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<v Speaker>This production is made possible by grants from the Alabama Humanities Foundation. <v Speaker>A state program of the National Endowment for the Humanities. <v Speaker>The Lynn Henley Trust. <v Speaker>And the Alabama Public Television Network. <v Speaker>[singing]
<v Speaker>In the moments before the dawn, a green chief <v Speaker>would prepare himself for communion with the spirits of men and <v Speaker>the spirits of nature. <v Speaker>He would call forth from his people, their goods, their labor <v Speaker>and their heart and to the spirit of these gifts. <v Speaker>He would add all the mystical power at his command and send the power skyward <v Speaker>to show the sun its path, the cross the heavens and keep all of nature. <v Speaker>In harmony.
<v Speaker>Narration followed generation all united in the faith that <v Speaker>made the corn harvest rich, the hunt successful, and the rivers <v Speaker>teeming with fish flowed through the person of the chief, to his nobles, <v Speaker>to his people and to his world.
<v Speaker>But a new force was to enter this world. <v Speaker>A force of such power and savagery that it demanded battle. <v Speaker>And once the armies were set in motion, the conflict would rage season after <v Speaker>countless seasons. <v Speaker>After all, an entire continent hung in the balance. <v Speaker>Like those of his generation, he was the legacy of eight centuries of war, brilliant <v Speaker>with Sword and Lance, a superb horseman. <v Speaker>He proved himself in combat at 16. <v Speaker>At 34, he conquered and plundered a kingdom and was among the richest in the Christian
<v Speaker>world at 40 years of age. <v Speaker>He had done, but no one in that world could lay claim to. <v Speaker>He stepped foot into the interior of North America. <v Speaker>De Soto had taken part in the conquest of Peru and benefited handsomely from <v Speaker>the plunder of the Incan kingdom. <v Speaker>He petitioned the Spanish crown for a governorship in the new world. <v Speaker>He was granted love Florida and directed to pacify and convert the natives <v Speaker>and populate the new colony. <v Speaker>Right there is the Democratic claims that they donated.
<v Speaker>With the golden leaves of Mexico and Peru behind in the mystery and prompt <v Speaker>of a vast continent ahead. <v Speaker>De Soto had assembled the best and best equipped, best provisioned expeditionary <v Speaker>force that the world had ever seen. <v Speaker>The army burned over 700, for there had been no shortage on tears. <v Speaker>Rich and poor boiled in winter. <v Speaker>They had come from all walks of life, all served with a seasoned, <v Speaker>successful conquistador and all united in the hopes <v Speaker>of finding and taking a fortune in golden plunder from the new <v Speaker>world. <v Speaker>Word of the Spanish of their demands and of their brutalities ran far ahead of the <v Speaker>expedition itself. <v Speaker>Some of the Indians who lay in the Army's path attempted to pacify the Spaniards
<v Speaker>with gifts of slaves, furs, food and women. <v Speaker>Some simply abandoned their villages. <v Speaker>But a few mounted an open, organized, armed defiance. <v Speaker>It was humility about you. It's about how you. <v Speaker>The sign of the great chief had to be past his order, received and set into motion. <v Speaker>They had no knowledge of memories for and lands' armor <v Speaker>gun and no experience with mass infantry and charging cavalry.
<v Speaker>They did have weapons and wouldn't stone a skill in individual combat <v Speaker>and an understanding that the battle would be fought to the death <v Speaker>from landfall in the Gulf of Mexico, De Soto turned north and followed the rumor <v Speaker>of gold deep into the interior of the continent. <v Speaker>In May of 15 40, the expedition stumbled into the province of coffee to TriQuint, <v Speaker>where burial temples yielded several hundred pounds of freshwater pearls <v Speaker>further north. <v Speaker>The expedition found the province of CUSA, but no gold, <v Speaker>receiving word of a great chief. <v Speaker>De Soto turned south and left Kyuss at the end of September. <v Speaker>His army marched towards the village of Atha Hachey. <v Speaker>There, the Spanish would meet the man who would turn the course of the entire expedition <v Speaker>and in some small way perhaps turn the course of history. <v Speaker>Adolfo Hachey de Soto would find the Indian chief Tuscaloosa.
<v Speaker>The formalities of greeting exchanged De Soto requested 400 bearers <v Speaker>and one hundred women. <v Speaker>The men were supplied and the women promised on arrival at the village of maybe <v Speaker>Luff de <v Speaker>Soto had spent the last few nights an open encampment, ill tempered and impatient. <v Speaker>He was determined to take up lodging in the village. <v Speaker>He ignored the suspicions of his advance guard and headed for the village gates.
<v Speaker>Kostic. <v Speaker>Go seek a. <v Speaker>Kozik.
<v Speaker>Cavalry charges forced to retreat within. <v Speaker>But after several hours of siege, the Spanish cut through the Palisades. <v Speaker>Nine hours of fighting left more than 1000 Indian dead. <v Speaker>Most perished in the flames of the burning town. <v Speaker>The fate of Tuscaloosa is not known.
<v Speaker>So bad. <v Speaker>Some 20 Spaniards died of the living. <v Speaker>Nearly all were wounded. Many six were seven times when the attack <v Speaker>began. The Indian terrorists who had accompanied the expedition retreated within <v Speaker>the village walls. They took what they carried food, <v Speaker>supplies, clothing. <v Speaker>The fire consumed all the destitute survivors, treated what wounds <v Speaker>they could, finding them with scraps of clothing from the dead. <v Speaker>There were more bandages by morning.
<v Speaker>It was a month before the army had buried all of its dead and recovered enough strength <v Speaker>to move. De Soto had received word that ships and provisions waved in <v Speaker>the Gulf of Mexico. 40 leaks to the south. <v Speaker>But he had no wealth to send home. <v Speaker>No gold to reward. Hardship, toil and death. <v Speaker>Fearful of a mutiny. <v Speaker>He never told his men of the ships and of the provisions. <v Speaker>He turned the army north and pushed farther into the uncharted, limitless <v Speaker>interior. <v Speaker>A year and a half later, DeSoto, his body was committed to the waters of the Mississippi <v Speaker>River. He was felled not by combat, <v Speaker>but by Pfieffer. <v Speaker>What remained of his expedition strangled its way to the Gulf and found refuge in Mexico <v Speaker>in September of fifteen forty three.
<v Speaker>More explorers than settlers. <v Speaker>The Spanish presented no lasting threat. <v Speaker>But they left behind a foe that did <v Speaker>a relentless foe that could not be appeased by gold <v Speaker>or silver slaves or corn. <v Speaker>Well, we figured it that. <v Speaker>We know that they will that.
<v Speaker>Like a fire out of control. <v Speaker>Disease swept through the continent. <v Speaker>Measles. Mumps. <v Speaker>Plague. <v Speaker>Typhoid. Influenza. <v Speaker>Yellow fever. <v Speaker>Small pox. <v Speaker>There was no immunity. <v Speaker>None. <v Speaker>In the space of a generation. <v Speaker>Perhaps three fourths of the population perished. <v Speaker>Millions died. <v Speaker>No culture or religious system could survive this Holocaust. <v Speaker>An entire way of life.
<v Speaker>Descendants of the survivors reorganized his Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee <v Speaker>and Creek. They were town dwellers who farmed nearby fields, hunted <v Speaker>surrounding woods and traveled for the small luxuries supplied by trade <v Speaker>and the great sport of a game with a neighbor. <v Speaker>The Great Chiefs, complex society and the hereditary class structure of earlier <v Speaker>days was gone. Chiefs and councils of beloved men advised, not <v Speaker>commanded tribal custom regulated conduct for individual freedom <v Speaker>was held in such high regard that if the tribe acted as a group, it was only through the <v Speaker>consensus of its members.
<v Speaker>Into this society, can goods from another world with a simple <v Speaker>exchange. The Indians left the Stone Age behind. <v Speaker>Metal tools replaced those of flint bone and shell guns, replaced <v Speaker>bows and arrows. <v Speaker>But in that simple exchange, they would barter away part of their freedom <v Speaker>for an irrevocable dependance on European goods. <v Speaker>British colonists founded Charleston in the Carolina colony, 16 17. <v Speaker>They intended to produce race, indigo and cotton, but from the <v Speaker>outset, the settlers were approached by Indians who wanted to trade. <v Speaker>Guns, metal tools, cloth and other manufactured goods.
<v Speaker>They came with two things the white man wanted deer skins and slaves. <v Speaker>There was advantage to be gained on both sides of the transaction. <v Speaker>And soon, British traders range through Indian territory south to Spanish, <v Speaker>Florida and west as far as the Mississippi River. <v Speaker>In a few years, Charleston became the center of British commerce in the southeast and <v Speaker>trade became the principal method of British colonial expansion. <v Speaker>All the land drained by the Mississippi River and its tributaries was claimed for
<v Speaker>France in sixteen eighty two, but there was no permanent settlement until <v Speaker>the end of the century. <v Speaker>In 17th to this year, WVU was appointed governor of Louisiana <v Speaker>Colony and he founded mbira as the capital. <v Speaker>The Indians traded furs and food to the colonists. <v Speaker>But France, for a variety of reasons, was unable to manufacture and transport it to <v Speaker>Louisiana. Trade goods of sufficient quality and quantity to compete with the British. <v Speaker>And so to preserve good relations and extend their influence among Indian tribes, <v Speaker>the French relied more on diplomacy than on commerce. <v Speaker>The Indians may have preferred to trade with the British, but they enjoyed the company <v Speaker>of the French and invited them to build forts and set up warehouses deep within <v Speaker>Indian territory.
<v Speaker>Fought to lose? Well, Inside Creek territory was garrisoned by French <v Speaker>soldiers and marked the easternmost boundary of the Louisiana colony. <v Speaker>It lay three weeks upriver from mobile. <v Speaker>From Charleston, the overland journey into Creek Country took over a month. <v Speaker>To satisfy their own demand for European goods and European demand <v Speaker>for deer skins, the Indians had altered the economic basis of their society. <v Speaker>They were no longer farmers. <v Speaker>They were commercial hunters.
<v Speaker>Charleston alone shipped more than 50000 thousand skins a year. <v Speaker>The. <v Speaker>John Spencer is trading post play in Upper Creek territory on the Tallapoosa River, just <v Speaker>seven short miles from Fort Lewis. <v Speaker>Spencer, like many other British traders, had been invited to set up his store. <v Speaker>In this case, the invitation was issued by an Upper Creek war chief who was aware of his <v Speaker>people's increasing reliance on trade and intended to apply them with those who could <v Speaker>supply the best goods at the lowest cost. <v Speaker>He was called the wolf. <v Speaker>He was Spencer's landlord, his host among the creeks <v Speaker>and his protector.
<v Speaker>From the pivot of trade swung the balance of power in the southeast and the low quality <v Speaker>and uncertain quantity of French goods cost Louisiana potential Indian allies to <v Speaker>Carolina and newly formed Georgia colony. <v Speaker>However, what might not be particularly valuable is trade goods. <v Speaker>Diplomatically adroit French found invaluable as presence. <v Speaker>The services which were provided free of charge and the gift which accompany them were <v Speaker>extraordinarily influential. <v Speaker>In the spring of 1740, an Indian Congress was killed at Fort Aloose, <v Speaker>the French commander called a meeting of several Creek headmen to discuss, among other <v Speaker>matters, the destruction of all British trading houses in Upper Creek territory. <v Speaker>The first target of this proposed action was Spenser's. <v Speaker>Those mean these old missile visit me for losing you.
<v Speaker>[speaking French] The commander had harangued the crowd headmen for most of the <v Speaker>afternoon. He emphasized the unwavering friendship and goodwill of the French. <v Speaker>He promised the usual gifts and budy and kept the liquor flowing, <v Speaker>bottled up after bottles. <v Speaker>The Creeks listened patiently to his talk. <v Speaker>What would send them into action, however undiscovered, was the assertion that the <v Speaker>British had not come to barter for their deerskin but to take their land, <v Speaker>to drive the Indians from it and to plung dagger's into their hearts. <v Speaker>[speaking French] <v Speaker>The Wolf knew of the French plan to destroy Spenser's, and he was determined
<v Speaker>to defend his traitor. <v Speaker>It was so typical. The conflict between British and French played out between their <v Speaker>Indian allies. <v Speaker>Ow, ow, ow, ow, ow. <v Speaker>Mr..
<v Speaker>I left. <v Speaker>They're going to pass Jibran, Jay. <v Speaker>The struggle between the British and the French for colonial supremacy would not be <v Speaker>resolved in America, but in Europe. <v Speaker>In 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War and awarded <v Speaker>the victor Great Britain, virtually all of the French and Spanish holdings from North <v Speaker>America, east of the Mississippi River. <v Speaker>Immediately, Great Britain sought to establish herself in her newly acquired territory
<v Speaker>and to impose taxes on the colonies that would return of revenue to the British <v Speaker>government. The first of these objectives would nearly bring the Indians to war. <v Speaker>The last caused the American Revolution. <v Speaker>What Great Britain had taken a century and a half to achieve. <v Speaker>She would lose in 20 years. <v Speaker>The Indians objected to the assumption that their land could be occupied without their <v Speaker>consent and resisted aggressive encroachments with sporadic acts of violence <v Speaker>and threats of war. <v Speaker>The British attempted to control this resistance through the Indians dependance on trade. <v Speaker>Very, very good. Now I'm going to. <v Speaker>Thank you very much. <v Speaker>Yes. <v Speaker>Yes.
<v Speaker>Treaties were struck, which, for the most part, exchanged land for gifts, lower trade <v Speaker>prices and the promise of no further encroachment. <v Speaker>Less than two years after the expulsion of the French, the Indians had ceded several <v Speaker>million acres to the British. <v Speaker>We meet here today. <v Speaker>A sign of peace. <v Speaker>Let me remind you how this works. <v Speaker>This needle here will come out to here and that will determine how much I pay you <v Speaker>for the scans. <v Speaker>We meet here today by the order of the great King George. <v Speaker>Each one of these weights, you watch that needles there.
<v Speaker>Now watch. Up here, there's one seat. <v Speaker>That's it right there now. <v Speaker>No, no, it's right back. <v Speaker>Wait. Now, if you won't believe me, you won't be able to deal <v Speaker>with anyone. <v Speaker>By 1765, the Indians had become totally dependent on European goods. <v Speaker>The British used this dependance and their monopoly on South-Eastern trade to sort of <v Speaker>continual pressure for land. <v Speaker>There were treaties and agreements and land sessions. <v Speaker>But despite the repeated assurances of British officials, encroachments continued. <v Speaker>King George himself had issued a proclamation that there would be no British settlement <v Speaker>west of the Appalachian Mountains. <v Speaker>But he also granted the governor of Georgia a commission which designated the Mississippi
<v Speaker>River as the western boundary of the colony for <v Speaker>the colonists and the government which taxed them. <v Speaker>Cattle, crops and trade were simply too profitable to be ignored. <v Speaker>Encroachments continued. <v Speaker>No. Yes. <v Speaker>You know why? <v Speaker>Before a man is born, the land is here.
<v Speaker>And after a man is dead. <v Speaker>The land is here. <v Speaker>How can a man own it and have it and keep it? <v Speaker>The Indians grew resentful of the steady pressure for land, and the colonists <v Speaker>grew impatient with the obstacles in the path of their expansion along <v Speaker>the border, emotions ran high and violence was easy. <v Speaker>Whites trespassed and were killed. <v Speaker>Indians stole and were killed. <v Speaker>Settlers burned Indian fields and took Indian horses. <v Speaker>And the Indians raided traders for their goods and took the horses back. <v Speaker>If the Indians were to protect the integrity of their land and the colonial government, <v Speaker>the lives of its colonists, the boundaries specified in the treaties had to be marked. <v Speaker>These points are.
<v Speaker>So, yes, I <v Speaker>was trying to say, I think. <v Speaker>Hold your horses. <v Speaker>No, begging him, forced to marry and have more fun. <v Speaker>All right. <v Speaker>We're not going to take the last one. <v Speaker>Hot dog on multimillionaire.
<v Speaker>Hi. <v Speaker>The Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution in 1783 by <v Speaker>the turn of the century, nearly four generations of columnists had settled and worked, <v Speaker>fought and died in America. <v Speaker>They were Americans. They were natives. <v Speaker>And by virtue of their sweat and blood, they claimed the land as their natural right. <v Speaker>In 1883, the Louisiana Purchase extended the western territory of the United States <v Speaker>at the foot of the Rocky Mountains over land. <v Speaker>White men had never owned and never occupied Indians and hunted and farmed <v Speaker>and lived on the land for centuries.
<v Speaker>The United States bought it from France. <v Speaker>Almost immediately, the government sought to supply roads across Indian territory west <v Speaker>from Georgia and south to the Gulf Coast, justifiably suspicious of ulterior <v Speaker>motives on the part of the United States. <v Speaker>The Creek nation granted the right of way, but restricted its use to the postal <v Speaker>service. When the United States demanded that the road system be expanded <v Speaker>and the restrictions on its use lifted, the creeks refused. <v Speaker>In 1810, in violation of treaty agreements, the United States government had possible <v Speaker>roadways explored and surveyed. <v Speaker>In January of 1811, President Madison assured the Protesting Creek Nation <v Speaker>that the United States had absolutely no designs on their land. <v Speaker>In June, the secretary of war ordered the roads built with or without <v Speaker>Indian consent.
<v Speaker>If you can learn to spin and wave other forces threatened the Indian way of life, <v Speaker>you can make your way in the world without the invention of the cotton. <v Speaker>Gin made the large scale cultivation of the crop profitable and the plantation <v Speaker>system expanded westward where the Indians were caught in the path of what would become <v Speaker>the greatest economic power in the South. <v Speaker>Add to your life, King Cotton, and make life a lot easier. <v Speaker>Make it easier for <v Speaker>hunting premiers. <v Speaker>The ladies have been taught to stand the gentleman to grow cotton in the garden. <v Speaker>The of his heart. Good morning, Mr. Hawkins. <v Speaker>Benjamin Hawkins official duties as Indian agent to the Southern tribes <v Speaker>were would make and enforce treaties, keep peace some ago, and occasionally persuade <v Speaker>the tribes to give up land. <v Speaker>But he also undertook a plan to reshape Indian culture. <v Speaker>If the Indians could be civilized, as Hawkins understood the word, they might
<v Speaker>find a place in an expanding white society suddenly <v Speaker>moving into our culture. <v Speaker>Pretty soon he would be as productive as a white. <v Speaker>I think that Indian is going too slow. <v Speaker>I never saw an Indian work all day. <v Speaker>A land hungry American government saw its own advantage in Hawkin's plans. <v Speaker>If the Indians adopted agriculture, they would not require large tracts of hunting land. <v Speaker>And if Hawkins could influence the Creek Tribal Council, the United States could deal
<v Speaker>with a friendly government whose word on treaties and more importantly, land sessions <v Speaker>would bind the entire creek nation. <v Speaker>Many Indians benefited from Hawkin's reforms and were receptive to the changes <v Speaker>he brought. But others resisted his impositions and were angered by <v Speaker>the persistent American appetite for land. <v Speaker>An opposition arose which would set the Creek nation on the road to civil war. <v Speaker>It was an opposition to everything that was white and at its heart burn decades <v Speaker>of resentment. <v Speaker>It was a revival of almost religious fervor of native <v Speaker>Indian culture. These were red sticks and they were led by their profits. <v Speaker>Destroy all that is white. They said, kill the old chiefs. <v Speaker>The friends of peace. Kill the cattle.
<v Speaker>Kill the hogs. <v Speaker>Burn the wheels and the looms. <v Speaker>And the hoes. <v Speaker>And the plows and everything used by the Americans. <v Speaker>I have been beneath the earth and spoken with the spirits of the water. <v Speaker>Look for me. Call for me. <v Speaker>Lift up your war club. I will show you how to use to drive the white man into the sea. <v Speaker>Got.
<v Speaker>All used to be <v Speaker>a PR mark. <v Speaker>I need help in a Chuck E. <v Speaker>Debauching cutting. <v Speaker>In June of 1812, the United States declared war with Great Britain. <v Speaker>Much to the astonishment of the Indian agent. <v Speaker>And contrary to the reports, the War Department and the governors of the Southern <v Speaker>Territories were convinced that the Indians were a threat to the United States. <v Speaker>Invasion was discussed,
<v Speaker>that the Creek Tribal Council had unanimously declared peace with the United States was <v Speaker>simply viewed as proof of the Indians clever duplicity. <v Speaker>In February of 1813, a band of red stick creeks led by Little Warrior <v Speaker>killed several whites who had settled on disputed territory. <v Speaker>Hawkins demanded the killers be punished. <v Speaker>The tribal council complied and ordered the executions.
<v Speaker>Instead, we must cut. <v Speaker>The echo of gunfire had barely died away before Redds decrease took revenge <v Speaker>on the tribal council who had ordered little warrior's death in <v Speaker>the midst of this violence. White settlers grew fearful. <v Speaker>In July, a red stick party carrying guns and ammunition was attacked by American militia. <v Speaker>Surprised and angered by this unprovoked intervention. <v Speaker>The Red Stick's retaliated. The Fort Mims massacre became known, gave <v Speaker>the United States the incident it needed to enter the Greek civil war and invade the <v Speaker>Greek nation. <v Speaker>And you're a man kind of. Cold, wet, raided by <v Speaker>federal poppy. I already.
<v Speaker>Several campaign against the creek ready to fire eventually brought Gen. <v Speaker>Andrew Jackson to the village of TAHO pickup at a great horseshoe bend <v Speaker>in the Tallapoosa River. <v Speaker>I pray to God your men are as ready as you say they are. <v Speaker>Yes, sir. Yes, sir. <v Speaker>Now, if you will observe the map, I will supervise the placing of a six pounder <v Speaker>and a three pound eminence at this location and on the Breastworks <v Speaker>General Coffee Station, your man along the river one quarter mile <v Speaker>back at this perimeter. <v Speaker>Russell Spies and the Indians will be stationed along the riverbank to prevent any <v Speaker>crossing. Thirty nine will leave the initial attack from here. <v Speaker>That's the breastworks flanked by authorities militia. <v Speaker>The field hospital is here, gentlemen. <v Speaker>The rear guard at these locations. <v Speaker>One final reminder, gentlemen, any officer or <v Speaker>soldier who flies before the enemy without being compelled
<v Speaker>by a superior force shelled, suffered death. <v Speaker>Gentlemen, to victory to the great. <v Speaker>By 10:00 a.m., Jackson and nearly 2000 men had marched into the Horseshoe Bend Peninsula <v Speaker>at 10 30, an artillery barrage was opened in an attempt to breach the log barricades. <v Speaker>Several hours earlier, General Coffey with 700 cavalry and 600 <v Speaker>friendly Cherokee's had crossed the Tallapoosa and encircled the topi could village <v Speaker>from the rear.
<v Speaker>Jackson's attack was stoled. <v Speaker>Around noon, several Cherokee's impatient with the course of battle, undertook <v Speaker>an action of their own. <v Speaker>With the stolen canoes, the Cherokees varied a small force across the river. <v Speaker>Unbeknownst to Jackson, they attacked Tokiko from the.
<v Speaker>The Cherokees in a small company of whites swept through the undefended Richling Village <v Speaker>and put it to the torch as the smoke climbed skyward, they advanced on the wall from <v Speaker>the rear. <v Speaker>Jackson took advantage of the Cherokee's initiative and cleaned his place in history.
<v Speaker>I been very, very close to being allowed with the <v Speaker>bar, not the idea to pay for it and to avoid <v Speaker>the cost of further war. <v Speaker>We need to go back to what, you know, mobility best view that <v Speaker>the United States must indemnify itself <v Speaker>with land. <v Speaker>United States government are happy of any shot. <v Speaker>You may remove our brothers. <v Speaker>The terms of peace I hold in my hand. <v Speaker>I said there is unity over my ability to buscaino volitionally upon Aoshima. <v Speaker>Tomorrow they will be read to you a team that is McClatchey. <v Speaker>Articles of agreement and capitulation made this ninth day of August 1814 <v Speaker>between Major General Andrew Jackson on behalf of the president of the United States of <v Speaker>America and the chief's deputies and lawyers of the Creek Nation.
<v Speaker>Whereas an unprovoked, inhuman and sanguinary war waged by the hostile Greeks <v Speaker>against the United States in. <v Speaker>Devolved to the United States and they identified with the right of property seated here <v Speaker>by article to the United States, will guarantee to the Creek Nation <v Speaker>the integrity of all the territory East Ridley and North Ridley said, line <v Speaker>to be run and described as mentioned in the first article. <v Speaker>Article three. United States demand that the great nation abandon all communications. <v Speaker>These articles of the ventilation. <v Speaker>If ever they shall be found within the territory guaranteed to the Creek Nation by the <v Speaker>second article. <v Speaker>Article seven, the Creek Nation being reduced to extreme one and not at present having <v Speaker>the means of subsistence. The United States, from motives of humanity, will continue <v Speaker>to furnish gratuitously the necessaries of life. <v Speaker>What's going on here? <v Speaker>President, they've fallen down.
<v Speaker>We can't make it. Shoot him. <v Speaker>Constitute the basis of a permanent peace between the two nations. <v Speaker>They do hereby solemnly bind themselves and all the parties concerned and interested <v Speaker>to a faithful performance of every stipulation contained their general. <v Speaker>They are to sign these now. <v Speaker>With the stroke of a pen. <v Speaker>Half a nation was gone. <v Speaker>20 million acres. <v Speaker>The road to Indian removal had been cut and laid. <v Speaker>And over the next 20 years, creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, <v Speaker>Chickasaw, as would all turn their backs <v Speaker>on home.
<v Speaker>And. <v Speaker>Oh, oh, oh.
First Frontier
Producing Organization
Alabama Public Television
Auburn University. Educational Television Department
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The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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"First Frontier tells a story of 300 years of Southeastern history. From 1540 to 1835 the region was explored by the Spanish, colonized by the French, controlled by the English and eventually led into statehood by the Americans. At the same time, two cultures, the Native American and the Western European same into contact and often exploded into bloody conflict. "Produced with the cooperation of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and the Poarch Band of Creek Indians; and under the guidance of scholars from throughout the region and the nation, First Frontier is more than an educational television program, it is a text. This text assembles, for the first time, the record of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, two centuries which have been virtually missing from the chronicles of Southeastern history. More than a simple lack of physical evidence, these centuries have fallen between the cracks of academic disciplines. "Frontier does not warrant Peabody recognition because it is a good history text, but because it is scholarship which leads, rather than follows, academic synthesis. It is not derivative. This program puts television on the vanguard of historical research and at the same time brings this research and this synthesis, through the medium of broadcast, to the public."--1987 Peabody Awards entry form.
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Producing Organization: Alabama Public Television
Producing Organization: Auburn University. Educational Television Department
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The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
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Duration: 0:58:00
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Chicago: “First Frontier,” 1987-07-15, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “First Frontier.” 1987-07-15. The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: First Frontier. Boston, MA: The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from