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<v Speaker>Sex, power and the workplace. KCET Los Angeles Stereo Audio, <v Speaker>Channel One Left. Channel 2 right. <v Speaker>Channel 3 SMPTE timecode total running time 58 54. <v Narrator>Nearly half of all working women experience the problem. <v Speaker 1>On the way to work I used to think, you know, what are they gonna do to me today? <v Speaker 1>And by the time I got to work, I was usually <v Speaker 1>breaking out with hives just from nerves. <v Narrator>Many men are equally worried about it. <v Speaker 2>Yes, it does scare me a lot.
<v Speaker 2>You can't ignore that the penalties and the consequences are huge <v Speaker 2>potentially for me personally as well as for my company. <v Narrator>Most victims suffer both professionally and personally. <v Speaker 3>The emotions when that sort of thing happens are both embarrassing. <v Speaker 3>They are humiliating. It's degrading. <v Speaker 3>It makes me feel like a second class citizen. <v Speaker 3>I'm not playing with their bodies. <v Narrator>It's rarely about sexual attraction, but almost always involves power <v Narrator>and control. <v Speaker 4>He started encouraging other office members to join <v Speaker 4>in. In intimidation and harassment in the office. <v Speaker 4>And then he would offer his protection in exchange for sex.
<v Narrator 2>Major funding for Sex, Power, and the Workplace is provided by the Durfee Foundation, <v Narrator 2>which is pleased to support excellence in public television programing. <v Speaker 5>[music playing] I don't think it's truly a feminist issue anymore than it's a chauvinist <v Speaker 5>issue. <v Speaker 6>It's about the imposition of power, imposition of authority. <v Speaker 7>Women tend to blame themselves. They tend to think somehow they must have done something <v Speaker 7>that caused it. <v Speaker 8>So long as our society condones it, supports it. <v Speaker 8>Some men will continue to do it. <v Speaker 9>In plain language, we're talking about unwanted sexual attention. <v Narrator>Sometimes obvious, often subtle and always subjective. <v Narrator>Sexual harassment is just one of many issues of fairness that women have raised <v Narrator>throughout their battle for equal rights in the workplace.
<v Narrator>Sexual harassment, it seems, has persisted as long as men and women have shared a working <v Narrator>environment. <v Narrator>There are stories dating back some four centuries detailing harassment of colonial <v Narrator>women working in the mills of Massachusetts. <v Narrator>But the problem became more pervasive during the industrial revolution when women began <v Narrator>entering the male dominated workforce in large numbers. <v Narrator>With little legal protection, most victims simply blame themselves. <v Narrator>At the time, society's prevailing attitude was a woman's place is in the home. <v Narrator>During World War 2, when men marched off to war, it became more acceptable <v Narrator>for women to work. But sexual harassment remained unrecognized and regarded <v Narrator>as an unfortunate ?your? personal problem. <v News Announcer>Congress passes the most sweeping civil rights bill ever to be written into the law-
<v Narrator>[News announcer inaudibly talking] In 1964, when President Johnson signed the Civil <v Narrator>Rights Act, federal legislation was enacted banning not only racial discrimination <v Narrator>but discrimination based on sex. <v Narrator>It was the legal foundation for equal opportunity in the workplace. <v Narrator>But the new law did little to prevent sexual harassment, which we now regard <v Narrator>as a form of discrimination. <v Narrator>Although some women took their cases to court. <v Narrator>The vast majority of victims continue to suffer in silence. <v Narrator>Even at the outset of the 1990s, a time in which women held nearly <v Narrator>half of all jobs in this country, sexual harassment remained largely <v Narrator>hidden and ignored. <v Narrator>It wasn't until one momentous weekend in October of 1991 <v Narrator>that the issue finally exploded. <v Anita Hill>What happened next and telling the world about it
<v Anita Hill>are the two most difficult things, e- experiences of my life. <v Anita Hill>It is only after a great deal of agonizing consideration and sleepless <v Anita Hill>number, a great number of sleepless nights that I am able to talk <v Anita Hill>of these unpleasant matters to anyone but my close friends. <v Clarence Thomas>I can not imagine anything that I've said or did to <v Clarence Thomas>Anita Hill that could have been mistaken for sexual harassment. <v Clarence Thomas>But with that said, if there is anything that I have said <v Clarence Thomas>that has been misconstrued by Anita Hill or anyone else <v Clarence Thomas>to be sexual harassment, then I can say that I am so very sorry <v Clarence Thomas>and I wish I had known. <v Man>We are here today to hold open hearings on <v Man>Professor Anita Hill's allegations concerning Judge Thomas. <v Narrator>[inaudible speaking] The Clarence Thomas Anita Hill hearings galvanized unprecedented
<v Narrator>public awareness about sexual harassment. <v Narrator>Yet the lurid testimony seemed to raise more questions than answers. <v Narrator>If the disparity in public opinion is any indication, the Hill Thomas controversy <v Narrator>graphically illustrates that men and women often view sexual harassment from entirely <v Narrator>different perspectives. <v Narrator>Many sided with Clarence Thomas and saw sexual harassment as a misunderstanding <v Narrator>or a matter of false accusation, while others identified with Anita Hill, <v Narrator>whose stories symbolize the plight of the working woman. <v Narrator>Yet the fallout from the Hill Thomas debate raised larger and more urgent questions. <v Narrator>What is sexual harassment? <v Narrator>Who's to blame? <v Narrator>And why does it happen? <v Dan Stormer>Sexual harassment is about power. <v Dan Stormer>Sexual harassment isn't is a means by which a man <v Dan Stormer>can exert power over a woman whereby he can use his
<v Dan Stormer>his resources, his extra power, his management position, his <v Dan Stormer>uh application to the good old boy network, whatever it is that supports his power base <v Dan Stormer>to basically demean a woman. <v Jackie Morris>[machine running] My name is Jackie Morris and I live in Bonne Terre, Missouri, and I've <v Jackie Morris>been a mold maker for approximately 11 years at American National Can ?inaudible? <v Jackie Morris>Missouri. <v Narrator>When she was hired by the American National Can Company in 1981, Jackie <v Narrator>Morris was one of the first females to hold a skilled labor position at the plant. <v Narrator>Her coworkers were exclusively men. <v Jackie Morris>I was um sexually harassed about 2 or 3 years after I started working in there <v Jackie Morris>and things just started little things started happening first, <v Jackie Morris>which I took it as practical jokes. <v Jackie Morris>Then the things started getting worse and worse and I realized that it wasn't practical <v Jackie Morris>jokes, that they were aimed right at me for sexual purposes for me
<v Jackie Morris>to get out of there. <v Jackie Morris>My first thoughts were, well, I am doin' a man's job. <v Jackie Morris>I am in a man's environment. Maybe these are things that I supposed to put up with. <v Jackie Morris>Maybe that these these are necessary for me to do my job. <v Narrator>What Jackie didn't realize was that she was being subjected to a hostile work <v Narrator>environment. Nor was she aware that it was against the law. <v Freada Kline>Sexual harassment that takes the form of a hostile environment is usually cumulative <v Freada Kline>behaviors or practices in the work environment. <v Freada Kline>It can be graphic [audio cuts out] ?images? <v Freada Kline>[audio continues to cut out] uh like ?pictures?, ?posters?, and pinups. <v Freada Kline>It [audio cuts out] relentless banter. <v Freada Kline>Um [audio cuts out] ?one's? presence of the ?sexual culture? <v Freada Kline>usually it takes several events uh and often engaged <v Freada Kline>in by several people so that it reaches a level that it changes <v Freada Kline>the conditions of one's employment, that coming to work every day, being able
<v Freada Kline>to focus on one's responsibilities is no longer possible because <v Freada Kline>of the unwelcome sexual environment. <v Jackie Morris>Some of the things I received at my work area was pictures of like, for instance, <v Jackie Morris>women taking a bath saying I should do- be doing this instead of a man's job. <v Jackie Morris>There was other pictures on there, such as half ton, a big lady with my name written on. <v Jackie Morris>So there was no mistake. It was it was for me. <v Jackie Morris>And then I received a uh penis ?inaudible?. <v Jackie Morris>I guess it was a Playboy ?inaudible?. I don't know. I don't look at the magazines and I <v Jackie Morris>receive this one particular day that had a little note attached to it. <v Jackie Morris>And I- this is the one I took to the plant manager in my purse. <v Jackie Morris>And he told me to leave my prize in my purse. <v Jackie Morris>That he didn't need to see it. I deserved it. <v Narrator>For Jackie, like many victims, the harassment began to take a physical toll. <v Jackie Morris>When I would get up in the morning, I actu- I dreaded going in, I would make myself <v Jackie Morris>literally sick. I would break out in hives.
<v Jackie Morris>I couldn't breathe. And I think a lot of it was stress and I was worrying myself, you <v Jackie Morris>know, and it got eventually got real bad. <v Freada Kline>When we think about the common form of sexual harassment, starting subtle, <v Freada Kline>escalating over time, then doing all kinds of things to avoid and deny <v Freada Kline>the situation. It has a chronic, debilitating effect <v Freada Kline>on individuals that often what's reported is a whole host <v Freada Kline>of emotional and physical consequences. <v Jackie Morris>There will be times I'd come home and my husband had to take me to the hospital because I <v Jackie Morris>couldn't breathe. I was having like a asthma attack. <v Jackie Morris>After I spoke to my doctor the last time with his recommendation, I didn't have any other <v Jackie Morris>choice but to quit. <v Narrator>During this time, Jackie decided to file a complaint with the Equal Employment <v Narrator>Opportunity Commission. He was tried in federal court, which ruled in her favor. <v Narrator>She was awarded $16000 in back pay. <v Narrator>While the case was in litigation, Jackie was rehired by the plant.
<v Narrator>But the legal victory apparently did little to improve the working conditions or the <v Narrator>behavior of some of her male colleagues. <v Jackie Morris>The harassment is still there uh almost on a daily basis. <v Jackie Morris>They still will make uh hog noises, cow noises. <v Jackie Morris>They'll call me a hog um they grease my area. <v Jackie Morris>They've hit me with cartridge ?rows?. But as far as the sexual items, I have not received <v Jackie Morris>any of those except for the little newspaper clipping that had stated ?heaven? <v Jackie Morris>on a hog. <v Narrator>The American National Can Company would not comment for this program. <v Narrator>But according to Jackie's attorney, Michael Hoare, management's lenient attitude towards <v Narrator>sexual harassment is what perpetuated a hostile environment. <v Michael Hoare>It's not enough to say that boys will be boys and this is horseplay or pranks, <v Michael Hoare>because that indeed is the the mentality that generates sexual harassment. <v Michael Hoare>And if you accept that as the norm in the workplace, there won't be any change <v Michael Hoare>whatsoever. And women will be discouraged from entering these the workplace, will
<v Michael Hoare>be discouraged from uh seeking promotions to better positions in the workplace. <v Michael Hoare>And that kind of mentality generally perpetuates the harassment. <v Michael Hoare>It denies the very purpose for which the law was passed. <v Narrator>Sexual harassment often takes a more subtle course, as it allegedly <v Narrator>did at the Stanford University Medical School in Palo Alto, California. <v Dr. Frances Conley>We use our brain cells a lot more than ?inaudible? do. <v Dr. Frances Conley>So there are money more- yes, you'll have many more developed- yeah-. I'm Dr. Frances <v Dr. Frances Conley>Conley. I am a professor of neurosurgery at Stanford University's School of Medicine <v Dr. Frances Conley>and I am chief of the section of neurosurgery at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs <v Dr. Frances Conley>Medical Center. <v Narrator>Though her story is different in scope and circumstances from Jackie Morris's, <v Narrator>Dr. Conley claims she was also subjected to a hostile work environment <v Narrator>and sexual discrimination throughout her 25 year medical career at Stanford.
<v Dr. Frances Conley>In the medical profession, there is this mindset uh among physicians <v Dr. Frances Conley>that says that women you can you if you wanna be here, <v Dr. Frances Conley>you're going to put up with that which we are are willing to offer <v Dr. Frances Conley>or we're we're going to offer. And I think this develops because of the hierarchical <v Dr. Frances Conley>structure that medicine always has been, i.e. <v Dr. Frances Conley>that doctor is God is male and doctor as God <v Dr. Frances Conley>who just male is waited upon by handmaidens that are women. <v Dr. Frances Conley>And so there's been a mindset develop that says, hey, this is OK, it's OK <v Dr. Frances Conley>to touch people inappropriately. <v Dr. Frances Conley>It's all right to remind women that they are very inferior and that they're inferior <v Dr. Frances Conley>because of their gender. <v Dan Stormer>The significance of of Francis Conley's case is that even in the highest, <v Dan Stormer>most intellectual arenas, [Conley inaudibly speaking] sexual harassment, sex <v Dan Stormer>discrimination exists. <v Dan Stormer>What Francis Conley's situation tells us is that education doesn't
<v Dan Stormer>do anything to do away with sexism or issues of sexual <v Dan Stormer>harassment. Education only makes it more sudden. <v Dan Stormer>And education only allows people to hide it better as opposed to refrain <v Dan Stormer>from doing it because it is ultimately an issue <v Dan Stormer>of power. <v Dr. Frances Conley>I can, you know, r- remember with vivid detail, for example, getting up in the meeting <v Dr. Frances Conley>of surgeons and having a surgeon yell to al- <v Dr. Frances Conley>everybody there, I could see the outline of your breast through your coat. <v Dr. Frances Conley>I mean, he has a right, I guess, to look at my body, but to make comments about it, no he <v Dr. Frances Conley>doesn't have that right, OK? Not in front of the whole audience. <v Dr. Frances Conley>Um uh other things that happened is that I'll be sitting in a meeting next to a surgeon <v Dr. Frances Conley>and uh usually it's in a company of surgeons. <v Dr. Frances Conley>It's a closed type of a corporation. <v Dr. Frances Conley>And the hand ?would? put on my thigh. <v Dr. Frances Conley>Everybody knows this hand is on my thigh. And what I do is pick the hand up and noisily <v Dr. Frances Conley>put the hand back on the table again. <v Dr. Frances Conley>Funsy, fun, fun at my expense. <v Dr. Frances Conley>That's not hurting you?
<v Patient>Nope. <v Dr. Frances Conley>That's not hurting. On a personal level it it impacts you because you always <v Dr. Frances Conley>question yourself. But that's what women do. <v Dr. Frances Conley>The impact for us is to make sure that our self-confidence is rattled every <v Dr. Frances Conley>single day. Am I really as good as he is? <v Dr. Frances Conley>Is my surgical technique are my surgical techniques as good as his? <v Dr. Frances Conley>Or is my research equivalent to his? <v Dr. Frances Conley>And we ask that constantly every single day. <v Dr. Frances Conley>Men never ask that. <v Dr. Frances Conley>Okay this guy [Man: Yep]. I saw him with Frank this morning and he's got <v Dr. Frances Conley>um- <v Narrator>[Conley still speaking] Dr. Conley says she suffered in silence for years simply to keep <v Narrator>her job. But she reached her breaking point when Dr. Gerald Silverberg, <v Narrator>the man allegedly responsible for much of the harassment, was appointed her boss. <v Narrator>Shortly thereafter, Conley resigned and went public. <v Dr. Frances Conley>The decision to come forward was not a difficult one at all. <v Dr. Frances Conley>When Dr. Silverberg was appointed as permanent chair, I saw the rest of my <v Dr. Frances Conley>productive professional life being spent in an environment where
<v Dr. Frances Conley>my I felt like I was getting ulcers. <v Dr. Frances Conley>The thing that really impacted my actions was to hear the medical <v Dr. Frances Conley>students that they were having real problems with sexist type <v Dr. Frances Conley>of behavior in their educational environment. <v Dr. Frances Conley>And in some ways I felt very guilty because by my not making an issue <v Dr. Frances Conley>out of some of the events that had happened to me, I was facilitating an environment <v Dr. Frances Conley>that was continue to be very hostile for them. <v Leo Turrell>I mean, victims who who remain in silence do more harm to <v Leo Turrell>women in general by not bringing their issues to the forefront. <v Leo Turrell>And tho- it tells employers that they have the right to continue harassment <v Leo Turrell>not only to that particular victim, but to other victims. <v Leo Turrell>And then you have the situation where victims are in the same workplace who share these <v Leo Turrell>problems. And yet they still remain silent to maintain their jobs. <v Narrator>The Conley case attracted national media attention and prompted the dean
<v Narrator>of the medical school, David Corn, to investigate the allegations. <v David Korn>In the investigation there was evidence obtained that <v David Korn>he had behaved in ways that we felt were inappropriate <v David Korn>for a leader of the institution, and for that reason he was <v David Korn>removed. <v Narrator>Dr. Silverberg would not comment for this program. <v Narrator>As for Dr. Conley, she has rescinded her resignation and continues working at Stanford, <v Narrator>convinced that her message has been heard. <v Dr. Frances Conley>I think my experiences are very typical of many, many women. <v Dr. Frances Conley>It isn't bizarre. It isn't way off base. <v Dr. Frances Conley>This is a very gray area that everybody has experienced and everybody <v Dr. Frances Conley>understands. And the reason that it has had the interests that it's had is because <v Dr. Frances Conley>everybody can relate to it. <v Freada Kline>We're talking about unwelcome or unwanted sexual attention
<v Freada Kline>so that by definition, if it is welcome or desired by me, then <v Freada Kline>it is not sexual harassment. <v Freada Kline>And that's where a lot of the confusion comes from. <v Freada Kline>We're not talking about a list of behaviors that are always safe. <v Freada Kline>And conversely, a list of behaviors that are always sexual harassment. <v Freada Kline>It has to do with the behavior, with the context, with whether it is wanted <v Freada Kline>from that person in that setting, whether or not one can <v Freada Kline>extricate themselves from the unwanted attention without consequences. <v Kerry Ellison>My name is Kerry Ellison. <v Kerry Ellison>I um used to work at the Internal Revenue Service in San Francisco as a revenue <v Kerry Ellison>agent and I was involved in a sexual harassment case there.
<v Kerry Ellison>At first, um the harassment was real subtle. <v Kerry Ellison>It was annoying more than anything else. <v Kerry Ellison>As it became more and more intense and I could see that the person seemed to <v Kerry Ellison>me to be rather disturbed, I became more concerned for my personal safety. <v Kerry Ellison>And I was also concerned that it was expanding ya know beyond the work environment to <v Kerry Ellison>like home visits or areas where I was not at the worksite. <v Narrator>What could have been perceived as innocent flirtatious behavior was unwanted <v Narrator>and unsolicited to Kerry Ellison. <v Narrator>Though Carrie tried to let him know she wasn't interested, the harasser kept pestering <v Narrator>her virtually every day. <v Michelle Paludi>There is a responsibility for women to say this is not appropriate. <v Michelle Paludi>I think that women hav- we need to have women take responsibility for their part in this, <v Michelle Paludi>but not to take also take responsibility for the man not hearing her.
<v Michelle Paludi>And then to blame herself for what? <v Michelle Paludi>For the behavior that's still continuing. <v Michelle Paludi>If for a woman to say no that means that the man's going to hear it is no and <v Michelle Paludi>not retaliate against her for saying no. <v Freada Kline>In her case, part of what created a hostile <v Freada Kline>work environment for her was the threat of escalation. <v Freada Kline>That threat of escalation that this person is enamored with me and <v Freada Kline>has done these 2 or 3 rather odd <v Freada Kline>things to begin with, the fact that it conjures up the threat of <v Freada Kline>physical or sexual violence for most women is an important way to interpret <v Freada Kline>that case, whereas for most men they say the person was being a <v Freada Kline>jerk. Yes. You shouldn't have to put up with it, but forget it. <v Narrator>Kerry was sent on a month long business seminar to St. Louis. <v Narrator>The trip came as a welcome relief, and she hoped her absence might defuse the situation
<v Narrator>back in the office. <v Narrator>Only her supervisor knew where she was staying. <v Narrator>Two days later, much to her surprise, Kerry received a letter from the harasser. <v Narrator>It was then she realized the magnitude of the problem. <v Kerry Ellison>Now, what really disturbed me was that, you know, I'm in this hotel room 3000 miles away <v Kerry Ellison>and I get a note, a letter from this person. <v Kerry Ellison>You know, clearly I'm not interested, I've let him know I'm not interested. <v Kerry Ellison>[clears throat] And now what does he do is he sends me a letter, which <v Kerry Ellison>is 3 pages long, and it's typed. <v Kerry Ellison>It's got little happy faces at the end. <v Kerry Ellison>And, you know, I c- I can even I can talk about it now, you know, which is which is good. <v Kerry Ellison>I'm getting over it. But when I um opened this letter, I was extremely shocked and <v Kerry Ellison>upset. I couldn't even read the letter. I I mean, I immediately called my manager and <v Kerry Ellison>said, I'm sorry, you have to do something about this. <v Kerry Ellison>I will not work with this person, period. I felt like I was at the end of my rope and <v Kerry Ellison>done everything that I could, you know, to show this person that I was not interested and <v Kerry Ellison>for him to take the hint. And you know, the what really disturbed me was I looked at the
<v Kerry Ellison>bottom of the letter and it says here that he's gonna cover some more. <v Kerry Ellison>So if he's gonna be in touch with me some more, so obviously he's not picking up on on <v Kerry Ellison>what's going on here. <v Narrator>After Kerry came back to California, the IRS claimed they tried to solve <v Narrator>the matter by temporarily transferring the harasser to another office. <v Narrator>But the problems continued when he returned. <v Kerry Ellison>At the time when all this was happening to me <v Kerry Ellison>um with this person. All I wanted to do [laughs] and every day <v Kerry Ellison>I said, all I want to do is go to work and do my job and go home <v Kerry Ellison>and pick up my paycheck. That's what I'm paid to do. <v Kerry Ellison>I'm not paid to deal with all this other stuff that's going on. <v Kerry Ellison>And it's really not fair to me. <v Kerry Ellison>And, you know, I deserve the right to be protected from this happening. <v Kerry Ellison>And I and I cannot understand why someone would not wanna do something <v Kerry Ellison>about that.
<v Narrator>Kerry found herself in another difficult situation, this time trying to convince <v Narrator>her supervisors to take the case seriously. <v Kerry Ellison>I thought, well, there is a right way to do this. <v Kerry Ellison>And everyone knows there's a right way to do this, but no one has the courage to do it <v Kerry Ellison>and I can understand that. And I kept saying, well look, I'm giving you an opportunity <v Kerry Ellison>here. I'm giving you everything you need. <v Kerry Ellison>All you have to do is say no to this person and stand up for me. <v Kerry Ellison>And time and time again, that would not happen. <v Kerry Ellison>It was almost like you were trying to <v Kerry Ellison>[sighs] um you know make an example of me and show me that I could not fight the system. <v Narrator>Unable to resolve the matter internally, Kerry filed a complaint with the <v Narrator>Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. <v Narrator>It was rejected. <v Narrator>On her own she took the case to federal court, but the judge threw it out, <v Narrator>calling the allegations isolated and trivial.
<v Narrator>Instead of accepting the court's decision, Kerry kept fighting and took her case <v Narrator>to the Federal Court of Appeals. <v Narrator>In January 1991, some 5 years after the problems began, <v Narrator>the court ruled in her favor, allowing her to retry the case for a final <v Narrator>decision. <v Narrator>This landmark ruling provided a new interpretation of the law and established <v Narrator>that the point of view of a reasonable woman is what determines sexual harassment. <v Bernice Sandler>The courts are acknowledging there that men and women can look at this behavior very, <v Bernice Sandler>very differently and that the intent of his behavior, you know, I didn't intend to <v Bernice Sandler>sexually harassing- harass her, I was just, you know, I put my arm around everybody kind <v Bernice Sandler>of thing or I pinch everybody's breasts, you know, whatever. <v Bernice Sandler>Um the fact that uh he didn't intend to do it doesn't matter, it's how it looked to her. <v Bernice Sandler>She is the reasonable person here. <v Bernice Sandler>And how he looked at her is what counts. <v Michelle Paludi>So the Ellison case supports women being in control of the situation,
<v Michelle Paludi>giving women back the power to say this is what is offensive and <v Michelle Paludi>derogatory to me, being somebody who's been socialised in the culture <v Michelle Paludi>that typically has not valued women. <v Narrator>While Kerry Ellison's case may empower other victims of sexual harassment, <v Narrator>the reasonable woman ruling also raises questions among men who worry <v Narrator>that the subjective interpretation of the problem may leave them vulnerable to claims <v Narrator>of false accusations. <v Bernice Sandler>I mean a lot of people are very worried- men are worried about false accusations, just <v Bernice Sandler>like men worry about false accusations of rape. <v Bernice Sandler>Are false accusations possible? <v Bernice Sandler>Of course that's possible. Are they likely? <v Bernice Sandler>Very unlikely. You cannot get women to file charges. <v Dan Stormer>There is no plus side for a woman claiming she sexually harassed because the result <v Dan Stormer>is more often than not that she's going she's the one that's going to be terminated. <v Dan Stormer>She's the one that's going to be interrogated. <v Dan Stormer>And even if she's correct, more often than not, she's the one that's going to be moved in
<v Dan Stormer>the job situation. <v Narrator>Far removed from the corporate or industrial workplace, Normal, Illinois seems <v Narrator>like an unlikely setting to begin understanding the behavior and circumstances behind <v Narrator>sexual harassment. <v Narrator>Here at Illinois State University, scientific research is underway <v Narrator>that may provide new insight into the psychology of people who harass. <v John Pryor>What we're going to do today is we're gonna show you some simulations, some of the <v John Pryor>studies that we've been doing- <v Narrator>Professor John Pryor is one of the few researchers in the country conducting <v Narrator>behavioral experiments, examining the social dynamics between the sexes [John Pryor: <v Narrator>teaching and training]. <v Narrator>During his research, Pryor screened dozens of men from college campuses <v Narrator>and studied those he found having a propensity to harass women. <v John Pryor>One of the things that we've found is that men who are high in the likelihood to sexually
<v John Pryor>harass tend to be people who find it difficult to <v John Pryor>understand or assume the perspectives of others. <v John Pryor>That's not only the perspective of women, but other people in general. <v John Pryor>So you can imagine uh that uh the perspectives of women are probably pretty alien to <v John Pryor>them. So basically what it is, it's sort of just like dealing with a word processor- <v Narrator>During a psychology class, Dr. Pryor recreated one of his more revealing <v Narrator>studies. <v John Pryor>What we're gonna do here is I'm trying to evaluate a uh program that I've developed <v John Pryor>for the Department of Office Management. OK? <v Student>OK. <v Narrator>In this scenario, a graduate student who is actually participating <v Narrator>in the experiment leads the research subject to believe that he will be training <v Narrator>undergraduate women to use a computer. <v John Pryor>What you're gonna do is instruct the girl that's gonna be coming in here on how to <v John Pryor>correct these mistakes, OK. [Student: ?inaudible?] I don't know if you noticed a girl out <v John Pryor>of the hall, but these girls that have been sent down here by the Department of Office <v John Pryor>Management got a real ?proxy?, OK?- <v Narrator>[Pryor speaking inaudibly] In reality, the true purpose of the experiment was to observe
<v Narrator>if a computer trainer would harass given the opportunity. <v John Pryor>Oh, Cindy? <v John Pryor>It is Cindy, right? <v John Pryor>I'm John. [Cindy: Nice to meet you] How are you? You look real familiar, don't I know you <v John Pryor>from somewhere? <v Cindy>[chuckling] I don't think so. <v John Pryor>No, you look like an old girlfriend of mine. [laughs] Why don't you come on over here, Cindy, this <v John Pryor>is Mr. Williams. <v Mr. Williams>Hi, Cindy. [Cindy: Nice to meet you] Nice to meet you too. <v John Pryor>Mr. Williams, will basically be your boss here [Cindy: OK] for about the next <v John Pryor>15 minutes. OK, so all you have to do is listen to what Mr. Williams has to say, follow <v John Pryor>his instructions, everything's gonna be OK, OK? <v Narrator>[Pryor inaudibly speaking] By design, the graduate student who is really part of the <v Narrator>research team, purposely harasses the woman, setting an example <v Narrator>for the computer trainer to do the same. <v John Pryor>Make yourself comfortable and just follow Mr. Williams' instructions [Cindy: OK] and <v John Pryor>you'll be doin' OK, OK? And do remember that you're gonna file u- fill out a evaluation <v John Pryor>form for us- <v Mr. Williams>Yeah, right I'm on it. OK. <v John Pryor>OK. <v Mr. Williams>OK. Thanks a lot. <v Narrator>[man speaking] Left alone and led to believe that sexual harassment is permitted and even <v Narrator>condoned, the computer trainer takes full advantage of the situation.
<v Mr. Williams>You want me to give you the sentence now? <v Woman>OK. <v Mr. Williams>OK. [Woman: ?inaudible?] It's <v Mr. Williams>number three. J- just hit number three, right over there. <v Woman>OK. Do I have to hit return to put uh- <v Narrator>Although this is a re-creation- <v Mr. Williams>Yes. <v Narrator>Similar behavior was observed during 90 percent of the experiments. <v Cindy>?inaudible? <v Mr. Williams>Just use those those are fine. Yeah. <v Narrator>Shannon Hoffman, who participated in the real studies, remembers feeling vulnerable <v Narrator>because of the permissive environment created by the men in charge. <v Mr. Williams>And uh it's really all you need to do and then just hit the letter and you're fine. <v Shannon Hoffman>It was very uncomfortable for me. I I realized that had it been out of the experimental <v Shannon Hoffman>settings a- as a woman, I would have been very nervous with someone that close <v Shannon Hoffman>to me and reaching around me. <v Shannon Hoffman>So it kind of made me feel a little bit powerless as far as that goes, 'cause there was <v Shannon Hoffman>nothing I could do about it. But I also realized that perhaps in a business setting or <v Shannon Hoffman>if this person really was my boss, that'd be harder for me to um send off the negative
<v Shannon Hoffman>signals or whatever to try and fend off that type of thing. <v John Pryor>People only do these kinds of behaviors when they think they can get away with it. <v John Pryor>Men are put into uh ?know? <v John Pryor>power positions themselves and they see [Mr. <v John Pryor>Williams inaudibly speaking] either a role model who who performs sexual harassing <v John Pryor>behaviors or they see a role model who who performs more professional kinds of behaviors. <v John Pryor>When sexual harassment occurs when its most flagrant, it's probably in a situation where <v John Pryor>management is allowing it to happen. <v John Pryor>Uh where where there haven't been proactive steps that have been taken to <v John Pryor>say, well, sexual harassment this our policy of sexual harassment. <v John Pryor>Uh these are not only things that we say that is the management. <v John Pryor>There are things that we do. <v Narrator>Though Congress has enacted legislation to prevent sexual harassment. <v Narrator>Statistics indicate that half of all working women claim to have experienced the problem.
<v Narrator>Part of the reason is that employers and supervisors fail to uphold and enforce the law. <v Pat Kid>My name is Pat Kid. I've been employed in the District of Columbia for 5 years as <v Pat Kid>a real estate specialist. <v Pat Kid>When I first experienced sexual harassment within the workplace, <v Pat Kid>my um supervisor, when he started to <v Pat Kid>make advances to me within 4 weeks of my employment, he <v Pat Kid>told me where his power was. <v Pat Kid>Uh he told me he had a lot of clout. <v Pat Kid>And um he set out to prove that immediately within the 4 weeks that I <v Pat Kid>started working there. And indeed, he had all the power that he said he had. <v Narrator>At first, Patricia Kidd's new job with the District of Columbia seemed promising, <v Narrator>but problems began when she approached her boss with a question about a work related
<v Narrator>project. To Pat, his answer seemed inappropriate. <v Pat Kid>His response was, a lot of men are asking about you and you can have any man you <v Pat Kid>want. And I'm interested, too. <v Pat Kid>Um I told him I wasn't interested. <v Pat Kid>Um he seemed somewhat annoyed by that. <v Pat Kid>Um the weeks to follow, um he would eventually refer to me as a <v Pat Kid>lesbian. <v Pat Kid>Um tell me that it looked like I needed some. <v Pat Kid>And from there he started uh, allowing it to actually impact my work <v Pat Kid>physically. <v Pat Kid>How many packages of sequins does she use in all? <v Narrator>[Pat inaudibly speaking] As a single mother supporting two children, Pat needed the job, <v Narrator>she hoped that by working harder and maintaining a cordial but professional relationship, <v Narrator>the harassment would subside. <v Narrator>It didn't. <v Pat Kid>Once he got away from um calling me the <v Pat Kid>lesbian, then what he started doing was actually taking me out in
<v Pat Kid>the field. And um he started talking more <v Pat Kid>about how interested he was in me um as <v Pat Kid>I rejected him or not answered him. <v Pat Kid>Then um he would become a little more hostile. <v Narrator>Pat found herself in a precarious position. <v Narrator>As a new employee, still on probation, she could be fired with little recourse. <v Pat Kid>6 or 7 months after I had been employed there, I <v Pat Kid>received a telephone call and um one of the employees <v Pat Kid>put the call through and uh it was my supervisor <v Pat Kid>and um he said he was over at the Comfort Inn Hotel and he wanted <v Pat Kid>me to get over there. And I just slammed down the phone. <v Pat Kid>I mean, I was just so angry and I was shocked, I guess more than angry. <v Pat Kid>I was just shocked. <v Pat Kid>And um it made me feel, you know, that I was kind of set
<v Pat Kid>up. You know, I was so angry, <v Pat Kid>um but I was able to go back to my work. <v Pat Kid>And um I guess within an hour, another phone call <v Pat Kid>comes. It is my boss again. <v Pat Kid>And this time he reminds me of a personnel action <v Pat Kid>and my probationary status. <v Pat Kid>And this time he did not request. <v Pat Kid>He demanded that I get over there. <v Pat Kid>When I went there, he was dressed in a robe. <v Pat Kid>He told me to join him in the jacuzzi and <v Pat Kid>um he had sex with me. <v Pat Kid>He acted like it was no big deal. <v Narrator>Although she didn't know it at the time, Pat was a victim of what's called quid <v Narrator>pro quo, a specific type of harassment in which she <v Narrator>was pressured to exchange sexual favors for workplace benefits.
<v Pat Kid>He told me that um he would consider uh <v Pat Kid>promoting me and my job. <v Pat Kid>If I would have sex with him again. I said, well, you know, you know how I am now. <v Pat Kid>You've already, you know, tried me. <v Pat Kid>So w- why now? <v Pat Kid>I mean, why don't you just leave me alone, you know? <v Pat Kid>And um he became very hostile andum <v Pat Kid>he stayed after me. And I did it again. <v Pat Kid>This time it was at his residence. He picked me up from my home and took me over to his <v Pat Kid>residence. This time he um participated in drugs, <v Pat Kid>got drunk uh and he sodomized me this time. <v Pat Kid>Uh and um, he kept me out <v Pat Kid>all night. You know, or to dawn. <v Pat Kid>I mean, you can actually see- um and <v Pat Kid>while I was at his house with me, I I wash and I wash and I wash and
<v Pat Kid>I felt so dirty and I was so scared. <v Pat Kid>You know, because I was so afraid that he would wake up. <v Pat Kid>And I was so humiliated because my son called me there, you know <v Pat Kid>uh, to see where I was, my oldest son. <v Pat Kid>And I don't stay out like that. <v Pat Kid>And I I felt so humiliated. <v Pat Kid>And I swore I swore then no matter <v Pat Kid>what the consequences, that I was never gonna subject myself to this. <v Pat Kid>It was blackmail is what it was. <v Pat Kid>It had turned to sexual blackmail. <v Carla Barboza>If you're in a situation where you can't afford to lose your job or you can't afford to <v Carla Barboza>jeopardize your relationship with your boss, then you're gonna be less reluctant <v Carla Barboza>to to report it, especially if the perpetrator is your boss. <v Carla Barboza>Women have not had a sympathetic ear so that oftentimes when they do
<v Carla Barboza>decide to step forward, the response they get more often than not has been, <v Carla Barboza>we don't believe you. It doesn't make any sense. <v Carla Barboza>Why did you do this? Why did you do that if that was going on? <v Carla Barboza>Well, a lot of women tolerate behaviors because it's a matter of survival. <v Carla Barboza>And so if they don't have a sympathetic ear, the last thing you wanna hear is that you're <v Carla Barboza>not being believed. <v Carla Barboza>[children playing] But beyond that, the attitudes towards those who speak up, <v Carla Barboza>um what might be considered lightweight type of sexual harassment is just verbal and no <v Carla Barboza>touching. They say, well, why are you complaining about it? <v Carla Barboza>And yet, if she's touched and assaulted or raped, they say, well, why didn't you say <v Carla Barboza>something sooner? So the woman catches herself in a catch 22. <v Narrator>Pat spent several painful months trying to discreetly resolve the problem within the <v Narrator>department, but her efforts were unsuccessful, so she began compiling
<v Narrator>a legal case. Eventually, she sued the district and went to trial. <v Pat Kid>You say, well, gosh, I have all this evidence. <v Pat Kid>You know, I mean, it's an open and shut case. <v Pat Kid>And then it's not that way. <v Pat Kid>You have to tolerate intimidation from the other side. <v Pat Kid>And you're watching legal fees just escalate and <v Pat Kid>you're watching that it's no longer <v Pat Kid>that department or their supervisor being the hostile environment <v Pat Kid>or individuals. But now it's gonna become the whole district government. <v Narrator>After enduring 3 years of harassment, Pat won her case. <v Narrator>She was awarded 300,000 dollars in damages. <v Narrator>However, the verdict is being appealed. <v Narrator>Defense attorneys who would not appear on this program maintain that the District of <v Narrator>Columbia went out of its way to provide a comfortable working environment.
<v Narrator>The case is still in litigation. <v Pat Kid>This is something that I have to deal with. <v Pat Kid>And I guess any reasonable woman has to deal with [sharp inhale] uh something that <v Pat Kid>society, un- until they are sensitized, just can not connect <v Pat Kid>with because we don't tell them. <v Pat Kid>If we tell 'em perhaps they'll understand that it's not <v Pat Kid>me coming home and my life is OK. <v Pat Kid>It's not OK. I'm not OK. <v Pat Kid>I look forward to being OK one day, but <v Pat Kid>uh I don't see it being anywhere in the near future. <v Pat Kid>It's just too much to get over. <v Pat Kid>And um I d- I do miss who I used to be. <v Narrator>Resolving sexual harassment is not something we should expect the courts alone <v Narrator>to handle. Ultimately, society needs to change its perceptions.
<v Narrator>[sirens blaring] <v Narrator>For many women, especially those working in fields traditionally dominated <v Narrator>by men, it may be a matter of sheer perseverance before they are accepted. <v Brenda Berkman>My name is Brenda Berkman and I'm a firefighter with the city of New York. <v Brenda Berkman>I had sort of a Pollyanna view of how long it would take before women were <v Brenda Berkman>really accepted in these in these nontraditional, very male dominated jobs. <v Brenda Berkman>You know, [horns honking] one always sort of thinks once I and the other women prove that <v Brenda Berkman>we can do the job, well, people will just accept us and we'll fit in. <v Narrator>Brenda Berkman was the first female firefighter in the city of New York.
<v Narrator>Her story begins in the 1970s when she filed a lawsuit challenging the city <v Narrator>to hire women. <v Brenda Berkman>As a result of bringing the lawsuit, I had experienced a tremendous amount <v Brenda Berkman>of uh harassment um, I had to get an unlisted telephone number <v Brenda Berkman>because I was getting death threats at my house and I was getting phone calls at 3 <v Brenda Berkman>o'clock in the morning that clearly were coming from a firehouse because uh, <v Brenda Berkman>the uh you know, you could hear the uh dispatcher in the background. <v Brenda Berkman>I mean, these guys were calling me on the department phone for crying out loud. <v Brenda Berkman>Very silly. <v Narrator>Brenda eventually won her case, but that was only the beginning. <v Narrator>She and 40 other women were sent to training school. <v Narrator>They were then split up and assigned individually to 40 different firehouses <v Narrator>where the harassment intensified. <v Brenda Berkman>Our group had pictures put up all over the firehouse that were pornographic uh, <v Brenda Berkman>you know, they had um used condoms left
<v Brenda Berkman>around on one case, a woman had one put it in her sandwich at <v Brenda Berkman>work. Uh they had uh um <v Brenda Berkman>sexual objects put in their bed, um they had dog shit put in their boots. <v Brenda Berkman>They had uh, you know, all kinds of really obnoxious things <v Brenda Berkman>happen to their lockers and their personal items. <v Brenda Berkman>I went to a firehouse where the men refused to eat with me. <v Brenda Berkman>They would not talk to me. <v Brenda Berkman>On one occasion, my protective gear had been tampered with. <v Brenda Berkman>It was always uh a a big question as to whether uh, in fact <v Brenda Berkman>you'd have anyone there to back ya up when you needed 'em. <v Brenda Berkman>[fire bell ringing] <v Narrator>Brenda refused to tolerate the harassment and complained to her superiors. <v Narrator>But instead of resolving the problem, she was labeled a troublemaker for speaking out <v Narrator>and later encountered even more difficulty.
<v Narrator>After I had been on the job for a year, the city fired me and another woman who had <v Narrator>also been very prominent and bringing to their attention incidents <v Narrator>of harassment. <v Narrator>After a very lengthy trial, the judge found that there was absolutely no reason for <v Narrator>firing us other than retaliating against us for our <v Narrator>leadership role in the uh in the fire department. <v Narrator>And that that's always been a problem with people who raise <v Narrator>uh a complaint about sexual harassment. <v Narrator>There there will be retaliation. <v Narrator>You have to prepare yourself for that. <v Dan Stormer>When you make a claim of sexual harassment, you are striking at the <v Dan Stormer>very core of power. You are telling the male, the male superior, <v Dan Stormer>whoever it is that you are complaining to, that they have to stop abusing <v Dan Stormer>and using their authority and they don't wanna do that.
<v Narrator>While Brenda's legal victories won her reinstatement, improvements and working <v Narrator>conditions came after the men's attitude began to change. <v Brenda Berkman>Initially, of course, I brought a lawsuit, but I found that lawsuits <v Brenda Berkman>are very imperfect way of achieving social change, and even when you <v Brenda Berkman>when your initial lawsuit ?inaudible? <v Brenda Berkman>there, there's no judge in the world that's gonna be there with ya on the workplace 24 <v Brenda Berkman>hours a day. So the judge is sort of out of the picture and after <v Brenda Berkman>that, you have to look to other ways of trying to make your your work environment <v Brenda Berkman>bearable. <v Freada Kline>Changing attitudes as the way to eradicate sexual harassment is probably <v Freada Kline>the long term strategy. <v Freada Kline>Changing attitudes is very difficult. <v Freada Kline>That what most workplace programs focus on is changing behavior. <v Freada Kline>And we hope that once an organization has said here
<v Freada Kline>are the parameters of acceptable behaviors here, and once employees, <v Freada Kline>employees, managers, everyone has to consistently <v Freada Kline>behave themselves at work, then we hope that practicing decent behavior will <v Freada Kline>rub off into uh a good habit. <v Bob Simmons>My name is Bob Simmons. I'm a senior waterworks engineer. <v Bob Simmons>[machinery operating] Many of my men work with female engineers or inspectors, and <v Bob Simmons>you can't ignore that the penalties and the consequences of sexual harassment <v Bob Simmons>are huge potentially for me personally as well as for my company. <v Bob Simmons>Over the years and I have been here 21 years now, I really haven't interacted socially <v Bob Simmons>with that many women, uh but I am single and I am human. <v Bob Simmons>And we're a big company with 12000 people.
<v Bob Simmons>And from time to time I will involve myself socially with someone <v Bob Simmons>that happens to work here. <v Bob Simmons>And that never bothered me that much in the past. <v Bob Simmons>But lately, I've been very concerned. <v Bob Simmons>I may ask someone to lunch once and they say no. <v Bob Simmons>I accept that as as no. <v Bob Simmons>Whereas in the past I might have asked them 2 or 3 times or 4 times <v Bob Simmons>and maybe the 5th time they say, yes, well, I consider that successful, [laughter] <v Bob Simmons>back in the past today, that would not happen. <v Dan Stormer>I think that what happens in our society is that we are trained <v Dan Stormer>as men to basically push even more after we hear <v Dan Stormer>no, because we're told that it really does mean yes, <v Dan Stormer>and we don't listen to the no. <v Dan Stormer>Uh and until men start listening to the no and accepting the no as no, <v Dan Stormer>there are going to be claims of sexual harassment, rightful claims of sexual harassment.
<v Narrator>Bob Simmons concerns are typical of many men. <v Narrator>Never before has there been so much confusion between the sexes over what is appropriate <v Narrator>and what is offensive behavior. <v Bob Simmons>Judy? Got a second? <v Judy>Sure. <v Bob Simmons>You had uh a left a message for me to see [Judy: Yes] about a customer service problem. <v Judy>I wanted you to come and look at this order on the screen. <v Bob Simmons>[Judy inaudibly spekaing] I can't help but recall one young lady complimenting me on a <v Bob Simmons>tie I happened to be wearing and she touched it. <v Bob Simmons>An and then she's s- step back and said, does it bother you when I compliment you on your <v Bob Simmons>ties? And I says, very seriously, sexual harassment has to be repeated <v Bob Simmons>and unwelcomed. And clearly, I welcome any compliments that you have <v Bob Simmons>and feel free to repeat them as often as you like. <v Bob Simmons>So, everybody laughed and it was fine. <v Woman>Did you get my message about ?inaudible? <v Bob Simmons>What has happened is a sensitivity has emerged as to <v Bob Simmons>how far can you go or is an activity that I've been doing <v Bob Simmons>for the last uh several years, uh is that
<v Bob Simmons>harassment now? <v Carla Barboza>I think what makes the topic difficult is that <v Carla Barboza>it's going to depend on who is experiencing <v Carla Barboza>the behavior as to whether or not that's unlawful sexual harassment. <v Carla Barboza>So what might not be objectionable to one person might be highly objectionable <v Carla Barboza>to the other person. And the way you decide that is based on how <v Carla Barboza>the person who's receiving the behavior responds. <v Bob Simmons>Who does know what the definition of sexual harassment is? <v Bob Simmons>Does anybody have an idea? ?inaudible? <v Bob Simmons>you look like you're about to say somwthing. <v Man>Uh yeah, I would say, uh you know, anything that's of- offensive and and <v Man>unwanted. <v Charlie>Bob, how would you distinguish between uh flirting and sexual harassment? <v Charlie>How can you distinguish between the two? <v Bob Simmons>That's a tough one sometimes. That's a tough one. <v Bob Simmons>It's up to the person again to let you know that something about what you're doing
<v Bob Simmons>is unwelcomed. She does not want that. <v Bob Simmons>It may be an invitation to lunch. <v Bob Simmons>It may be whatever. You're talking to her consistently. <v Bob Simmons>Let's just say you constantly walk over to someone's desk and you're talking to her 3 or <v Bob Simmons>4 times a day. You pass her in the hallway. <v Bob Simmons>Um you haven't really advanced persay yet, maybe ya have. <v Bob Simmons>If she doesn't like that, she's gotta let you or someone know that she doesn't like <v Bob Simmons>that. And then you're told that from someone and then you have to back <v Bob Simmons>off, 'cause now you've been warned. <v Bob Simmons>If on the other hand, you walk over and she says, oh be sure to come back tomorrow, or <v Bob Simmons>will I see you again this afternoon? Or how 'bout uh continuing our conversation after <v Bob Simmons>work? Then I'm thinkin' that you're pretty much, you know, so far, nothing's unwelcome. <v Bob Simmons>And but it's a judgment call, Charlie. <v Bob Simmons>[inaudibly speaking] If I can train my guys and make them more aware of what the <v Bob Simmons>whole subject is about, then I feel good about that. <v Bob Simmons>So I'm motivated to act in our workplace because it's the <v Bob Simmons>right thing to do. And I believe ultimately uh productivity is
<v Bob Simmons>based on how people feel about themselves and their work environment and their morale. <v Bob Simmons>Ron, you wanna ask someone out to lunch and they say no to you. <v Ron>That's good enough for me [laughter]. <v Ron>The way the policy is now, I'm outta there. <v Man>The question is, you know, is it OK? <v Man>We are in a situation like we're out in the field there. <v Man>And the thing about women walking up and down the street, the guys have a tendency to be <v Man>distracted, to stop what they're doing and looking at women, you know, and cutting their <v Man>eyes or whatever, whistling or whatever I said- <v Bob Simmons>[inaudibly speaking] We're not trying to change behavior persay, we're trying to make the <v Bob Simmons>guys more aware of how their behavior can be perceived by the people <v Bob Simmons>they're interacting with. I think that women and men both have an obligation <v Bob Simmons>to be a little bit more straightforward and and recognize the other person's <v Bob Simmons>concerns and positions. <v Bob Simmons>And then then you go from there. <v Man>Again, we've gotta realize that there's some sacrifices that have got to be met.
<v Bob Simmons>I think as long as you have people in power, you're gonna have people that that <v Bob Simmons>will try to use that power to their own benefit. <v Bob Simmons>You're gonna have other people that will try to do something to have that power used to <v Bob Simmons>help them. That's the world. <v Bob Simmons>I think that's life. It's gonna always be here. <v Bob Simmons>But the big thing that we can do is make sure that everyone <v Bob Simmons>understands the rules of the game. <v Bob Simmons>If you choose to violate those rules, you do so willingly and you have to suffer <v Bob Simmons>the consequences [Man: to follow up on a discussion-]. <v Carla Barboza>That's why this issue is so important, cause you're really talking about changing <v Carla Barboza>consciousness and encouraging people to pay attention <v Carla Barboza>to how their behavior affects someone else's behavior <v Carla Barboza>and feelings. And if if the people who were <v Carla Barboza>perpetrating this kind of abuse uh were able <v Carla Barboza>to pay attention to how the recipient was responding and then <v Carla Barboza>stopped based on the recipient's behavior, I
<v Carla Barboza>think we'd have a loss lot less of it. We don't have that. <v Narrator>[music playing] It may be generations before men and women finally share a mutual <v Narrator>understanding and become sensitized to each other's feelings. <v Narrator>If Brenda Berkman's situation is any indication, we seem to be moving in that <v Narrator>direction. No doubt conditions have improved for female firefighters, <v Narrator>but Brenda claims sexual harassment is still pervasive in the department. <v Narrator>Until old and ingrained attitudes are removed, the legal system as <v Narrator>limited as it is, remains her primary means of recourse. <v Narrator>[dog barking] Yet many victims who win their cases often feel they lose in the end. <v Narrator>Jackie Morris claimed to suffer both physical and emotional trauma on the job even <v Narrator>after she won her case. <v Narrator>Jackie filed a 2nd lawsuit, but it was settled out of court.
<v Narrator>In July of 1992, she quit her job and is now attending a nearby <v Narrator>community college. <v Narrator>[children inaudibly speaking] Women must realize they have a right to work in a <v Narrator>harassment free environment and no longer need to suffer in silence. <v Narrator>Patricia Kidd still works for the District of Columbia, where she claims the harassment <v Narrator>continues. <v Narrator>While her case against the district is pending appeal, Pat has organized support groups <v Narrator>to help other victims avoid the same problems she once encountered. <v Narrator>Education, however, must encompass more than just victims. <v Narrator>Since returning to her position at Stanford Medical School, Frances Connelly has <v Narrator>continued to raise public consciousness and promote social change. <v Narrator>She has also taken her crusade outside the university to other organizations
<v Narrator>in an effort to further educate both men and women about the inequities of <v Narrator>sexual discrimination. <v Narrator>And we really do seem to be making progress. <v Narrator>Kerry Ellison's landmark case has further clarified the issue of sexual harassment <v Narrator>and empowered victims to finally step forward. <v Narrator>Kerry has left her job with the IRS and now works for the U.S. <v Narrator>Forest Service in San Francisco. <v Narrator>Her case provides a legal foundation for all victims by legitimizing the point <v Narrator>of view of a reasonable woman. <v Narrator>And apparently the message is being heard outside the courts. <v Narrator>Some companies and organizations are enacting policies and procedures to prevent <v Narrator>unwelcome advances. <v Narrator>The role of supervisors like Bob Simmons is crucial in training employees <v Narrator>and creating a new social awareness between the sexes.
<v Narrator>After all, sexual harassment is a learned behavior and people <v Narrator>can learn not to do it. <v Bernice Sandler>It's the kind of education that we need to start at a very early age to help <v Bernice Sandler>boys and girls, men and women learn to be friends with each other <v Bernice Sandler>in a non-sexual way. That is a very powerful thing to do. <v Bernice Sandler>And I think that's why people, some people, are very upset about sexual harassment <v Bernice Sandler>becoming an issue because they recognize that the message is <v Bernice Sandler>a new time is coming where men and women will just be different with each other. <v Bernice Sandler>And many of us know that already. <v Bernice Sandler>But not everyone does. <v Narrator 2>Videocassette copies of sex, power and the workplace are available for both personal and <v Narrator 2>business use. Each video includes a 22 page resource guide. <v Narrator 2>To order call 1 800 3 4 3 4 7 2 7 or write to the address <v Narrator 2>on your screen.
Sex, Power and the Workplace
Producing Organization
KCET (Television station : Los Angeles, Calif.)
Contributing Organization
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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Program Description
"Through the stories of five women, Sex[,] Power and the Workplace examine the complex and volatile issue of sexual harassment. Each profile explores the widespread manifestation of the problem, its legal implications and devastating personal side effects. "Work on this program began before the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill showdown, a time when sexual harassment remained largely hidden and ignored. Yet this program uncovered widespread harassment and discrimination throughout a variety of workplace settings. "Each story provides insight and analysis into this complex and pervasive social issue. While legislation and litigation may assist victims, only education will change attitudes and ultimately eliminate the problem. Hopefully this program in its own way, makes a contribution to that end."-- 1992 Peabody Awards entry form
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Producing Organization: KCET (Television station : Los Angeles, Calif.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: cpb-aacip-86c3f3e4310 (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Duration: 0:58:30
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Chicago: “Sex, Power and the Workplace,” 1992-10-14, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “Sex, Power and the Workplace.” 1992-10-14. The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: Sex, Power and the Workplace. Boston, MA: The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from