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The. Voices of Europe produced and recorded by Milton Mayer in cooperation with the University of Chicago under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center in cooperation with the National Association of educational broadcasters on this program. Milton Mayer will conduct two interviews the first is with Herr Gott. We do it by letter and the second with Joe Torry and requests on your letter. And now Milton Mayer until I'm gladly to provide Eric came along so this business might have been fairly accurately described as a combination of medieval gallantry and the reasonableness of the Renaissance. It is no accident that hairdo dryer is sometimes called the American by the genteel monopolists of Switzerland whose monopoly he has broken one after another beginning with is cut rate self-service grocery business which started with five
Model T Ford trucks in the streets of Surrey. And pyramiding to the 85 million dollar a year co-operatively owned empire he manages today. Then some one hundred fifty stars in the Swiss cities and in a fleet of some 100 Mobi of groceries serving 600 rural communities on a regular schedule and I'll cut him a going rate in 1935 when the Swiss Parliament began passing legislation to prevent his price cutting too far ran for parliament was elected by the biggest vote in Swiss history and today as state councillor. He adds The Swiss independent consumer's party in parliament there did rather well why did you decide to turn
Switzerland upside down. I am a peaceful man but I wanted to have a job when I came back from the scene. When I was a blank and I saw they did so wrong so many things said to me. Certain forms and how. This was read here did that I thought she and I did in the 25 years been played in coffee coffee and also sings to me and you made this discovery on your return to Switzerland when you came home to look for a job that the plant or the farmer was getting last fur his produce the grocer was getting as abruptly. Yes we do. And Rob did you do about it. Well I started studying value of mother of the groom
than the type that I and some other women it's anything but only I think that harmed much lower price than the glowing prices which are well it's astonishing that then he railed about the length he did plenty wrong with him and I then complain and you made money not lost money in the first year but the increase might rise my buying but I only buy the percent. And I venture that the housewives where you kind of can you have to buy the weekend and he really turned out to be him but it was then a private business institution through it but the limited company. And how did how did it become a federation of cooperatives
when probably the housewives that I would sell them that money to make money and after a few years I found out that that people thought about this think Dean million and then I wanted to be home with the main I don't run over to the computers to park that call but the park at the end in the beginning about 100000. For whom there have since been working as a salaried managers. Then he will need thousand dollars a year. Harmon consumers how many customers does you meet today. 300 he's out with members of the Carpathia and of course some of the many outside the fire are expensive as monopoly in Switzerland and then there is the problem really the problem of the price. Well to carry some of that to the people five
thousand six hundred of what we call parity. And the comeback we've simply companies these go around are happy to sell at the comp company B. And I think that in the sum seemed like he got really Imperioli in the CEO quality of the moon and the dinner plans and things we did and we want to be very little companies are actually in agreement about their prices. Eric does does the price just simply blow up to this point and stay there now are they are they are you happy and they can remain in their grocery. You have the independent girls or are here they are price. Actually they are. Are they in the federal grocers organized monopolistic glee or do they just tend to sell at the same high price level like that that people
saw the menu picture. Please God and to order a Group the company should leave the car to help the pain to seek to save as and as how you are but I and they can get and we are learning at that but we can calculate the sirkar material the salaries and all the expenses. I need cheap and possible head for the room but the independents there are the little bird is not actually making the ball as a bigger profit. As me grow as a meat grows there are making it that were a private company rather the health of the people who answered they are taking as many shitty care but you can't take much more than me to get into the foods of about seven to 10 percent to be between that but I think they are sending out
and our books are operating more efficiently. Sure we have I think get nearly a run in an hour. Don't explain the sweeties about value in the sense that the dollars are really into the room and you operate more efficiently by what how do you credit that you pay your clerk less for example than the Independent. Well I would permit our enemy goes though. He's about five times as much as a you know independent grocery and we are paying the highest salary and bed interviews that's a first. And you only get to be so far before our beaks a week instead of 40 dollars you are able to sell lower in this case the profit goes to the consumers. But you are putting me in the pendant Starkey they're out of business not that of this deadbeat Who's that has meaning he painted
her as red when I started only there are two important factors. First he's off of population or about 15 percent and police of he will reach us of about 20 to 25 percent. Some would be and not forced to take it easy pieces for there was a small storekeepers he darted the parking we've just seen and we've had considerable success. That is Negro is now operating in Turkey. Well the first time in East and the Turkish capital the Turkish and speciated to the credit of about 10 million Turkish pounds that means about whom and they could walk to a million dollars he's given by the tax boom that we are managing. Yes but then when you go from a wealthy country like Switzerland or say like the United States to a poor country like
Turkey you must obtain capital from the Turkish government or rather the Turks themselves must obtain capital through the government. So then in a poor country or in the poorer parts of the world this kind of enterprise which you're in Switzerland you are able to do privately to begin with has to be done with a national subsidy. Not subsidy B but national capital because I think it said we're really not really considerable losses if a natural law starting a business of this kind but I think we've said time there are no i think of the steps necessary. What I'm getting at is this here a good product. Is it possible for a poor country for this kind of development to occur in a poor country in a desperately poor country where you require capital governmental capital with our hope that the same time
filing in the danger of governmental control. Well the parish ministers want the president speaks you have to die to fictionalise ABC North to see to be sure that I will cease to be employed and also our mentality which is very important but I think that it also comes Why shouldn't Americans keeps a million dollars for running for starting such abuses instead of spending billions. We know how much it will. Then it's self-help they are interested in instead of help execute this revolution of the earth the battle of Switzerland. We conducted quite quite peacefully Arlo with a few alarms and excursions from time to time. How is this kind of economic revolution relevant in the
poorer in the very poorest part of the world or parts of the world. How is it relevant not to Switzerland the United States or Sweden but that that part of the world which is either coming in the revolution which is now in revolution or which is basically as in the case of the Soviet Union a revolutionary system. You only speak about a series an evolution I think even evolution is a better term. But evolution prevents revolution I think sensible I see companies are no friends of mine. I thought I threw the expanses sweets house the doctor to avoid a new construction which would not suit other people but a hardier book viler can this concept which repairs the Swiss house be applicable in the poor houses like you had a
levy or North Africa or China or India. Well I think so because if you new version idea he'd say I hear not to discuss We people are by about how many people who are hungry you have to feel. And first just glumly and sent these caps which I've been hearing about about communism. He said nothing. You have to fight communism into a kitchen that light it and then the 5 percent of ideological companies cannot be converted. But you said he 95 are not following them. So a small companies will eat any currently so it's well I think said we missed help from below. Farms are starved for arms apparently at a kitchen not talking so much but doing something and doing it in a meat to help people help themselves and not do so much charity
I think that the map produced the best sense around me. But when I say like this seem as common as they think. So the organizer her as a man and I think that her weapon of the veteran well you sleep at the incomers and into the competition on the ability and I think said the consumer has developed. Whether you are in your room and a clap of the vehicle wouldn't be set up these then be accepted by the people because they heard the word in their lap and be happy to see you people sound. I would come through this free enterprise and the natural power and I'm around only
to be a collective we in order to comply need to sort out the people and then I will be right than there will be be again per se. Thank you very much. I asked a couple of dozen people in Italy who could tell me all about this wonderful joyous and tragic country I was looking for a man above partisanship. Not very easy to find here. And my focus was directed Dr. Ira in the request. I mean what a Florence. Political editor of Italy's most distinguished review you know Pandey. And I knew Letty was born in Valon Yes. At 19 0 9 to get a law degree in Florence
under the great professor economy under a dome he subsequently served as assistant to. The author of works in jurisprudence. And for several years was director of an independent publishing house. But he was finally caught up with. This was early in the second world war. I must only mean that after eight months and the president was confined in the south and then only in one of the fascists famous outdoor concentration camps. Until the bad w o coup of 1933. After that he served as a fighter. And as press director. For the Italian committee of liberation. The part of the idea that the you know this is an oversimplified question but can you tell me what is the
problem here. I think that probably wouldn't it. It is that so many young people from all the countries I mean the tell you that both countries and then I think it is that being the problem that you have to understand they saw because I can believe that you can why it is for when. Myself call us there when we should should have had a we don't know why but I think. Be fair and reasonable. Make sure leave them entirely thought country. Currently only thought without much water at the right time and eternity has a overpopulation. We ran the money
more deeply but cool in the life of the generality of the people. Why we overpopulate. Historical reasons. Poor I mean if you know in the last century you will that every country in the world probably head head that in go he didn't head for all that go at random but the climate is cool in brainy people are leaving. People can either rather easy. Of course in the last 20 or 30 years their rate of more than a head the English very much an economy like in other countries that ran their fortune at the more obvious I mean these right something here. Will it now do we have more or
less there. Never thought of them in the least that you would tell you if I hear a problem they're at the center. Oh all of the problems really part I think yet. Immense power means that if we care we should be here from turning Democratic. Currently we think of all of that and it is very difficult to have a Democrat a democracy a democracy when you have not thought of that means there are probably more population than things and as you know that we care what people call the indignity to feed their program. We have difficulties or little because the Catholic Church
has this. What kind I see I should say. My son needs to be kept up to date in the program. Another possible war solution or source of relief for this problem. Certainly in other western countries to raise the standard of living of a poor people who are overcrowded have been industrialization to the museum. We've got pieces of cold war for every government thing done he said. The tool we share and he says certainly something that are being done and they're getting him back. Then he sat them out of the week sure it's not always on the stool. I believe I'm Really Not With You But if you know what
you need you're going to leave it. Although the eye becoming We should look and buy a gun please. Do you believe is the problem with increasing industrialization. But with immigration more limit. I should say every wrong way but with increasing industrialization. You see the problem is worse for the world before the first world war or are there so well and a lot of them leave it certainly hit and now they know why because the population is growing more of the need for perspective and all of that because of that more than enough and don't need a soul man meant by our people. Thought it I don't think that you can read but you have not really thought
you do all the work out if I didn't for the time and you don't like there but only. By the world there are three more who tried to knock the repressed side that are by and large. Too. The better economic condition of Peter in the next 20 years. But the difficulty is me I don't need love for other like because I'm from the section of the current economy being all that sunny news release and Jenny for
it then I thought you know that the mall will be kind of the Indian egg sucking that director is going to want to be he's got to live with more or less playing with that thing and all of that general thinking I'm still there but the guy will be more on the ball on their own people. They're seething already big because well they feel that that would mean an invasion probably thought that they had there. They hate campaigns against people we know that they've got. But subtly in the code. It was
seeing that me to polarize people their way with him. The conservative there was and the radicals are revolutionaries. I think in general this is the picture that we have to leave today. The Christian Bagge government now basically the server hit her head with a rock formation and the other three in the room in this. And I suppose growing our economy and their cause. Well that's of course easy in this sense is the example we have for unity then when I believe in the left of the mind right in the center. Don't think that like you barking I think Cleveland Democratic We did not write to the pointer problem or we don't believe you've got a problem.
I think he's just that question that you need me because my opinion wants you to care for him more. Mall on its own that can be done even if you don't. Ed in our 40s we can see if you have any I mean now practicality the central power right. I don't think we can and then let them come. And the thought of a name he saw him and they are for more of the world. We don't deal with our role in why they DO YOU KNOW THE LEAD bothy is another one is that he thought he'd gone and sure on that one. So if your head if you need you know we lead and they
leave. We're still trying to book for him. Let the senator elect the Democratic Party. What could be the solution. Well many you know he got good hopes on what we call are already going to go. I mean that I hope that you look older than perhaps a member I mean that you can sand horribly and they have enough of him bought them. Yeah absolutely. They are for God or man a gun and so forth and by them and they saw and then he thought he really I mean that probably would be to believe that all the extrem led the company which would be elated and relieved. Yes that's right but I had some explaining to go if you please get there because all of the other I think I believe that the
clique companies do their time. So. Rude and cruel I mean can't you tell other people that it would be not so to have tall men blowing you need an evil not necessary to have so little care so held securely and so for all many people while not counting on it but they believe that we can try the only way to heaven. Even if you need only to worry I live then I saw the body and it was now like a kind God not an easy matter not a question that you can do. Today backed off the prospect of not being what are
some two for the week cool flew in and out of the car and sat in silence. We have to understand that we try to tie it off and then cool to the who knew who was fatally in them or who voted for them. If we cool the bar exam around that can be tough.
Thank you very much. Voices of Europe was produced and recorded in Europe by a mayor in cooperation with the University of Chicago under a grant from the Educational Television and Radio Center. This program is distributed by the National Association of educational broadcasters. This program has been introduced by Ma this is the end of the Radio Network.
Voices of Europe
Gottlieb Duttweiler and Enriques Agnoletti
Producing Organization
University of Chicago
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/500-xg9f9545).
Episode Description
This program features interviews with Gottlieb Duttweiler, a Swiss businessman, and Enriques Agnoletti, a politician and member of the Italian Resistance.
Series Description
Interviews with noted Europeans on a variety of subjects, conducted by Milton Mayer, American author and broadcaster, lecturer and professor in the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt University.
Broadcast Date
Global Affairs
Italy--Economic conditions--1945-1976.
Media type
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Interviewee: Duttweiler, Gottlieb, 1888-1962
Interviewee: Agnoletti, Enriques
Interviewer: Mayer, Milton, 1908-1986
Producing Organization: University of Chicago
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 57-7-26 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:40
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Chicago: “Voices of Europe; Gottlieb Duttweiler and Enriques Agnoletti,” 1957-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 13, 2024,
MLA: “Voices of Europe; Gottlieb Duttweiler and Enriques Agnoletti.” 1957-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 13, 2024. <>.
APA: Voices of Europe; Gottlieb Duttweiler and Enriques Agnoletti. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from