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... ... ... ... – …future the stockholders, millions of little people who depend on us to protect their interests. – Now you take another look at our ads, and I think you'll see that we're during all that's possible to make the air we're using cleaner when we're finished than when we started. – …then if you're still not satisfied. – I think you ought to look into who I consider the real culprit in this air pollution thing. – The electric power company. Ke督a bärn sien, wrnt, resulting byro re Uli,
Could you see this bug? kiki ο'en mardin ...at your big smoke stack. Yes, and that's the reason we build it so big... ...and to carry this sort of way. There's really no reason my dear fellow... ...you'd bring any of it back. If we had any use for it... ...you could be sure we wouldn't be giving it away. That's what I want to talk to you about. The suit's falling on my house. It's making my throat burn! And who knows what the invisible junk is doing to me? I can't breathe! Please control yourself. No, it is possible... ...just possible, mind you... ...that every now and then a little teensy, wiensy bit of smoke... ...that might get into the air. But we are a public utility... ...and the public... ...which we faithfully serve... ...is interested in power and not pollution. However, as a public service regulated by the public service commission... ...we recognize our responsibilities... ...and we are taking great pains... ...or keeping mind economic realities, of course...
...to send forth air as clear as our electricity. Now, I don't want to tell tales out of school... ...but everyone knows the real cause of air pollution. It's those terrible little men... ...the public incinerator. Excuse me. Who do I talk to about all that smoke and suck coming from your incinerator? And not me! Talk to the plan engineer! Talk to the division's open tenant. Call the smoke pollution control board. For what are they to? They'll call the Department of Sanitation... ...who will notify the... Yes, but... ...who will do something? Don't look at me. I just point garbage. Now look, Mac.
You can just do something. There's some regulations, priorities, channels, procedures, budgets, responsibilities. Anyway, we don't put out all that much smoke. It's all them little incinerators and all them apartment houses that's messing up the air. Why don't you go talk to them? Is this your building? No, I'm the inspector from the Department of Building. Just a man I want to see. What can be done about the air pollution from these apartment house incinerators? Well, it's not so much the new buildings as the old ones. And there's not much that can be done about them. Oh, you want to be careful not to breathe, and you've got stuff in. It's a spestous insulation. A lung disease, and all that sort of thing. Lung disease? This stuff can cause lung disease, and you just let it float around?
Well, except for windy days, or when they're working on the upper floors. The spestous only contaminates a few dozen blocks around the construction site. The thing you want to worry about is the stuff you can't see. Like the rocks on your seat on my tray. Why would you so happy with captains? Carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide. To say nothing, of course, would you? Now, if you really want to get down to bedrock, take the buses. Why they're all over, filling the city with filthy fuel. Now that's the violation of the building code. Take me to your leader.
Well, they do smell vile, but don't they look lovely? Now that we've got all that pretty advertising on the outside. Hey, if you're consigned with air pollution, go talk to the car manufacturers. Beautiful, cast beautiful, an American symbol of power, speed, manhood status, and conspicuous consumption. Bumper to bumper is fuzzy, I can see. Which isn't very far with all that haze. Another blessing of the American automobile. Eyes all over the junkyards and hideous roads, side stands and signs. Yes, but it's also burning my eyes, wilting my wisteria, and poisoning my parakeet. Now, just a minute there, son. Are you accusing my beautiful little baby of bad breasts? What's the matter with you anyway?
Everybody loves the automobile. It says American is frozen apple pie. Are you some kind of nut, a predestrian? No, no, I drive a car, I just want to be able to breathe. Oh, I get it. One of them nature lovers, a conservationist. Well, let me tell you something. The pollution is in our beautiful baby's heart. It's your precious son that changes the exhaust into poison gas. But listen, boy, if you are so big on your crusade, I'll tell you where all the filthy air is really coming from. Wow, that's where I started. Excuses, excuses, excuses, every one of these people fouling the air and passing a buck. Somebody's got to do something. And you, Fenwick Hat, are going to do something. Tonight, you're going to... No, not tonight.
Tonight's bowling, see. Tomorrow, Fenwick Hat, at the hearing on proposed air quality standards for this region, you're going to stand up and demand no leaf burning, no backyard incinerators. Ah, well, I've got this little backyard incinerator and... Yes, well, the day after, you're going to sit down and write your legislator and assay. No, no, I see, I'm really not much of a better writer. You got the wrong guy there, in fact. On election today, you're going to vote for the proposal to... Oh, I don't know. I've been reading in the papers where that sort of thing is liable to raise taxes. Well, heaven knows, I'm doing enough to fight air pollution now. You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air!
You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! You're letting it hold that filthy air! The raw material for this conversion is saltwater taken from the ocean. It is piped to these distillation chambers.
After heating, the brine flows into the first distillation chamber. In the partial vacuum, some of the saltwater flashes into steam, which condenses when it comes in contact with pipes that carry in the unheated saltwater. The brine then flows into other chambers, where it flashes under a pressure lower than that in the previous chamber. The salt-free condensed water is collected, and the brine from the final stage of this process is returned to the sea. The method of desalination employed in this plant is called multi-stage flash evaporation. Two and a half million gallons a day of fresh water are produced here.
Other plants for desalting seawater are already in operation throughout the world. In the future, plants using nuclear energy could make desalination more economical. These plants would produce both fresh water and power. Changing the weather is another way in which the problem of water scarcity is being attacked. Seating clouds with dry ice drop from aircraft is one way in which weather can be modified, or precipitation can be artificially induced, to supply additional water from the atmosphere. Another way is by the use of ground-based silver iodide generators. Under the right meteorological conditions, cloud-seating will increase precipitation. While efforts continue to increase the water supply in arid regions, we are also experiencing a problem of another sort in many areas.
This is the problem of water pollution. Water is polluted by sewage, by waste of industrial processes, and by pesticides. These materials contain organic and inorganic chemical compounds, and a variety of harmful microorganisms. When these compounds decompose, they act as nutrients which over enrich the water and promote the growth of small underwater plants called algae. The keying algae rob the water of oxygen, destroying aquatic life, and preventing the water from purifying itself. When ingested, other water-borne wastes may affect man because they are toxic. Some bacteria. The pollution from these plants has affected the entire southern end of the lake.
In many communities, insufficiently treated sewage and industrial pollution periodically put the beaches off limits to swimmers. In the waters of Green Bay, to the north, the pollutants are raw and partially treated wastes from paper mills, and the cities along its shores. Bacteria feed on these wastes, robbing the water of oxygen. Moving east, Lake Erie is almost biologically dead. That is, desirable aquatic life can no longer survive here. Only algae and various scavengers find the environment hospitable. Explication processes such as those used at Lake Tahoe, California. In the Lake Tahoe plant, the primary and secondary treatment given the incoming sewer water is similar to the kind provided in most sewage systems. Settling tanks permit sedimentation of the larger solid particles.
In this demonstration, you can watch sedimentation in raw sewage water with the help of a time-lapse camera. The sewage water is then aerated to hasten decomposition of the water-borne excrement. Then the water passes into another settling tank, from which it emerges looking like the end product of most sewage treatment plants. In this plant, however, the water passes on to several further stages of treatment. Here, powdered lime is added as a coagulant to remove phosphates that algae need for growth. The lime is added to phosphate-rich water, the lime combines with the phosphates, and they precipitate out as calcium phosphate. After another stage, which removes dissolved ammonia gas, another algae nutrient, the water passes through several layers of gravel and sand in these filter tanks.
Filtration also removes suspended solid materials, as you can see in this demonstration. Now filtered, the water is clear, but it still has another stage to pass through. These tanks are filled with activated carbon granules, which absorb still more chemical and biological impurities. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of nutrients and trace elements remain. Before it is stored for use, however, chlorine is added to prevent the growth of bacteria. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added.
The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The water has now been treated to a stage pure enough for drinking, only a small amount of chlorine is added. The old technique evaporation is employed in sophisticated hydrological experiments today. These hydrologists in Mexico are dealing with methods of purifying water from the sea.
We've put up this plant in the fishing village Puerto Peñascua. It's built on a desert that runs right down to the sea. The life of his town is the sea. Food comes from the ocean, water by truck from the mountains 20 miles away. Not this. This fresh water came from the sea. We have more customers for it than we can handle. The big problem all over the world is to get fresh water out of the sea at a reasonable cost. Many methods are being tested. This is ours. We produce electricity with a power of a diesel engine. With the waste heat from the diesel, we evaporate sea water. We purify 6,000 gallons of water a day.
It doesn't feel anywhere near our needs because we have a population of 5,000 people. Most of our water goes to the hospital in the school in town. Trucking water in here from the mountains costs 6 dollars for 1,000 gallons. We get that much from the sea for 2 dollars. But that isn't all. Part of our operation is a little farm under plastic. It covers 1 9th of a nacre. We pump in carbon dioxide waste from the diesel. It is fantastic the way that makes our crops grow. The fresh water we put in here stays here. In this little plot, we can grow enough vegetables a year to feed 60 people. We use 140th the usual amount of water.
Obviously, this whole multipurpose project is experimental, not a big production, a challenge for us, and a promising start. In the western part of the United States, enough water is lost into the atmosphere to take care of the needs of 90 million people. This hydrological project at Lake Hethner Reservoir is an experiment in a method of keeping the water where it is needed, down in the lake. Hethner is a main water supply for the 350,000 inhabitants of Oklahoma City. This setup is an elaborate one, involving a wide array of scientific disciplines. Evaporation is an elusive problem and a costly one. Scientists have been struggling with evaporation for more than 40 years. Back in the 20s, they thought that if they colored the water with harmless dyes, it might hold the evaporation down.
It didn't work though. Here they are trying something now that seems to do the trick, putting lipstick on the water. Hexodecanol is a soft, waxy material used as a base for lipstick. It doesn't smell, it doesn't taste. They mix it with water to get it onto the lake. The system of pipes under the lake is equipped with protruding spray nozzles. Hexodecanol is a curious material. It spreads out over the surface and forms a skin only one molecule thick. It's economical because it only takes 8 ounces to cover one acre. The one big problem is how to keep it there. The worst test is the wind. For whatever reason, insects and some animals like it, hydrologists at Hefner have learned to keep a close eye on the wind. There are several ways of checking the amount of film covering at any given time.
Something can be told from the height of the waves, just as oil calms troubled waters, so does Hexodecanol. Maintenance boats make small tears in the film, but they quickly heal. The hydrologist take temperatures of the lake, because where there is film, the heat of the sun is trapped in the water. But the big question is, how good is it? This is how good it seems to be. Radio waves, beam from one shore to the other, are affected by how much water is evaporating out of the lake. So radio waves give one test. Laser beams shot across the lake, analyze the moisture in the air. The results can be seen schematically. The oscilloscope in the upper right hand corner shows the situation on the lake without the material. The laser and other measurements tell that with the material, evaporation is cut on a calm day by 50%.
Most experiments like this one in Australia, Argentina and South Africa have not proved to be economical. At Lake Hefner, the hydrologists have saved enough valuable water to pay for the experiments. This is how good it seems to be. This is how good it seems to be. This is how good it seems to be. This is how good it seems to be.
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Program
Earth Day
Producing Organization
National Educational Television and Radio Center
Contributing Organization
Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/512-125q815g35
NOLA Code
EDAY
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Description
Program Description
Coinciding with a nationwide observance of Earth Day, NET will devote the entire public broadcast schedule to live coverage and special programming on the theme of our environment and the forces that threaten it. In its scope, it will be reminiscent of an old-fashioned telethon -- encompassing teach-ins, marches, demonstrations, and exhibits on campuses and in cities nationwide. NET's coverage of the events will be made possible by the most extensive use to-date of local affiliate stations. At present, the schedule is as follows: 3:30 to 4:00 pm EST -- Live coverage of activities in Philadelphia, Washington, and New York 4:00 to 6:00 pm EST -- Regular PTV program for children will deal with ecological themes and will form a part of NET's "Earth Day." These programs; "Sesame Street," "Mister Rogers," and "What's New." 6:00 to 8:30 pm EST -- Regular programming will be pre-empted. Live coverage of Earth Day activities in the East and Midwest will be interspersed with filmed and videotaped portraits of the problems besetting the environment. From Chicago, there will be a report on air pollution; from Madison, Wisconsin, a report on water pollution. Black ghetto dwellers in St. Louis will also present a play that has been written especially for Earth Day. 8:30 to 9:00 pm EST -- A special edition of "Book Beat," the weekly series originating from WTTW, Chicago. Its host, Robert Cromie, will interview Frank Graham Jr., author of "Since Silent Spring," the newly-issued study which updates the late Rachel Carson's finding on the use of pesticides. 9:00 to 10:00 pm EST -- This portion of the program will span the East, Midwest, and Far West. Tentatively, the schedule calls for excerpts from a special play by the San Francisco Mime Group. There will also be live coverage of the Survival Walk through the San Joaquin Valley. This 48-day trek dramatizes the extent to which people rely on the land for sustenance. Another segment planned for this hour is a short documentary on the internal combustion engine -- source of 60 percent of all air pollution. Technologists and members of interested groups will present their viewpoints on the engine and air pollution. NET Special -- "Earth Day" is a production of National Educational Television. Executive producer is Jim Karayn, Emmy winner for "State of the Union '69." (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
Program Description
While NET's unprecedented "Earth Day" coverage explores the broad spectrum of what is happening to our environment, one segment of the program (8-8:30 pm, EST, April 22) takes a close look at an area where something can be done and the politics involved in whether anything will be done. This special documentary by NET producer John Wicklein focuses on the pressures exerted by the public agencies on industries to clean up their operations which cause pollution and the resistance of these industries to making costly changes. As a case study in the politics of pollution, Wicklein examines the automobile industry and its noxious internal combustion engine. Among those interviewed will be Edward N. Cole, President of General Motors; Sen. Edmund Muskie (D-ME); Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe; Dr. Lee DuBridge, President of Nixon's science advisor; Rep. Leonard A. Farbstein (D-NY); and William Lear of Lear Motos, Reno, who is working on a gas turbine engine to replace the standard internal combustion engine. Efforts of the State of California to control auto pollution and the success and failures of these efforts will be covered. The documentary will be part of NET's executive Earth Day Programming which begins at 3:30 pm and runs until 10 pm EST April 22. Jim Karayn is executive producer. (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
Program Description
NET will cover events from coast to coast reflecting a national outpouring of concern about the deterioration of the environment as part of its all-day broadcast devoted to Earth Day on Wednesday, April 22. The unprecedented day of live coverage and regular programming on ecological themes -- the most extensive program of its kind ever attempted by public television -- will run from 3:30 pm to 10:00 pm EST, Wednesday, April 22, on some 180 public television stations. In its scope, it will be reminiscent of an old-fashioned telethon -- encompassing teach-ins, marches, demonstrations, and exhibits on campuses and in cities nationwide, and featuring appearances by personalities from the entertainment, academic, and political worlds. Beginning with live coverage of activities in the East, NET will then follow the sun across the nation reporting on the magnitude and variety of events of what its youthful sponsors call "a day of illumination." "We will try to provide our own ingredient of illumination with analysis, explanation, and commentary," says Emmy-Award-winning producer Jim Karayn. "We feel a great responsibility to go beyond the rhetoric to examine the realities of what this nation can do about its environmental decay." In Philadelphia, viewers will witness the "Declaration of Inter-dependence." Partaking will be Lewis Mumford, sociologist and author; George Wald, professor of biology at Harvard; Ralph Nader, lawyer and consumer watchdog; Senator Edmund Muskie, (D-ME); and the cast of "Hair," who will perform from a moving garbage truck. Cameras move to Washington for a rally on the Mall, featuring folk singer Pete Seeger. Participants in New York will include Mayor John Lindsay, anthropologist Margaret Mead, Arthur Godfrey, the "Up with People" singers, Dustin Hoffman, and the Baroque Choir who will perform on the steps of St. Patrick's cathedral. From 4 to 6 pm EST, NET's "Earth Day" will tie in with regular children's programming on public television. On "Sesame Street" Gordon introduces children to a "Plezuzmis" and gets the litter-covered street tidied up; King Friday the XIII starts his Clean-Up Campaign on "Mister Rogers" Neighborhood," and "What's New" take viewers to New Jersey's "Great Swamp," where a 12-year-old city boy learns about the balance of nature firsthand. From anchor studios in KCET, Los Angeles' public television station, hosts Maury Green and NET Washington correspondent, David Prowitt, will talk to a number of experts in the field of ecology to probe into what can be done to alleviate the problems. Regular programming will be pre-empted, from 6 to 8:30. During that time, live coverage of events involving student and citizen groups will be interspersed with filmed and taped reports. Playlets about the environment from the Television Theatre of WNDT New York's production of "Foul," by such playwrights as Arthur Kopit and Jules Feiffer, are to be presented. Emanating from the Midwest will be a water pollution scavenger hunt on Lake Michigan. Black ghetto dwellers in St. Louis will also present a play written especially for Earth Day and satirizing the politics of pollution. A short documentary on the internal combustion engine -- source of 60 percent of all air pollution -- in which technologists and member of interested groups will present their viewpoints is also scheduled. Producer of the documentary is John Wicklein. At 8:30 EST, "Earth Day" will present a special edition of "Book Beat," the weekly series originating from WTTW, Chicago. Its host, Robert Cromie, will interview Frank Graham, Jr., author of "Since Silence Spring," an account of the writing and reception of Rachel Carson's book, its immediate consequences, and what has happened in the pesticide industry recently. From 9 to 10:00 pm EST, "Earth Day" will span the East, Midwest, and Far West. There will also be live coverage of the Survival Walk through San Joaquin Valley. This 48-day trek over a 400 mile route dramatizes the extent to which people rely on the land for sustenance. A demonstration against pollution in Minneapolis will also be reported. "Earth Day represents an ideal opportunity for public television," says Don Dixon, NET director of public affairs programming. "We have the interest, we have the air time, and through our affiliates we have the community involvement for this project." (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
Program Description
6 hour and 30 minute program, produced in 1970 by NET, originally shot in color.
Broadcast Date
1970-04-22
Asset type
Program
Genres
Special
Topics
Environment
Holiday
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
01:13:09
Embed Code
Copy and paste this HTML to include AAPB content on your blog or webpage.
Credits
Anchor: Prowitt, David
Anchor: Green, Maury
Executive Producer: Karayn, Jim, 1933-1996
Guest: Muskie, Edmund
Guest: Mead, Margaret
Guest: Nader, Ralph
Guest: Hoffman, Dustin
Guest: Godfrey, Arthur
Guest: Wald, George
Guest: Mumford, Lewis
Guest: Graham, Frank, Jr.
Guest: Linday, John
Host: Cromie, Robert
Performer: Seeger, Pete
Performing Group: Baroque Choir
Performing Group: San Francisco Mime Group
Producer: Wicklein, John
Producing Organization: National Educational Television and Radio Center
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2087951-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape: Quad
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2087951-2 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Master
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2087951-3 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2087951-4 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape
Generation: Master
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Citations
Chicago: “Earth Day,” 1970-04-22, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 21, 2024, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-512-125q815g35.
MLA: “Earth Day.” 1970-04-22. Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 21, 2024. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-512-125q815g35>.
APA: Earth Day. Boston, MA: Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-512-125q815g35