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You're Pacific University program today and in the broadcast the follow is based upon the story of education published by Chilton books in June 1962. Co-author with your narrative was Dr. Eugene Moleski an assistant superintendent in charge of teacher recruitment for the New York City Board of Education. By presenting these excerpts from my book The Story of education we are hoping that you are listening audience maybe better able to understand the whys and the wherefores of our own American schools. Our topic today. Realistic education. The third of the great movements in the general intellectual weighting of Western Europe running somewhat parallel to the Renaissance and reformation was real ism. It was not an original contribution of the 16th century. Their religious temper faith in the end scene authority of tradition and revelation had previously made realism the dominant outlook during the intellectual controversies of the early medieval period. Most certainly those universal propositions laid down by scriptures and church fathers had been considered
real and binding even after being challenged by the scientific outlook of Aristotle. A position known as nominalism. Coming as a protest against the narrowness of both humanist and reformers. This new realism was a part of a growing interest in practical realities of life. It represented the beginnings of modern scientific inquiry initiated by the work of Nicholas copper Nicholas Galileo Galilei Johannes Kepler and Sir Isaac Newton. Realists were centering their attention primarily upon the concrete objects that make up the universe. But so far as influencing education was concerned the early aerialist were not teachers. They were men busy in other occupations who realized the schools of their day were out of step with the realities of life. That they were failing to prepare for actual living. While all realists were critical of the schools that developed by humanist and reformers they disagreed among themselves as to
what should constitute a different type of education and may be divided into three groups humanistic social and sense realists. As pioneers in the movement humanistic realist made no complete break with the concepts of humanism. Classical languages and literature were considered the only subjects worthy of study for so they thought the ancient writers had reached the highest possible achievements attainable by human minds. However their education ideas though humanistic and content were realistic in aim and method they sought for a complete knowledge and understanding of human society as the proper means of fitting an individual to the environment in which he lives. To accomplish this they advocated the intelligent seeking out of meaning in classical literature to be studied not for its own sake but for the scientific historical and social information. It contains the humanist were concerned with diction structure and style. The reformers were the
religious and moral precepts but humanistic realist would utilize classical literature as the best available medium to prepare for the realities of life. In so doing they greatly overestimated the capacity of the average man for knowledge. They fell into the common air of judging abilities of others by their own brilliant talents. In so doing humanistic realist proposed to create them far ahead of that day and age in some respects ahead of modern thinking or at least modern practices. Drest was a literary type of education but one much more down to earth than that of the humanist. Actually there are revolutionary ideas made practically no impression on the organization of schools of their day but much that they advocated is still thought provoking even in modern times. Doubtless the most interesting humanistic realist was Francoise Rabelais madcap French monk scholar and physician who so effectively use satire
to ridicule the schooling of his day in Rabbi Lay's life. A good dance yes. A giant youth being taught according to the then current methods learned his ABC so thoroughly that his instruction required more than five years. Another 13 years were used up in the reading of three books. But of course in that time the pupil had copied all three volumes and got the characters. In the end gets ya placed alongside a young fellow train for only two years in the newer educational methods succeeded in proving itself to be little else but a blockhead in his constructive suggestions of Rabelais advocated an informal method in which reasoning was substituted for rote memory with study being made pleasant and attractive. Social realist came from the aristocratic upper classes. They were men of affairs interested in the training of their sons for active participation in public life. The education they wanted would develop a man of the world and a gentleman.
Such training they believe must be gained through the direct contact with people and their social activities rather than through books. Social realist ridiculed the book Easterners and humanistic realist who so they claimed were preparing for the life of the past and not for that of the present. These critics oppose cramming the memory with facts feeling that education must provide the basis for the making of sensible choices and decisions as well as for social efficiency and enjoyment of leisure hours to them the art of living should be the goal of learning the pupil lives. What he learns while a social realist advocated a practical type of education. In no sense was it vocational or professional. The aim was to make every city man of the world. Michelle the moment pain stood out as the most truly represented exponent of social realism he opposed the idea that merely a study of books provides an adequate education and
proposed an activity curriculum. To him experience was much more important than words and books travel with the agency were becoming familiar with people and customs. And the world itself the best curriculum Latin he would retain as important in the education of a gentleman. But Greek was rejected as being flashy equipment of a scholar with no practical value. French and foreign languages should be studied because they were needed for conversation with people at home and abroad condemned where harsh disciplinary methods so commonly used at that time to command attention. Learning should be pleasurable and attractive in its own right. My pain had but little use for schools and universities saying that 15 years of such an education serves only to make the student a greater and more conceited cock's comb than when he left home like Rabelais he urges the use of a tutor. And for a short period of time the tutorial system became
quite popular among the aristocratic classes not only in France but also in England. However some of Montaigne's fellow realist rejected the tutor and began demanding new types of schools which would turn out gentlemen instead of pedants. Especially in Germany. A few such schools were established but never became common or influential. Those that did come into being. Emphasize modern languages mathematics but ical history geography military art and fine manners. It is interesting to note that in the United States today there are a few academies in finishing schools attended by sons and daughters of the wealthier classes that still reflect the influence of social realism. Since realism represented the complete search for reality as experienced in every day human relationships. It was a product of the many explorations and discoveries of the 16th and 17th centuries and the starting point of the scientific movement in education sense realists thought to
advance new now aids rather than to limit education to the mere learning of what was already known and written in books. Secrets of nature were to be discovered and utilized for the practical benefits to be brought to man in his everyday living still stressed was religious moralistic education but now included was an emphasis upon democratic education especially in vernacular elementary schools sense realist proposed a pan Sofie curriculum one that would include practically all knowledge. John Amos Comenius born in 59 to a bishop of the small despises Moravian religious sect diligently searched every available author and quizzed education reformers for fruitful ideas in developing his sense realist viewpoint. To meet the growing demand for a new method whereby students might learn Latin with greater ease and in a shorter time he prepared two introductory text books. Indeed he worked
out a concise Latin vocabulary and made use of pictures and words together to impress the memory of the child. How many assist text books enjoyed extraordinary popularity has curricular recommendations were accepted as in harmony with a new trend working toward reform in subject matter but his broad general scheme of applying psychological principles to the learning process received a cold reception during his own lifetime. His remarkable treatise season education remain practically unknown for two centuries and only in recent years has it been realized how forward looking was his viewpoint to Comenius the school was a manufactory of society shaping children and human beings and playing a large part in the improvement of society. He considered the aims of education wider than merely religious for children must be taught to live not merely for the church and for the school but for all life. Most of the sensory of us were practical educators interested in the development of
schools as the ideal agency for education. They emphasize the importance of the trained teachers able to study children and to make full use of the natural law of basic the sound pedagogical practices during the eighteenth century some new sense realist schools were established in Germany largely by the Pietist dissenters from the Lutheran faith. The leading figure of this movement was August Herrmann Franke who developed a group of institutions that emphasize scientific studies. His new university of how they provided the training school for teachers and the book's children. Just then coming into existence Frankie gained the support of the King of Prussia who established 700 schools an issue of the school Aug. 17 13 and 17 17 making it compulsory for all parents to send their children to school tuition fees were to be paid for poor children by the community.
Fence realist were the first to insist that knowledge comes through the census and that the order of learning must be things thoughts words. Or gang or rat he founder of experimental schools is credited as being the first educator to seek for the natural order in which the mind develops. Even though he made the error of basing his conclusions concerning growth of child nature upon analogy the external nature such as trees the general theme a rat theory still dominates modern educational methods. In evaluating sense realist as a group. It can be said they firmly established the principle that basic the educational method is the process of natural growth of the child. Upon this concept has been formulated many practical rules for teaching which are in constant use in modern up to date classrooms. Sir Francis Bacon was a realist in that he made the end of scientific inquiry practical rather than metaphysical. He believed that learning
had as his aim the mastery of things in order to further man's control over nature. He optimistically foresaw the use of the scientific method for the benefit of human welfare. He believed that the scientific study of nature was basic to all human progress. In the New Atlantis. The plan for his Utopia included the establishment of a research institution and a clearinghouse for scientific investigation called Solomon's house which would apply the results of the research to the advancement of human welfare. Bacon was not alone in this dream of a new social order brought about through a new type of education. The scientific inventions and discoveries of the 16th century had fired the imagination of enlightened minds to attempt great achievements in the transformation of human nature and human society. Utopian schemes from the original utopia of Sir Thomas Moore on were the expressions of a new faith in the improve ability of human life. And
faith in the possibility of reconstructing human society through the power of education. Most of these writers who presented their 17th century schemes for the reform of society agreed with bacon that education was the essential agency for the betterment of both society and the individual.
Series
The story of education
Episode
Realistic education
Producing Organization
KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-w08wfw0x
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Description
Episode Description
This program presents an overview of realistic education.
Series Description
This series presents various excerpts from the book, "The Story of Education," which traces the evolution of education. The excerpts are read by the book's co-author, Dr. Carroll Atkinson.
Broadcast Date
1965-01-01
Topics
Education
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:14:08
Embed Code
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Credits
Narrator: Atkinson, Carroll, 1896-1988
Producing Organization: KOAC (Radio station : Corvallis, Or.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 64-38-12 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:13:38
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Citations
Chicago: “The story of education; Realistic education,” 1965-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 26, 2024, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-w08wfw0x.
MLA: “The story of education; Realistic education.” 1965-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 26, 2024. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-w08wfw0x>.
APA: The story of education; Realistic education. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-w08wfw0x