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<v Speaker>It seems the economic recovery has arrived. <v Speaker>There are fewer unemployed and more New Jerseyans than ever. <v Speaker>A record three million one hundred thirty five thousand, in fact, have jobs. <v Speaker>But the news is not all good, at least not for everybody. <v Speaker>Sandra King tonight starts a five part series, Employment in the Changing Workplace. <v Sandra King>Unemployment is down. Just one year ago the jobless rate was pushing <v Sandra King>10 percent. Now it's less than seven percent. <v Sandra King>Just one sign that things really are getting better. <v Sandra King>Combine that with a significant drop in interest rates and inflation. <v Sandra King>The decline in business failures and the dramatic rise in new ventures. <v Sandra King>It would seem to spell recovery, but how you read that word probably depends <v Sandra King>on where you stand and whether you work. <v Sandra King>This is Mahwah June 1980. <v Sandra King>And the last Ford to be built here has just rolled off the line. <v Sandra King>Mahwah three and a half years later.
<v Sandra King>Minus five thousand jobs. <v Peter Strauss>I'm going on lousy welfare. <v Peter Strauss>What the hell did I do wrong? <v Sandra King>The actor Peter Strauss, as what some experts call a superfluous worker, <v Sandra King>an exile in this case from a steel mill. <v Movie narrator>Her husband's out of work and the kids are scared. <v Movie character 1>How many times our mill closed down? <v Movie character 2>You don't think they're going to open? <v Movie narrator>It's the end of the American dream. <v Movie character 3>How come I can't help out a little bit? <v Movie character 1>Because I don't want your help. <v Sandra King>This is just a movie. <v Sandra King>This is real life. <v Joseph Cuti>So what am I gonna do? Here I am 50 some odd years old and I have to start <v Joseph Cuti>my life all over again. <v Joseph Cuti>I was too old to go to school. <v Joseph Cuti>You know, your mind is set on one thing. <v Joseph Cuti>And this is the way your life was going to be, was like <v Joseph Cuti>a lot of people have said, the rug pulled right out from underneath of us. <v Sandra King>One of 200000 U.S. <v Sandra King>auto workers who've lost their jobs in just the last three years.
<v Sandra King>One of 9000 in New Jersey. <v Sandra King>One of the men who used to work at Mahwah. <v Joseph Cuti>I said, man, this is great because I know when I'm with a company that, you know, <v Joseph Cuti>it's not going to just fold up after a couple of years. <v Joseph Cuti>I mean, Ford Motor Company happened to be number two automaker in the world. <v Joseph Cuti>And I thought I had it made. It was great. <v Bernie Jackson>The work was hard, but the pay was good. <v Bernie Jackson>And you found yourself going to work and it wasn't just going to work. <v Bernie Jackson>You'd get there early. You meet your friends, you had a life in that plant. <v Sandra King>Then came the Japanese and the oil crisis and the recession. <v Sandra King>The new technology and what economist Barry Bluestone calls deindustrialization. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>We lost major parts of our basic industries. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>And with that, we lost an enormous number of jobs. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>We now estimate that plant closings, establishment closings in general, <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>perhaps cost the economy as many as 30 million jobs during the 1970s. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>Other new jobs were founded. New companies started up.
<v Dr. Barry Bluestone>But the jobs we lost in many cases were jobs that will never be replaced. <v Sandra King>On the supply side, economist Alan Reynolds calls it progress. <v Alan Reynolds>Change is unsettling. <v Alan Reynolds>Shouldn't be afraid of it because it's it's an improvement in job prospects, not <v Alan Reynolds>quantitatively, but qualitatively better jobs. <v Alan Reynolds>Each hour of our work will produce more value than it did before. <v Alan Reynolds>As a society. And that will reach down to our benefit greatly I would think. <v Alan Reynolds>You can- you're able to buy more leisure and the market pretty well takes care of that <v Alan Reynolds>on its own. <v Sandra King>But the market hasn't taken care of these men. <v Sandra King>They still meet at the bar where they used to end their workday. <v Sandra King>But now, like most of those who once worked at Mahwah, they are unemployed or <v Sandra King>underemployed. <v Tom Natchuras>Anyone that's laid off from an automobile plant is making ten, <v Tom Natchuras>ten or twelve dollars an hour unless they go to another automobile plant <v Tom Natchuras>or unless they go to another manufacturing plant <v Tom Natchuras>that has an equal wage
<v Tom Natchuras>benefit is going to have to find a job that pays much <v Tom Natchuras>less than that. <v Alan Reynolds>If there's a tremendous gap between what a worker has been earning and what he can earn <v Alan Reynolds>in another industry, leaving aside specialized skills, which is <v Alan Reynolds>a separate problem, but we are assuming he's an unskilled semi-skilled person. <v Alan Reynolds>Then there's a presumption that he was overpaid. <v Bernie Jackson>It's very easy to say auto workers are overpaid. <v Bernie Jackson>Auto workers work very hard for what they earn. <v Sandra King>Jackson spent 23 years at Ford. <v Sandra King>Now he is one who isn't working. <v Sandra King>He had a job as a labor consultant. <v Bernie Jackson>The work for that firm has fallen off, as it has in so many other industry, <v Bernie Jackson>other businesses. And last week I was put on layoff. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>The typical auto worker, for instance, the auto worker at Mahwah, New Jersey, <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>who loses his job two years later, is still earning <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>40 percent less than the day he lost his job. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>Six years after he's lost his job. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>He's still earning 16 percent less.
<v Sandra King>Jake Ungar was one of the lucky ones. <v Sandra King>Ford placed him in its Edison plant. <v Sandra King>But in January of 82, the night shift here was cut out. <v Sandra King>Another thirteen hundred jobs gone for the second time in two years. <v Sandra King>Jake Unger was laid off. <v Jakob Unger>Everything went down. <v Jakob Unger>And it's been downhill ever since. <v Glenn Watts>Workers had thought they had a good job and were or were really wanted to work, <v Glenn Watts>wanted to work hard, wanted to be good producers. <v Glenn Watts>So the shock of not being able to get a job and seeing your own job disappear, as a <v Glenn Watts>matter of fact. <v Sandra King>And they're not all from the auto trade. <v David Mason>We have had really the longest running and in many respects deepest, purely cyclical <v David Mason>recession in this country since the war since 1979. <v Sandra King>In the last 18 months alone, 34 New Jersey plants have closed <v Sandra King>or said they would close more than 11000 jobs gone. <v Sandra King>Singer and Elizabeth Owens-Illinois in Bridgeton, Western Electric and <v Sandra King>Carnie Curtis Wright in Woodridge, Cessna's ARC in Booton,
<v Sandra King>General Electric in Newark and an old foundry called Ebanks, the last <v Sandra King>of the plants in a Bergen County town called Mahwah. <v Sandra King>There are plans now to revive the old Ford plant to see it reopened as a kind <v Sandra King>of international display place for heavy equipment. <v Sandra King>But that won't restore those 5000 jobs from Mahwah with its dependance <v Sandra King>on heavy industry. The recovery is still down the road and unemployment <v Sandra King>is still a problem statewide. <v Sandra King>For more than a quarter of a million workers who still have no jobs. <v Sandra King>I'm Sandra King. <v Speaker>Thank you, Sandy. Tomorrow night, part two, the changing workplace and the college <v Speaker>graduate. <v Speaker>The economy seems to be recovering, there are people left behind. <v Speaker>Last night in her series on the changing workplace, Sandra King looked at the industrial <v Speaker>workers who've been forced out. Tonight, she focuses on a group that wants in. <v Sandra King>The American dream a college education. <v Sandra King>It's been called the ticket to success.
<v Sandra King>But while the price of the ticket has gone up, the return may be less sure. <v Sandra King>The class of eighty three was the largest class ever and with its record size <v Sandra King>came record headache's that followed graduation. <v Sandra King>A graduation and another class ready for the good life, the good job. <v Sandra King>But the supply of college graduates is up. <v Sandra King>The demand for their services, down. <v Sandra King>So these diplomas may not be the ticket that they once were. <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>Back in the 50s and 60s, companies were <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>quite willing to hire anyone. <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>And that just isn't true now and probably won't be true <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>for the foreseeable future. <v Alan Reynolds>What they found themselves in was. <v John Nease>As a buyer, as Mark. <v John Nease>Because of the excess talent. <v Sandra King>Erica Pap knows the problem firsthand. <v Erica Papp>I had a major that I personally really enjoyed, which was economics
<v Erica Papp>and business, and everyone said, oh, you can get a job. <v Erica Papp>So by the time I was a senior, I'd put my time in, I had studied, I had <v Erica Papp>good grades, and I was sure that was going to get a job. <v Sandra King>But we found Erica Rutgers, 83, behind the counter of Clifton Department <v Sandra King>store. And that was just for Christmas. <v Sandra King>She can't understand why her Phi Beta Kappa doesn't help. <v Sandra King>Neither can Gene Domowicz we found him on a Union Township demolition <v Sandra King>site. His degree is in business. <v Sandra King>He wants a job in finance. <v Gene Domowics>I sent out resumes, I- I look for leads through papers and companies, <v Gene Domowics>literature and research and write them letters and so on. <v Gene Domowics>And then I didn't I didn't find too many openings. <v Gene Domowics>I found a very tight job market. <v Gene Domowics>It's it's an employer's market. <v Gene Domowics>They have a lot to choose from. <v Sandra King>In fact, record numbers of new graduates are competing for a finite number of jobs. <v Sandra King>Northwestern University has tracked employment trends for 37 years.
<v Sandra King>It's Endicott report called the job market for 83. <v Sandra King>The worst for college graduates since the Depression. <v Sandra King>Campus recruitment has dropped, according to the study, at least 25 percent. <v Sandra King>But corporate hiring is down even more. <v Sandra King>By Northwesterners estimate, as much as 45 percent. <v Sandra King>Glen Gamble's been in the business of finding jobs for new graduates for more than 20 <v Sandra King>years. <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>This past year has been very difficult and <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>we have noticed students coming to the office <v Dr. Glenn Gamble>with, in some desperation. <v Gary Hamme>It's not like the recruiters come on campus in droves to look for <v Gary Hamme>liberal arts people. It's always been difficult for the liberal arts graduate. <v Gary Hamme>But given the fact that the economy is in a recession, it compounds <v Gary Hamme>their particular situation. <v Erica Papp>I went to an agency and they're like, well, can you type? <v Erica Papp>I'm like, well, I can type. <v Erica Papp>OK, we have this terrific job as receptionist in new work. <v Erica Papp>I'm like, I didn't go to school for four years to be a receptionist.
<v Gene Domowics>At one company, I had four interviews and I thought I was, you know, four interviews is, <v Gene Domowics>is pretty good. <v Gene Domowics>You don't normally get four interviews and not get anywhere. <v Gene Domowics>And I was hopeful about that job, but it didn't turn out. <v Gene Domowics>They went with someone with more experience. <v John Crystal>So the the catch 22 is this. <v John Crystal>If you will just go down the street and get hired down there and gain three years <v John Crystal>experience, then come back to me, maybe I'll hire you and you go down the street to the <v John Crystal>other company and they say the same thing. <v John Crystal>It's murder. <v Bing Crosby>I've seen some pretty disturbing figures lately. <v Bing Crosby>A lot of boys and girls are not going to get a college education. <v Bing Crosby>I'm through no fault of their own either. <v Bing Crosby>And that, I think, is bad for America. <v Sandra King>It wasn't only Bing Crosby who thought every kid in America needed a college education. <v Sandra King>Every parent in America probably thought so, too back in 1959. <v Alan Reynolds>I can remember when I was going to school that we were almost told that if you had a <v Alan Reynolds>bachelors degree in any subject whatsoever, that's all you needed. <v Alan Reynolds>You had a guaranteed annual income for life. <v Sandra King>But in the years since, the experts say we may have produced too many college graduates,
<v Sandra King>that their degrees may not match the new technologies and that the children of the baby <v Sandra King>boom may be crowding them out. <v commercial narrator>Babies of America you have a lot to learn. <v commercial narrator>And you have to learn it all if you are to help solve the problems of this precious, <v commercial narrator>crowded planet. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>One of the problems we're going to face and we're already beginning to face it, is <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>that for the longest period of time, at least since World War Two, we <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>built a society in which every year we expected to do a little bit better. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>We built a society of what some people have called rising expectations. <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>While I don't recommend recession as a lesson for <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>social behavior, certainly we have learned something out of this period that <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>we've been through and I think people's aspirations are becoming more realistic, <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>not less, but more realistic. <v Erica Papp>If you were intelligent, you graduate with a good major. <v Erica Papp>You were more or less assured a job. <v Erica Papp>I think right now to get a halfway decent job for anyone, you'd better have a college
<v Erica Papp>education behind you. <v Gene Domowics>Well, when I first graduated, I thought maybe by the end of the summer- if I don't have a <v Gene Domowics>job by the end of the summer, I'll be, I'll be worried and I push that up to the end of <v Gene Domowics>the year. Well, now I'm pushing it up to April or so. <v Gene Domowics>You know, I just have to be optimistic. <v Gene Domowics>I think it will come eventually. <v Sandra King>Economic recovery should mean better prospects for the Erica's and the Gene's, <v Sandra King>but maybe not right away. A study at Michigan State University predicts corporate <v Sandra King>hiring will rise in eighty four by five percent. <v Sandra King>But that's not even close to prerecession levels. <v Sandra King>I'm Sandra King. <v Speaker>Thank you, Sandy. And tomorrow night, Sandy will look at another group having trouble in <v Speaker>the workplace. The displaced homemaker. <v Speaker>And paying taxes might seem like a pain, but it means one thing. <v Speaker>You have a job. In part three of our series on the changing workplace. <v Speaker>Sandra King looks at people who thought they had a job for life. <v Sandra King>Where did you last work? What are your skills? <v Sandra King>Can't you operate a word processor? <v Sandra King>And what about your work record? <v Sandra King>All questions that strike fear in the hearts of the displaced homemakers, the
<v Sandra King>women who after 20 years find they must return to the workplace. <v Sandra King>The family shopping, traditional women's work unpaid. <v Sandra King>But American tradition and American women have been having it tough lately. <v Sandra King>Divorce is epidemic. <v Sandra King>Families spreading out all over the country. <v Sandra King>Widowhood is lonelier and financially scarier than ever. <v Sandra King>So more and more women today look to the paid women's work, their <v Sandra King>side of the checkout counter. <v Sandra King>Not in an age when technology is supposed to make our lives <v Sandra King>easier. Leisure time has become a burden for people like Susan Carstens of <v Sandra King>Parlin, divorced. <v Sandra King>For people like Helene Chaleff of Cranbury, a widow. <v Sandra King>After a long search, Carstens found work in an East Brunswick toy store. <v Sandra King>It's not full time and it's not enough money, but it is a job. <v Susan Carstens>It's the most difficult thing I've ever done is to do this, to
<v Susan Carstens>leave the house as they called the housework and <v Susan Carstens>try to find a job that would bring me sufficient amount <v Susan Carstens>of money. <v Susan Carstens>It's really struggling. <v Sandra King>Helene Chaleff found a publishing job just nine weeks after her husband died two years <v Sandra King>ago, but her employer began cutting staff. <v Sandra King>She was last hired, first fired. <v Sandra King>She's been looking for other work since February. <v Helene Chaleff>It makes me very angry filling out these two, three, four page applications <v Helene Chaleff>with silly questions. What? <v Helene Chaleff>What was your best subject in school or what would you, what did you take up? <v Helene Chaleff>What did you excel in? Come on. <v Helene Chaleff>Just take me for what I am. I'm a woman in her 50s and I must work and give me <v Helene Chaleff>the chance. I can prove to you I'm serious. <v Helene Chaleff>I'm not going to take off because I came home late last night from a date. <v Dr. Donald Scarry>A Homemaker returning to the labor force has to learn a current and up to date skill <v Dr. Donald Scarry>which might have been acquired on the job had they stayed working for those 20 years.
<v Dr. Donald Scarry>Plus, they have to demonstrate their employability. <v Susan Carstens>That's what I would do anything, I would go for training. <v Susan Carstens>I would learn another language, I would I would work my heart out if I <v Susan Carstens>got the opportunity to a good job. <v Constance Woodruff>When we talk about upgrading skills, she doesn't have any to upgrade. <v Constance Woodruff>Most of those women are in that new category called feminization <v Constance Woodruff>of poverty. <v Helene Chaleff>I must have an income. I have no income. <v Helene Chaleff>I have my sole support, but I'm very frightened. <v Helene Chaleff>I don't know what's going to happen to me. <v Helene Chaleff>As I said, I don't want to lose this house and everything, <v Helene Chaleff>that my husband and I worked so hard to get. <v Dr. Barbara Harris>Now, the problem for such a woman is she's probably very ill equipped to really earn an <v Dr. Barbara Harris>adequate living, when she goes out to look for a job. <v Sandra King>Employment opportunities for the Susan Carstens and Helene Chaleffs have never <v Sandra King>been plentiful. But there is some evidence that the situation may be getting worse,
<v Sandra King>that the low paying entry level job is getting harder to find. <v Sol Chaikin>You take the textile, apparel and clothing industry. <v Sol Chaikin>It used to employ two and a half million workers. <v Sol Chaikin>It now employs a million 850000. It costs 16 cents <v Sol Chaikin>an hour to keep a worker employed in red China. <v Sol Chaikin>It cost the dollar eight cents an hour to keep a worker employed in Hong Kong. <v Sol Chaikin>How do you compete? <v Sandra King>And how do you compete with machines, machines that have reduced the number of phone <v Sandra King>operators by one third since just 1970, machines that now <v Sandra King>do the work of bank tellers, stenographers, librarians, cashiers, <v Sandra King>bookkeepers. All this at a time when the number of women who need to draw salaries <v Sandra King>is dramatically on the rise. <v Sandra King>There are six hundred fifty thousand displaced homemakers in New Jersey today. <v Constance Woodruff>Unfortunately, maybe 20 years ago, that kind of woman would have been able <v Constance Woodruff>to find another husband. <v Constance Woodruff>But people, including men, are not getting married so easily these days.
<v Helene Chaleff>My husband always made me feel so-. He said I was so witty and I was so smart. <v Helene Chaleff>And I decorated the house some nights and I cook so good. <v Helene Chaleff>He made me feel like I was on <v Helene Chaleff>such a pedestal with him. <v Helene Chaleff>I'm frightened to be alone and I'm frightened with no money. <v Dr. Barbara Harris>I think if a society has any sense of itself as humane <v Dr. Barbara Harris>and decent, it certainly can't take the position that if women are suddenly <v Dr. Barbara Harris>faced with broken homes at the age of 45 or 50 or 55, that the society <v Dr. Barbara Harris>can just say, oh, well, they're over the hill. <v Susan Carstens>At times I get a like a hopeless feeling. <v Susan Carstens>But somehow I just can't give up. I can't. <v Sandra King>The plight of the displaced homemaker as a relatively recent phenomenon, and programs <v Sandra King>to help these women adjust to their new status and the new workplace are being <v Sandra King>developed around the state by women's groups and by the State Commission on Women.
<v Sandra King>Still, the prospects aren't great. <v Sandra King>There is evidence to prove that when a middle aged woman finds herself on her own, <v Sandra King>even if she does find a job, she will never again live as well as she did <v Sandra King>when her husband was in the picture. <v Sandra King>I'm Sandra King. <v Speaker>Thank you, Sandy. Tomorrow night, in part four of our series, we'll look at another group <v Speaker>for whom there are few opportunities in the new workplace, new Jersey's black teenagers. <v Speaker>Tonight in the fourth part of our special report on the changing workplace. <v Speaker>We look at a special segment of those unemployed, the hard core unemployed. <v Speaker>Sandra King is here with her story. <v Speaker>Sandy? <v Sandra King>Mark, they are called hard core because their job problems are not fleeting <v Sandra King>or easily fixed or even much affected by the upturn in the economy. <v Fred Murphy>Majority of us are not working, you know, we just out here statistic. <v Sandra King>The statistics are grim, despite the overall drop in unemployment, the <v Sandra King>rate for young people remains high, close to 20 percent.
<v Sandra King>And for young black men in a place like Newark, the numbers are staggering. <v Sandra King>At least one of every two with no job and few prospects. <v Don Young>Right around the projects out of work. <v Don Young>I would say about 85 percent, any other percentage would be underemployed. <v Fred Murphy>When I go to interview, I dress very neatly. <v Fred Murphy>I carry myself in a respectful manner. <v Fred Murphy>And I do. I think I do everything that's needed to get a job. <v Fred Murphy>I don't know why I don't get it. <v Sandra King>Fred Murphy has been asking why since his high school graduation more than three years <v Sandra King>ago, there he'd been a success. <v Sandra King>Football, class president, good grades, hopes of getting out of the poverty <v Sandra King>pocket called Hayes Homes. <v Sandra King>But the only work he's found is back here in the projects, and that is only part time. <v Fred Murphy>That they take out one hundred thirty eight dollars every two weeks. <v Fred Murphy>Give my mother some money. <v Fred Murphy>She's my backbone, and hope I have enough money to buy me a pair pants and
<v Fred Murphy>wait till the next payday. <v Fred Murphy>That's it. <v Julian Bond>The Unemployment among this group is frighteningly high. <v Julian Bond>There are people who simply don't want to hire a black person, particularly a black <v Julian Bond>youth. It happens because this group of people tend to be semi <v Julian Bond>or unskilled. They're not able to perform some of the tasks that industry is demanding <v Julian Bond>them to perform. And some of them come to the market with very, very poor educational <v Julian Bond>skills. <v Dr. Donald Scarry>Most of the jobs that become available in our urban areas are not jobs <v Dr. Donald Scarry>with long run future growth linkages. <v Dr. Donald Scarry>Some of them tend to be dead end jobs so that the <v Dr. Donald Scarry>urban youth have to be even more flexible. <v Alan Reynolds>It isn't the case that 40 percent of the 60 or whatever the number <v Alan Reynolds>is, are unemployed for their entire teenage period. <v Alan Reynolds>They have job experiences. They don't have a stable job experiences, and in some cases <v Alan Reynolds>they don't want them. In many cases, it's it's a fairly voluntary lifestyle. <v Sandra King>But Anthony Brown insists there's nothing voluntary about his lifestyle.
<v Sandra King>He, too, lives in the Hayes Homes project, and he, too, still has no full <v Sandra King>time job. More than four years after his graduation. <v Anthony Brown>That makes me think that I'm a bad individual. <v Anthony Brown>I did something bad, but I know I haven't. <v Anthony Brown>I look at myself in the mirror and I say, hey, it's time to get something together. <v Anthony Brown>I want a little money in my pocket for I can spend on certain things, buy me some nice <v Anthony Brown>clothes. Go out when I want to. <v Anthony Brown>Give things to people who give to me. <v Sandra King>Anthony's mother does work, but only five hours a day at less than five <v Sandra King>dollars an hour. It's all that she can find to support her family <v Sandra King>while she worries about her son. <v Dolores Brown>I don't know whether he's just given up or what, because at one point he <v Dolores Brown>really was trying. He'd be up in the morning. <v Dolores Brown>Sometimes he'd pack a little sandwich and put in his pocket and go and <v Dolores Brown>he's not lazy. That's what I, you know, he's not lazy. <v Dolores Brown>If he had a job, he would work at it.
<v Anthony Brown>Eventually, something good is gonna come along, and when it does I'll be happy to stay <v Anthony Brown>with it for the rest of my life. <v Sandra King>You're still looking? <v Anthony Brown>Oh, yes. <v Sandra King>Anthony did pass through a job training course. <v Sandra King>They taught him painting, what they didn't supply was job placement and he passed <v Sandra King>the firemen's exam. But in Newark, they are not hiring firefighters. <v Sandra King>They're laying them off. <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>You find young people, 40, 50 percent of unemployed, can't get <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>jobs, want to work. <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>You can't tell that if you live in some parts of New Jersey that there are any problems. <v Sandra King>But in parts like Camden, youth unemployment is a brutal fact of life. <v Sandra King>It comes with the territory, the slums, the boarded up buildings are the ones <v Sandra King>active plants long since abandoned. <v Melvin Primus>They're not finding those entry level positions. <v Melvin Primus>Those labor positions and basically the blue collar positions that once <v Melvin Primus>was Camden's fame. <v Melvin Primus>This has always been a blue collar town with a number of production jobs. <v Melvin Primus>They just don't exist anymore. <v Sandra King>And not just in Camden.
<v Sandra King>The state's worst unemployment is in Cumberland County. <v Sandra King>Jobs there are hard to find. <v Sandra King>But business is always booming on the Vineland unemployment line. <v Sandra King>The jobless problem there is not down. <v Sandra King>It comes in all colors. <v Sandra King>And just like in Newark, it is highest among kids. <v Sandra King>But the numbers for young whites, even in Vineland, don't come close to those for young <v Sandra King>blacks in Camden or Newark. <v Sandra King>So at Hayes Homes, there's a new kind of no frills program in the works. <v Sandra King>The plan is to match unemployed youngsters like Michael and Fred with a menial jobs <v Sandra King>that no one else wants. A bad job, say counselors, beats no job at all. <v Speaker>And Sandy, where the jobs will be both good and bad, is the focus for tomorrow night <v Speaker>when Sandy wraps up her series on the changing workplace. <v Speaker>For the last four nights we've examined the people affected by changes going on in the <v Speaker>workplace. Tonight, in the final part of her special report, Sandra King <v Speaker>looks at the workplace of the future.
<v Sandra King>All week we've been looking at people who are unemployed or underemployed, people <v Sandra King>who are finding that they just don't fit into the workplace, that the American dream <v Sandra King>seems beyond their reach. But this is not just a series of hard luck stories. <v Sandra King>The autoworker, unemployed, college graduate, underemployed, <v Sandra King>the displaced homemaker did some basic contrast <v Sandra King>in race and sex and education and age. <v Sandra King>But they have in common a basic problem how to fit in, how not <v Sandra King>to be left out, how to adjust to what is increasingly a new kind <v Sandra King>of workplace. <v Malcolm Forbes>We are in a new age. It's been given a lot of names and the right one <v Malcolm Forbes>isn't here yet. But high tech probably sums up what we're talking about. <v Malcolm Forbes>We have shifted in a revolution almost as total as the industrial. <v Sandra King>From a capitalist Malcolm Forbes to the economist Barry Bluestone. <v Sandra King>There is an acknowledgment that the change is profound.
<v Dr. Barry Bluestone>Took four generations to move from an agricultural society to a full fledged advanced <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>manufacturing economy. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>What we're seeing now is a fundamental transformation, just as great as the transition <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>from agriculture to manufacturing. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>But it's taking place within a single generation. <v Robert Fredrick>We've had a dynamic economy ever since the invention of the steam engine <v Robert Fredrick>and things do move along. I think the thing is noteworthy is our technology <v Robert Fredrick>base seems to be accelerating more rapidly. <v announcer>Today we dedicate five of the old thermal vacuum satellite test chamber <v announcer>in the world. <v Gov. Thomas Kean>And the opening of this facility affirms New Jersey's role in the space age. <v Gov. Thomas Kean>We have to make sure in New Jersey is two things. <v Gov. Thomas Kean>First of all, that we get not only our share, but I think more than our share of the new <v Gov. Thomas Kean>industry. And that's what our programs are designed to do to attract these people, to <v Gov. Thomas Kean>enable them to prosper here and to expand. <v Sara Kuhn>I see all kinds of states, every state across this nation pinning <v Sara Kuhn>their hopes for economic revitalization and growth on high tech.
<v Sara Kuhn>High tech is just not that large part of the economy. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>The total number of jobs in high technology, the manufacturing end, is a trivial number <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>of jobs at best, perhaps by nineteen ninety. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>We're talking about five percent of total employment in high technology, just ain't <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>enough jobs there. <v Sandra King>Then where will the jobs be? <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>But there's a shift to service. There's no question about that. <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>We start off with the agricultural society and now we're in the information <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>era. Now it just doesn't suggest that everybody's gonna be sitting in an office <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>someplace, operating a computer terminals. <v Sandra King>Or that they'll be doing the jobs they once did. <v Julian Bond>There are some people, most of the men in their late 40s and early 50s <v Julian Bond>who are never again, never again going to do the kind <v Julian Bond>of work they were doing two, three, four years ago. <v Sandra King>In the auto industry, two hundred thousand jobs have been lost nationally since <v Sandra King>1981, and the UAW warned. <v Sandra King>It's another 40000 by 1990. <v narrator>The puma never gets bored with endless repetition, working shift
<v narrator>after shift around the clock. <v Sandra King>There are now about six thousand robots in the workplace, and that number is expected to <v Sandra King>multiply 16 times by the end of the decade. <v Glenn Watts>I'm apprehensive because the increase in productivity is so <v Glenn Watts>very great when you use high technology that you can have a <v Glenn Watts>tremendous growth in the industry without the need for additional jobs. <v Alan Reynolds>We just wanted to maximize employment. <v Alan Reynolds>We could, for example, destroy the machines. <v Alan Reynolds>Instead of using typewriters, we could use pencils. <v Alan Reynolds>The function of society is not to maximize employment. <v Alan Reynolds>It's to minimize employment in the sense of getting the most you can with the least <v Alan Reynolds>amount of work. <v Sol Chaikin>Well, that scares the devil out of me because that seems <v Sol Chaikin>to be an acceptance of unemployment. <v Sol Chaikin>You know, as a useful thing in the American society. <v Malcolm Forbes>Technological progress has never in this country cost the country <v Malcolm Forbes>jobs. The lack of it would cost us jobs, thanks to high tech
<v Malcolm Forbes>jobs are coming back. <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>That's the good news. The bad news is many of those <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>new jobs we're creating are not going to be the kind of jobs on which a family <v Dr. Barry Bluestone>can, can and have a decent standard of living. <v Sandra King>Service jobs are on the rise. <v Sandra King>One study predicts that by 1990, they'll account for 72 percent of the workforce. <v Sandra King>But that same study claims that the greatest growth will be in areas like retail sales <v Sandra King>and fast food. Areas with high turnover and low pay. <v Sandra King>And even with unemployment at a three year low, there are millions with no job at <v Sandra King>all. Two hundred twenty seven thousand of them in New Jersey. <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>What I see is a lot of people <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>ultimately running the risk of being left out of the workforce and any kind of a serious <v Sen. Frank Lautenberg>way. <v Joseph Cuti>I'm managing to stay above water. <v Joseph Cuti>Nothing elaborate. <v Erica Papp>You know, if I have to hold out. I'll hold out till I get the job that I want. <v Fred Murphy>I'm not. I'm not that discouraged to the point I'm gonna to give up.
Series
New Jersey Nightly News
Episode
Employment in the Changing Workplace
Producing Organization
WNET (Television station : New York, N.Y.)
New Jersey Network
Contributing Organization
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip-526-ns0ks6k995
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Description
Series Description
"It is generally agreed that a fundamental structural change in the economy---from heavy industry to high technology and service--is going on in the United States. "In this five part series, reporter Sandra King explores the economic revolution and the dilemma of those caught up in it. "The first four parts of the series deal with the people most affected by change---workers laid off from heavy industry, recent college graduates, displaced homemakers and minorities. "In the fifth part, reporter King talks with those who are studying the change---Malcomb Forbes, Senator and former businessman Frank Lautenberg, CWA President Glenn Watts and ILGWU President Sol Chaiken, among others."--1983 Peabody Awards entry form. The program features various unemployed and underemployed people who describe their struggles. It also includes interviews with economists Dr. Barry Bluestone, Alan Reynolds, David Mason (representing General Motors), and Sara Kuhn, as well as U.A.W. regional director, Tom Natchuras; Director of Career Dev at Rutgers, Dr. Glenn Gamble; Recruiter at Engelhard Corp., John Nease; author John Crystal; NJ Business and Industry Associate Dr. Donald Scarry; NJ Commision on Women, Constance Woodruff; author, Dr. Barbara Harris; Jobs counselor, Don Young; and Governor Thomas Kean. The program also features clips from Georgia Legislator Julian Bond.
Broadcast Date
1983-12
Asset type
Episode
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
00:31:53.311
Embed Code
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Credits
Producing Organization: WNET (Television station : New York, N.Y.)
Producing Organization: New Jersey Network
AAPB Contributor Holdings
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: cpb-aacip-469b4738518 (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Duration: 0:25:00
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Citations
Chicago: “New Jersey Nightly News; Employment in the Changing Workplace,” 1983-12, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 28, 2022, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-526-ns0ks6k995.
MLA: “New Jersey Nightly News; Employment in the Changing Workplace.” 1983-12. The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 28, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-526-ns0ks6k995>.
APA: New Jersey Nightly News; Employment in the Changing Workplace. Boston, MA: The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-526-ns0ks6k995