richard Hopkins>And he builds that into the first real trust in America in the 1880s.
<v Richard Hopkins>Um, the rubber industry gets <v Richard Hopkins>a start in Ohio, fairly near Cleveland and Akron in the Akron area, athe <v Richard Hopkins>end of the 80s. And then Henry Ford's invention in the early 20th century <v Richard Hopkins>really pushes the rubber industry ahead. <v Richard Hopkins>Prior to that time, rubber was not a very important item. <v Richard Hopkins>Once the automobile and the truck come along, then the rubber industry becomes a very <v Richard Hopkins>central part of the industrialization in Ohio. <v Richard Hopkins>Industrialization tends to be located - if we're talking about industrialization <v Richard Hopkins>as manufacturing of finished products - tends to be located in the northeastern, north <v Richard Hopkins>central area from Cleveland, we'll say from west of Cleveland, now Toledo, all the way <v Richard Hopkins>across through the Youngstown Mahoning Valley area and in <v Richard Hopkins>Cincinnati. Cincinnati started it, but then Cleveland <v Richard Hopkins>really took over. By 1900 Cleveland had surpassed Cincinnati in population.
<v Richard Hopkins>In part, it was due to the fortunate location of Cleveland being a lake port, <v Richard Hopkins>so that the Mesabi range iron ore could be brought in to Cleveland on <v Richard Hopkins>Great Lakes boats, and the coal of the Mahoning Valley area and from <v Richard Hopkins>western Pennsylvania and West Virginia could be brought into the Cleveland Mahoning <v Richard Hopkins>Valley area. And the fortunate location produced the steel industry in <v Richard Hopkins>that vicinity. <v Richard Hopkins>And that's really kind of the basis for the industrialization process. <v Richard Hopkins>Now, the people who moved in to this <v Richard Hopkins>industrialized area really moved in in largest numbers <v Richard Hopkins>after about 1880, 1885, and they were <v Richard Hopkins>what is known as the new immigration. <v Richard Hopkins>There were some the Irish and Germans in the area, but the larger percentage <v Richard Hopkins>came from Southern and Eastern Europe. <v Richard Hopkins>And they worked in the steel mills. <v Richard Hopkins>They worked in the other factories that were growing up around the steel industry and the
<v Richard Hopkins>rubber industry. <v Richard Hopkins>And that has had some rather <v Richard Hopkins>striking effects. For example, if you look at the the vote on the constitutional <v Richard Hopkins>amendment to permit the state lottery, what, three years ago now <v Richard Hopkins>you'll discover that the Cleveland- the county that Cleveland is in, Cuyahoga County <v Richard Hopkins>voted 80 percent in favor of having a state lottery. <v Richard Hopkins>Columbus, by contrast, which has a relatively small immigrant background <v Richard Hopkins>in population, is much heavier in terms of white collar Native American <v Richard Hopkins>WASP sort of attitudes. <v Richard Hopkins>Franklin County, Columbus, voted only about 56 percent <v Richard Hopkins>in favor. It was the lowest of all of the major metropolitan areas in terms of its <v Richard Hopkins>favorable vote for the state lottery. <v Richard Hopkins>Cleveland was the heaviest. Cincinnati, again, with a large immigrant population <v Richard Hopkins>background was the second heaviest, with something where in the neighborhood of I've <v Richard Hopkins>forgotten 74, 70, 73 percent in favor of the lottery.
<v Richard Hopkins>Summit County, the Akron-Canton area, was very close <v Richard Hopkins>behind Cleveland and Cincinnati. <v Richard Hopkins>And it's a favorable vote for the state lottery. <v Richard Hopkins>So I think that very well illustrates a lotteries gambling. <v Richard Hopkins>And in the good New England background, middle Atlantic <v Richard Hopkins>background, Native American value system, gambling is bad, and <v Richard Hopkins>it's even worse to have the state involved in gambling. <v Richard Hopkins>Now, for people who come from a different cultural setting, the values <v Richard Hopkins>did not forbid gambling at all anymore than they forbade drinking wine or drinking beer. <v Richard Hopkins>Drinking wine and drinking beer were part of the customary habits. <v Richard Hopkins>So that is a matter of fact, is very good. <v Richard Hopkins>Case in point of just how industrialization and the draw that industrialization <v Richard Hopkins>exerted on immigrants helped to alter the state's <v Richard Hopkins>viewpoints and politics. <v Speaker>And in fact, it demonstrates extremely long term social values.
<v Richard Hopkins>Oh yes, very much so. <v Speaker>Continuing over- <v Richard Hopkins>Well we're what, almost a century away now and those those values <v Richard Hopkins>structures are still being reflected. <v Don Davis>Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield. <v Don Davis>Benjamin Harrison. William McKinley. <v Don Davis>These are not the names we first think of when the American presidency is mentioned. <v Don Davis>None of them approaches in the eyes of historians, the stature of Jefferson, Lincoln, <v Don Davis>Wilson and Roosevelt. But these Ohioans, along with Grant, controlled <v Don Davis>the nation's highest office for the better part of the post-Civil War period down to the <v Don Davis>turn of the century. <v Don Davis>Grant, the 18th president, came from a military background, as did six of <v Don Davis>Ohio's presidents. He easily won the 1868 election, <v Don Davis>but antagonized party regulars by appointing his cabinet without regard to Republican <v Don Davis>patronage. A splinter group, the Liberal Republican Party, resulted <v Don Davis>and in the 1872 election nominated Horace Greeley, an Ohioanwho <v Don Davis>became famous with his phrase, Go west, young man, go west.
<v Don Davis>Greeley went east, however, to become editor of the New York Tribune. <v Don Davis>He was also nominated by the Democrats, but to no avail, for Grant easily <v Don Davis>won reelection. <v Don Davis>Grant's second term was rocked by scandals to which he was not personally a party. <v Don Davis>But these, combined with the tradition against third terms, resulted in his retirement <v Don Davis>from public life. <v Don Davis>The nation's 19th president was another Ohioan, Rutherford B. <v Don Davis>Hayes. He pledged to serve only one term, but almost didn't get that. <v Don Davis>Initial returns gave Democrat Samuel Tilden a popular majority and the election. <v Don Davis>But a 15 member electoral commission was set up by Congress to investigate. <v Don Davis>Comprised of eight Republicans and seven Democrats the <v Don Davis>commission voted 8 to 7 in favor of Hayes, giving him the presidency <v Don Davis>by one electoral vote. <v Don Davis>Reaction to the outcome was tempered by a secret agreement with Southern conservatives <v Don Davis>in which Hayes promised to remove troops and support more appropriations to the South.
<v Don Davis>Hayes did not seek reelection, but instead supported fellow Buckeye James A. <v Don Davis>Garfield. Garfield won the 1880 election, but served less <v Don Davis>than a year before being assassinated by a disgruntled office seeker. <v Don Davis>The great grandson of a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Harrison, <v Don Davis>was born in 1833 in North Bend, Ohio. <v Don Davis>After winning the Republican nomination for president in 1888, he campaigned <v Don Davis>against Democrat Grover Cleveland and for the second time in American history, the <v Don Davis>candidate with the majority of the popular vote lost to the candidate with the most <v Don Davis>electoral votes. <v Don Davis>Harrison presided over the admission of six new states to the union, and it was during <v Don Davis>his administration that the Sherman Antitrust Act was passed. <v Don Davis>The nation's economy suffered reverses, however, and in a return bout against Grover <v Don Davis>Cleveland, Harrison lost the 1892 election. <v Don Davis>As Ohio and the nation moved into the 20th century, the impact of technology
<v Don Davis>began to be felt more and more in the daily lives of Americans. <v Don Davis>The automobile, the telephone, the phonograph and the electric light had all <v Don Davis>made their appearance by 1900 and more profound innovations were on the <v Don Davis>way. After years of research, the Wright brothers Wilbur and Orville <v Don Davis>began work in nineteen two on a motor driven airplane. <v Don Davis>A little more than a year later, December 1903, the Wrights took their machine to Kitty <v Don Davis>Hawk, North Carolina, and with Orville at the controls, recorded history's <v Don Davis>first powered flight. Lasting only 12 seconds and covering but <v Don Davis>120 feet. The flight attracted little attention initially, in part <v Don Davis>because of the Wrights' aversion to publicity, as Wilbur once remarked, <v Don Davis>"if I talked a lot, I'd be like the parrot, a bird that talks most and flies <v Don Davis>least." Eventually, however, the significance of the accomplishment became <v Don Davis>apparent to all. Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon, <v Don Davis>and himself an engineer.
<v Neil Armstrong>The brothers Wright lived in experimented in Dayton. <v Neil Armstrong>They were far more, however, than <v Neil Armstrong>bicycle shop inventors. <v Neil Armstrong>They were scientists and engineers who were dedicated <v Neil Armstrong>to careful and accurate work. <v Neil Armstrong>They respected but did not unreservedly accept the conclusions <v Neil Armstrong>of other scientists who are more highly educated or more well-known. <v Neil Armstrong>Their diligence led them to unlocking the secrets of flight. <v Neil Armstrong>Our government was unconvinced of the value of the flying machine. <v Neil Armstrong>But European nations were clamoring for the rights to their invention. <v Neil Armstrong>Although they eventually sold aircraft in Europe, they <v Neil Armstrong>retained the rights to provide the technology to the United States, when <v Neil Armstrong>and if they decided that the whole idea was worthwhile. <v Neil Armstrong>Well, as we all know, the airplane rapidly developed into the premier method
<v Neil Armstrong>of commercial transportation. <v Neil Armstrong>The airplane has brought the peoples of our planet closer together and changed the <v Neil Armstrong>concept of our world. <v Don Davis>Former astronaut Neil Armstrong. <v Don Davis>The 1920 presidential election was notable in that both major parties nominated <v Don Davis>Ohioans for the top post. <v Don Davis>The Democrats selected James Cox, the state's governor who campaigned for continued <v Don Davis>domestic reform and the internationalist policies of Woodrow Wilson. <v Don Davis>"Return to Normalcy" was the slogan of Senator Warren Harding, a staunch <v Don Davis>conservative and opponent of America's entry into the League of Nations. <v Don Davis>In one of the most lopsided victories in U.S. <v Don Davis>political history, Harding tallied 61 percent of the popular vote. <v Don Davis>The nation entered the roaring 20s with the Republicans firmly in control. <v Speaker>[Upbeat swing music plays]. <v Don Davis>As
<v Don Davis>did most of the presidents following the First World War, Warren Harding hoped to lead <v Don Davis>the country into a new prosperity based on the pattern of life before the war <v Don Davis>and on traditional American values. <v Don Davis>Historians generally have looked upon Harding as one of the country's weakest presidents. <v Don Davis>But to the voters in 1920, the Republican Party and its compromise standard <v Don Davis>bearer promised an alternative for the crucial problems faced by an emerging world <v Don Davis>power. One of the principal issues was the League of Nations. <v Don Davis>Woodrow Wilson had refused to compromise on his concept of the league, and it was widely <v Don Davis>believed that any Republican could have won in 1920. <v Warren Harding>My countrymen, we believe the unspeakable followed <v Warren Harding>the immeasurable sacrifice of the awakened convictions <v Warren Harding>and the aspiring content of humankind must commit <v Warren Harding>if the nations of the earth to a new and better relationship. <v Warren Harding>It need not be discussed now what motive plunged the world into
<v Warren Harding>war. It need not be inquired whether we ask the sons <v Warren Harding>of this republic to defend our national rights, as I <v Warren Harding>believe we did. <v Warren Harding>Or depart the old world of the accumulated ills of rivalry and greed. <v Warren Harding>The sacrifices will be in vain if we cannot <v Warren Harding>proclaim a new order with added security to civilization <v Warren Harding>and peace maintained. <v Warren Harding>I can speak unreservedly of the American aspirations and <v Warren Harding>the Republican commital, for an association of nations <v Warren Harding>cooperating in sublime accord to obtain and preserve <v Warren Harding>peace throguh justice rather than force. <v Warren Harding>Determined to add security to international law. <v Warren Harding>Dole clarified that no misconstruction can be possible without <v Warren Harding>affronting world honor. It is better to be the free and disinterested agent <v Warren Harding>of international justice and advancing civilization
<v Warren Harding>with a covenant of conscience, than to be shackled by a <v Warren Harding>written contract which renders our freedom of action and gives the military <v Warren Harding>alliance the right to proclaim America's duty to the world. <v Don Davis>Harding died in office in 1923. <v Don Davis>A death many believed to have been caused partly by scandals in his administration. <v Don Davis>Harding had appointed numerous friends to public office, and some of these were his <v Don Davis>undoing. While on a cross-country trip, he became ill in Seattle, <v Don Davis>possibly from food poisoning. <v Don Davis>Earlier, a coded message had been delivered concerning a Senate investigation into <v Don Davis>oil leasing. <v Don Davis>Hardings condition worsened and he died on August 2nd in San Francisco, presumably <v Don Davis>of pneumonia, although no autopsy was performed. <v Don Davis>At his death, crowds lined the route back to Washington of the president <v Don Davis>who wanted to return to an earlier time. <v Don Davis>In the humdrum of our daily lives, we often take for granted <v Don Davis>the technical genius of those who have contributed to our way of life.
<v Don Davis>If you were sitting at a railroad crossing listening to this broadcast on the way home <v Don Davis>from the drugstore, chances are you would have encountered five examples of <v Don Davis>Charles Kettering's genius. <v Don Davis>A 1904 graduate of the Ohio State University, Kettering is credited <v Don Davis>with the development, among other things, of the first electric cash register, <v Don Davis>high octane gasoline, the electric starter for automobiles, the <v Don Davis>diesel locomotive and nontoxic refrigerants. <v Don Davis>Kettering felt that formal education alone was not a prime requirement to be an inventor, <v Don Davis>and he took a somewhat irreverent attitude toward those who thought it did. <v Charles Kettering>It's amazing how people think that if you haven't gotten a degree in something, <v Charles Kettering>you can't possibly know anything about it. <v Charles Kettering>We had developed these things called Freon, which was uh, refrigerating gas. <v Charles Kettering>And I was asked to present certificates to the boys who'd worked <v Charles Kettering>on that here in New York, and I'd had to go to
<v Charles Kettering>another meeting, uh, another dinner, <v Charles Kettering>and I had gotten to this one just when we were getting ice cream and coffee. <v Charles Kettering>And I sat down at a table and I sense right away <v Charles Kettering>nobody knew where these Freons came from. <v Charles Kettering>So when I came to present these little certificates, I told the story of I we took the <v Charles Kettering>wallpaper of an old house dining room and we papered it <v Charles Kettering>with white paper and we do the cords in there of the <v Charles Kettering>criticla pressures and temperatures of all the known gases used in refrigerators. <v Charles Kettering>And right there where we'd like to have it was a big hole. <v Charles Kettering>So we said, how we gonna move them down? <v Charles Kettering>Well, we said if we can just substitute some of the chlorine in some of those compounds <v Charles Kettering>with fluorine, we can move it down because everybody was horrified because <v Charles Kettering>they said you certainly wouldn't put fluid in the recycling machine because it would eat <v Charles Kettering>it up. <v Charles Kettering>I said, I don't know. I think we had to try it.
<v Charles Kettering>And so we did. And it didn't. <v Charles Kettering>In other words, it was one of the nicest, most accommodating <v Charles Kettering>gases in the world. <v Charles Kettering>I got back to the table, fellow said "you had no right to make a talk like that, you're <v Charles Kettering>no chemist." <v Charles Kettering>I said, what do you mean? He says, you have no degree in chemistry. <v Charles Kettering>I said, where do you get the Freons from? <v Charles Kettering>He says, that has nothing to do with it. You have no right to talk on chemsitry because <v Charles Kettering>you have no degree in chemistry. <v Charles Kettering>And so since then, I've been very careful. <v Charles Kettering>Because I didn't know the degree had anything to do with it. <v Charles Kettering>And so the thing we need to recognize today that what the fundamentals <v Charles Kettering>of education are, is to take the material that the <v Charles Kettering>Lord gave you and make the most out of it, say. <v Charles Kettering>If he was a left handed guy, let him be left handed guy.
<v Charles Kettering>But make him be the best lefthanded guy that you ever saw. <v Don Davis>Prominent politically active families may be found in many <v Don Davis>of the states of the union. The Byrds of Virginia or the Longs of Louisiana, for example, <v Don Davis>and Ohio is no different. <v Don Davis>The Taft family of Cincinnati first gained notice on the national scene right after the <v Don Davis>civil war. And Tafts have continued in one high office or another down to the present <v Don Davis>day. Alfonzo Taft was secretary of war and attorney general <v Don Davis>in the Grant administration. <v Don Davis>His son, William Howard, became the twenty seventh president <v Don Davis>in 1909. The younger Taft's greatest ambition wasn't fulfilled, however, until 1921, <v Don Davis>when he was appointed chief justice of the United States, a position he held until his <v Don Davis>death in 1930. <v Don Davis>The political fortunes of the family did not win with his passing, for his son, Robert A. <v Don Davis>Taft was elected to the U.S. <v Don Davis>Senate in 1938 and played a dominant role in the nation's affairs until his <v Don Davis>death in 1953.
<v Don Davis>Often hailed as Mr. Republican, Senator Taft's greatest legislative achievement, <v Don Davis>perhaps, was the Taft-Hartley Labor Management Relations Act of 1947. <v Don Davis>In that same year, in a debate with Auto Workers president Walter Ruther, Taft <v Don Davis>offered his view of the relationship between government and industry. <v Robert Taft>I want to help the little fella, and I say the only way you'll help a little fella is <v Robert Taft>to improve the plant, the machinery that he has to increase the production <v Robert Taft>in the United States, not by a lot of government bureau regulation. <v Robert Taft>That's never helped the little fella. Never well. <v Don Davis>Senator Robert Taft Sr., speaking in 1947. <v Don Davis>A quarter century later, in 1975, U.S. <v Don Davis>Senator Robert Taft Jr. <v Don Davis>Had this observation on the role of government: <v Robert Taft Jr.>In my opinion, our country faces a problem of overregulation, which is detrimental to <v Robert Taft Jr.>our general economic welfare and in many cases works against the best <v Robert Taft Jr.>interests of the public.
<v Robert Taft Jr.>Our problem is further compounded by the fact that the state of many of our regulatory <v Robert Taft Jr.>agencies seems near paralysis or collapse. <v Robert Taft Jr.>Experiences dictated that they have not only betrayed the consumer, but they have also <v Robert Taft Jr.>wasted the taxpayers money and constituted a bureaucratic nightmare for American <v Robert Taft Jr.>industry, business and local and state government as well. <v Robert Taft Jr.>I think we must in the ninety fourth Congress and subsequent Congresses, take on the task <v Robert Taft Jr.>of thoroughly reviewing the purposes, objectives and performances of our regulatory <v Robert Taft Jr.>agencies with a view to recommending appropriate revisions to improve their <v Robert Taft Jr.>effectiveness. In the process, we must focus, I think, upon the interests of the American <v Robert Taft Jr.>public individually and as a whole. <v Robert Taft Jr.>Any ultimate recommendation for reform must ensure fairness, balance and completeness <v Robert Taft Jr.>in the consideration of their interests. <v Robert Taft Jr.>The individual Americans. <v Speaker>Our outlook on life is not only shaped by statesmen and scientists, industrialists <v Speaker>and inventors, but also by men of letters. <v Speaker>Two Ohioans of note in this field are James Thurber and Jerome
<v Speaker>Lawrence. A native of Columbus, Thurber's masterpieces include <v Speaker>"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and "My Life and Hard Times". <v Speaker>For years, his cartoons in The New Yorker entertained millions. <v Speaker>Unlike many literary greats, however, he did not berate the advent of such technical <v Speaker>innovations as television. <v James Thurber>Years ago, when <v James Thurber>television was very young, I went on television, CBS and <v James Thurber>then - and then 193, I was on the television show at <v James Thurber>the Alexander Palace in London. <v James Thurber>And so I was in it pretty early. <v James Thurber>And London, by the way, was way- uh, England, way ahead of us. <v James Thurber>Then technologically, we knew very little about television. <v James Thurber>They had sets and railway stations and hotel lobbies and they were putting on <v James Thurber>things that were- took us two or three years to catch up with. <v James Thurber>I was once riding, riding in a cab with T.S. <v James Thurber>Eliot and he asked me what I thought about television.
<v James Thurber>I asked him what he thought and he said, "Well, I hope it doesn't become the ruination of <v James Thurber>our country here." And it won't do that because this country <v James Thurber>doesn't ruin easily. But we all know the problems. <v James Thurber>It does present challenges of all kind. <v James Thurber>After all, how can there be twenty four hours a day of sheer entertainment every <v James Thurber>day. It's an extremely hard thing to do. <v James Thurber>Everybody's lectured on the brutality and sadism of the cop stories <v James Thurber>and the westerns. <v James Thurber>But then there's professors of psychology who will say, well, that <v James Thurber>channels off the, uh, those instincts in the young. <v James Thurber>That is, it cannot be established because you watch somebody beating somebody up, you <v James Thurber>want to go out and do it. Perhaps this is satisfied, that urge in the person just away. <v James Thurber>Yes. I believe we often make yes, we often make up our minds too <v James Thurber>fast in America, we're famous for that. <v James Thurber>I'm not worried about- some of my most intellectual and gentle friends <v James Thurber>are crazy about Westerns.
<v James Thurber>Unnecessary nihilism. <v Don Davis>James Thurber, interviewed in 1960 by Jean Girard, a public station <v Don Davis>WOSU. <v Don Davis>Among other Ohioans who have made their mark on American culture and values are <v Don Davis>playwrights Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. <v Don Davis>Lee. Their play Inherit the Wind has been translated <v Don Davis>into more than 30 languages, but their best known work seems to be Auntie Mame. <v Don Davis>And its musical adaptation, Mame. <v Don Davis>Speaking of their plays, Lawrence has said, "we often use the past to help <v Don Davis>illuminate the present. In our plays, we have attempted to grapple with universal <v Don Davis>themes, even in our comedies. <v Don Davis>We have tried to attain a blend between the dramatic and the entertaining. <v Don Davis>Our most serious works are always leavened with laughter, and our seemingly frivolous <v Don Davis>comedies have subtexts which say something important for the contemporary world." <v Don Davis>In a post-industrial technotronic age, when 1984 is
<v Don Davis>just around the corner, Lawrence describes his view of the place of man in the world. <v Jerome Lawrence>Last week on Earth Day, there was a slogan with <v Jerome Lawrence>the wisdom of the very young scrawled around some walls in New York City, and <v Jerome Lawrence>I copied it down. And this is what it said: We treat this world <v Jerome Lawrence>of ours as if we had a spare one in our back pockets. <v Jerome Lawrence>We can plot the future as surely as a playwright can steer his play. <v Jerome Lawrence>Sometimes we feel helpless. <v Jerome Lawrence>But I believe we can do something positive to make positive that'll plus <v Jerome Lawrence>answer results. That subtraction of all that is human is not the fate of humanity. <v Jerome Lawrence>We do not have to dehumanize if every day of our living lives, we <v Jerome Lawrence>live our lives and rehumanize, at every level work toward a <v Jerome Lawrence>man to man relationship, a man to woman relationship, a teacher to <v Jerome Lawrence>student relationship, and not a machine to man existence, which will
<v Jerome Lawrence>end up, I am afraid, as a machine to machine relationship. <v Jerome Lawrence>Then we shall rust into oblivion. <v Don Davis>We have tried in this hour to present a coherent picture of the Buckeye State, its people <v Don Davis>and traditions. At the beginning of the broadcast we posed the question, <v Don Davis>Is Ohio in its outlook and attitudes a microcosm of the nation? <v Don Davis>Or is it distinctively different? <v Don Davis>Well, in practical Buckeye style, we asked the polling metrics laboratory of the <v Don Davis>Ohio State University Political Science Department to run a computer analysis of <v Don Davis>national surveys comparing the attitudes of Ohioans with those of the rest <v Don Davis>of the nation. The results are in, and the microcosm theory <v Don Davis>appears to win. <v Don Davis>We say "appears" because our studies showed almost no difference between the <v Don Davis>political and social attitudes of Ohioans and Americans in general. <v Don Davis>But it could not tell us the effect of such cultural and ethnic diversity pressed <v Don Davis>upon itself. Perhaps the answer is that there is no effect.
Ohio: Its People and Its Heritage
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WOSU-TV (Television station : Columbus, Ohio)
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The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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"This one-hour documentary was produced as part of WOSU's commemoration of the bicentennial and focuses on the interaction of people and events in the creation of a culture. The question is posed at the beginning of the broadcast: Does Ohio represent a microcosm of the nation in terms of the values, attitudes, and perceptions of its people or is it distinctively different? "In order to answer that question the program examines the effects of the geography, commerce, history, and politics on the development of the Buckeye State as a major center [for] agriculture and industry and the continual strain caused by the intersection of rural vs. urban, northern vs. southern, and WASP vs. ethnic influences. "While the overall format is rather conventional an effort was made to enhance its appeal through the use of actual recordings of well-known Ohioans. Also, since an hour-long program consisting only of the spoken word quickly becomes monotonous, a number of music bridges are used, both to convey a mood and to give the listener an opportunity to reflect on the [preceding] segment. All of the music is native to Ohio for the producer believes that such music in and of itself indicates a great deal about the culture of a people."--1975 Peabody Awards entry form.
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Producing Organization: WOSU-TV (Television station : Columbus, Ohio)
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The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: cpb-aacip-c808e29f7b8 (Filename)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 0:57:40
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Chicago: “Ohio: Its People and Its Heritage,” 1975, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “Ohio: Its People and Its Heritage.” 1975. The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: Ohio: Its People and Its Heritage. Boston, MA: The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from