Space Science Press Conference
WSU why the broadcasting station of the State University of Iowa presents I'm going in members of the Space Science summer study a conference held on the University of Iowa campus during the summer of 1960 to the Space Science Summer Study Program was conducted by the Space Science board of the National Academy of Sciences at the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This program was recorded during a press conference held at the conclusion of the eight week science Summer Study participating in the press conference where Mr. James E. Webb the administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dr. Hugh Dryden deputy administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Home secretary of the National Academy of Sciences Dr. Frederick Seitz president of the National Academy Dr. Lloyd Berkner president of the Graduate
Research Center of the southwest in Dallas and chairman of the Space Science board of the National Academy. Dr. Hugh oldish our executive director of the Space Science board of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Harry Hess Princeton University geologist soon to assume Dr. Booker's position as chairman of the Space Science board of the National Academy. Dr. James a van allen head of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Iowa and President Virgil enhancer of the State University of Iowa. Here to make introductory remarks concerning the nature and purpose of the Space Science summer study is noted physicist Dr. James a Van Allen of the State University of Iowa. I think you're clear what the generals on the ship of the summer of enterprise under the sponsorship of the National Academy of
Sciences have been done to this specific request of Mr. Webb as administrator of the house. The purpose of the work this summer has been to examine all aspects of the operation of the nation. Or not except Space Administration particularly in the area of the face sciences. Now we've had during the course of the summer some 250 persons come here with varying lengths of time to examine specific areas in the operation of the National Space Program. Now we've prepared a number of quite massive reports on different topics and today and tomorrow we're holding our own briefings and discussions. The great pleasure of having Mr. Webb and Dr. Dryden Here are the senior administrators of the National not explosive ministration. So they are so to speak our principal auditors and principal discuss are during the present period.
Jim don't you want to say that the center of gravity of the study is really not just to review the existing program but to contribute to the formulation of the program for the next decade. Yes and certainly it has we do feel that we have contributed well can make a durable contribution in the direction of the enhancement of the effectiveness of now so do over the perhaps the next decade and I believe we can firmly say we have made a fairly large number in the process of making a fairly large number of constructive suggestions in the direction of greater national effect. Administrator Mr. James Webb comment. Well let's put it in simple terms. Van Allen has of course been an outstanding leader. We appreciate it very much. The invitation of a president and this university to hold steady here and the reason we particularly wanted it at this time is that from a period when we were adapting boosters prepared for other purposes like military purposes. That's a
program and able to fly one of two or three experiments. Specially made Reg we're now moving into a situation where we have a national launch vehicle program with 10 major boosters and it going from the small goes to the scout all the way up to the very large booster the noble now or the next a period of years we are going to be able to to fly in space those experiments that will yield us not a very valuable information about the laws of nature as we can learn about them through going out into space. Dr. Van Allen as the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board were a logical group to turn to to ask the question what are the best minds in the scientific community in America believe they should should do with this booster power over the next 10 years that this is the problem these men have been wrestling with what are the orders of priority. What are the first steps that must be taken as a foundation for follow on steps that are necessary. And from the preliminary briefings
that you've given us I think that they're going to make a very real contribution to the future of the nation in the space program. So I think it's interesting that this university that has a distinguished member has also brought this large number of people from all over the United States and provided the focal point for them to wrap their minds around this problem of what does the United States do so we appreciate the hospitality of the university. I've been delighted of course to have the time or study group here. I would like it just for the press. But it's well to reflect how rapidly our concepts of change about the importance of this figure. I can testify to that because when Dr. Van Allen came a little more than a decade ago he seemed to be in a highly esoteric and rather unrealistic and
would have to confess that at that time I didn't foresee in any degree the nature and scope of this problem with having the length of time lapse and became even more famous I think delighted to have people on the campus and to be house I should think that now that the question should be directed to them because I'm sitting in reflected glory today. I want to thank God. I think it is very significant that Dr. Sykes who is president actually Academy of Scientists has come out also to hear this preliminary report as a present the Academy occupies a very important position in the United States scientific and governmental community. The National Research Council is associated with the National Academy and this distinguished group of men from the earliest days of the country when they were played a leading role in every major decision that related to our future I think their sponsorship of
bringing the scientists together to work on this space program for the government is a very important service. And it's not every day that you get President National Academy universe. So I think that's rather significant. Well to Nassau now has one of the most remarkable technical scientific programs underway our country has ever launched in peace time economies proud of the role it's been able to play in the last four or five years in getting this program started with Nasser. We hope we can continue to participate and that we will have something significant to add in the coming period. This report will be no small part of our contribution. We're grateful to you President and Chief for all the help we got. Here on the campus now we thought we know you've expressed an interest in this study group and we thought that the
meetings have had to be held without published today. We are here to answer any questions you want to ask about space if you if you'd like to proceed. And now make an observation. And the gentlemen of the press raise the question there's no difficulty about answering as to the availability of the report. We're in the middle of you doing this report. There is still some added work to be done even by the working groups and it will take us something like two months to tidy it up. And it's as simple as last and very shortly thereafter it will be made available publicly by the National Academy of Science. In other words they will advise the government to open letter by publishing their advice they give us and we'll be glad to have it on that basis. When he was Nick clambered over the register he said the best minds and scientific community were stating what should we do in the next 10 years. All right well what is the order of priority.
You mean in the view of the better one back to back that I perhaps might say something about that oh in terms of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration the present government program. Yeah either one. I mean what if they come up with it's different than your team Time cover story said somebody in the moon in 87 You know I don't know about that particular story. I would say that that just as this country neglected to develop the airplane after the Wright Brothers were the one that they didn't have any airplanes. And from the National Committee for 115 to read between the war years developed a real capability in aviation they did the same with respect to the rocket engine developed by Dr Goddard and the 1920s. We sent a neglected the Russians and the Germans developed it. We saw the bombs drop on London we saw Russia fly the first Sputnik and the second satellite and this nation got
together and started not to be second best in space. In doing that since 1958 we worked a program that included heavy emphasis on space time understanding the laws of nature and being able to make measurements because the rocket engine with the leverage of power in a vacuum just like it had missed fire in the area of manned space flight. Everyone concerned with this program. Decision making responsibility has felt that we had to the adaptability of men physically present in space to observe and bring back information that would need to further develop and indeed the scientific program also Dr. Buckley can speak to this he's been an advocate of this for a long time in the area of applications we have a very strong program to develop communication satellite as you know we're developing not only
current but Telstar has already flown we've already flown five terrorist satellites have taken over 100000 pictures of the cloud cover of the earth made infrared measurements so we have some idea of the disposition at night have given us a new perspective on world weather conditions and the kind of research needed that both the communications satellite and the weather satellite are moving rapidly toward operational systems the weather bureau has. Funds and their budget to start toward an operational system this year and Congress is now debating the set up of a corporation to fund his common carrier service with communication satellites. This application program as well as space science of manned space flight that we have a fourth program the last one which is called the office of advanced research and technology development. Here are the director Dr. Benjamin are from MIT just reported for duty on the first day of August.
It is to look at all the resources required in aviation and space to see that the United States maintains a preeminent position over the next 10 25 50 years just as we have had the National Advisory Committee for an audience working in our Nordic since 1915. We had this technology area does the basic research and technology using government laboratories university facility industry to advance the home base on which commercial transportation supersonic transport vertical take off airplanes. Rocket boosters and so forth spacecraft technology can be developed. Those are the first parts of the program and they are going to head vigorously. The president has announced that we do not need to be second best in this area and that we expect to make a lunar landing within this decade. We might be able to catch Bob Hildreth. He's the director of the main space flight program and he was downstairs a few minutes ago I don't know
why we didn't think bring him up here. But anyway he is here to hear these reports also because this is the biggest part of our program financially because the command rate these big boosters and to equip a system to fire a man in space is one of the technologically most advanced programs that any nation has ever undertaken. The registrant Tribune correspondent then quoted Time magazine as saying that it would cost 20 billion dollars to put a man on the moon and asked Is that correct. Well you see it isn't just to get one man on the moon. You can look at the at the lunar landings as a chord noting objective that requires you to develop all of the ability required to put the man on the moon. That 20 billion over the ten years is not a bad bad figure for that application SAT is going to hear back a lot of this and that the development of all this technology will affect the GNP that is predicted to rise to something like 700 billion a year
and spin off in materials and advanced electronics and metals fabrics lubricants is going to be tremendous in the steel making business right now and some of the types of Freddie says you can make three notes were used to make one true using liquid oxygen. Well you could say liquid oxygen has been well known for a long time but it wasn't available in large quantities until the space program came along all the way from that kind of benefit. Do the specific weather program the communications relay systems and so forth. You find a great many benefits all along the line. You've got to get some of this money back. Dr. Burton earned made additions to Mr. Webb's statement with these comments. The objective is to develop a second K'naan space capability including getting Manning into space and out of the movie. Now this includes
space exploration of the first water space exploration implies a scientific exploration of space. Because when man goes into space he wants to see what is there and how it affects the earth to see what is there it means he must be able to make precise observations and this is. The summer study has been directing its attention to just how these observations should be made and what measurements what measures should be taken so that the most precise scientific observations can be undertaken so that one can learn the maximum information from the expenditure of money and effort. But it's an example of how the United States is doing this program. Ninety two percent of all of the budget is used with non-governmental institutions I mean we are financing this study to bring the best brains in our universities and industries together
to say what's right for the United States to do. And we expect to follow their advice wherever we can. Now this is not a bunch of government people said behind closed doors trying to decide what to do is spreading the problem over a very large number of able. And this is I think one of the very important elements of this program. Mr. Webb was then asked if an analogy could be made between this conference and previous similar conferences. Through all of this he's probably had more experience and it's quite an analogy. We hope it will lead into newer areas. Among other things it gives us a present appraisal of where we might go. Let me say it my way or you know not try to think about the scientific side fits into the rest. You could say that for many years we did not have a program and a great many people interested in not being second best but we already have one. The scientists were strongly advocating a number of things that should be done
and they had many meetings. Most interesting reports Dr. Otis show wrote a book called Space Science and they were always pressing for things they thought the nation should do. Now that we've got a program got the boost of power we put it right up to him to say what do you do with this boost if you don't any longer have to argue the United States ought to have a program that you've got to address specifically what should the program be. I think this is a good way to differentiate this congressman conference from what's gone before. Exactly right. Once again the registering Tribune correspondent made reference to Time magazine. He finance business and industry and population are going to follow the brains of the claim that their words if he got it you might be going to the industries to spring up around there. But what's wrong with the State University. There's nothing wrong with it is one of the most outstanding executions in the country and I will predict for you that they work with the
preeminent work that Dr Van Allen has done is going to give you industrial opportunities in this state that no one in this room could visualize. But now I think you've got to get ready in this state it isn't just going to drop on your like rain. You've got to put a bucket out if you want to catch something. If you could create your universe and the businessmen of this community so that your university people learned a little bit more about the business community go the profit system and the system under which business operates and at the same time realize that they should invest some of their profits in basic research here in this universe and bring it to the universe or developing from people like Dr would mean everything to the future of this state. I might add that I can observe only eighteen or twenty miles north of here in Cedar Rapids this interaction is going to already have developed there that
interact with the universe. You are one of the best right here if you can support it but it is not going to be completely supported by the government. The part that we want to be locally supported. I don't mind having underscoring. If you're going to come in contact with your universe and all of them begin to understand a little bit more about how to expedite the process by which this very advanced research comes into your universe I'll repeat what I said are already under process.
That's not a federal official. Research and the university it seems to me that one of the problems university is facing in relation to this basic research is the cost and drawing people into government private industry sources like Rand. Now what's the answer to this one. Well I wrote a speech to made it up and passed and I will go on this very subject in which I said Nestle is not creating big government laboratories or institutions to pull scholars off of the university campus. We are supporting research that is needed in our program on the university campus where the administration of the university the consensus of the faculty and individual scholars wants to do the work and when it goes hand in hand with graduate education that is a
policy that will strengthen your university and all others who work with us rather than try to draw these people out of the university into other places because what's needed more than anything else in this country I think. I say not more than anything else but a very great need to have that graduate education process continue and generate more doctoral graduates and people who bet post-doctoral trainees. And by the way I want to make a speech about the fact that in the last 10 years you had a radical departure from the past in that very sophisticated understanding at the level that is necessary in the physical sciences to be inventive to make the inventions that are necessary and that it's this kind of university based mind that's going to make the inventions that business makes money out of in the future. He's predicted that in the next 10 years you'll understand the life processes as well as you now understand the atomic processes. But this is not going to be done by a man
who could work with a steam engine this could be done by a very sophisticated well trained mind and he's almost it's almost essential for him to have a close relationship with the universe to scholarly community including graduate education. But I don't know but I should Sure and I were discussing this morning the situation that's occurring in Ohio and Texas for I live in many other states and that is that the agricultural community is no longer absorbing any additional manpower but our population is going up 2 percent per year. And the answer is these have to be these men have to be absorbed in other activities and these other activities are created only from by the brainpower of the country. New industries new services. Products must come from a from highly trained mind. Consequently your university rather than
being being an auxiliary element in the community now becomes the very center of community life and its graduate school is the school that trains the brainpower that can lead the community into a healthy happy future. I'd like to make one other observation about you ask about the basic program of that are not in Space Administration. We're here to get the best thoughts and the best knowledge and experience of this group of scientists to Dr. Van Allen has as been responsible for this six weeks. We also test their conclusions and that sometimes with an experimental flight program. While we are going forward to build the Apollo to make the lunar landing and to have plates of one or two months around the earth we put the Gemini program in which will tell us whether a man can live for five days in space under weightless conditions and still return safely into the Earth's atmosphere. The basic program here just like the X-15 program where we will fly and fly and fly we're going to be flying every 60 to 90 days from now on learning
in a step by step approach whether or not the scientific computations and judgments are really really bad or really whether they matter to conditions that men have to face this is so for the manned spaceflight program is concerned. I think one of the things that you need is a basic concept that these men could give you. It is that we're moving now to where we have these so-called big car satellites or buses which carry a large number of experiments. If the policy you see is to enlist University scientists you've got to be able to assure them that their experiments will fly in a reasonable period of time that they graduate students they have working with them will actually get their degrees and their research will be done flown and published. Now the way we do this is to take a thing like the orbiting solar observatory we're going to use it to study the earth and the sun for the next 11 years of a sunspot cycle of the flights every six months to a year. And if a scientist misses one flight he knows
another one is coming along just like a street car didn't get his experiment on. This is a basic new type of situation in America. I think this is one of the things Dr. Hess is expressed very great interest in here by the way. He's a geologist but he's interested in geology on the moon. It is a state university via what instrument package avoid it. We would like very much to know what plans you have for launching the second Marna and also what future space research may develop from the fact that there is a UI answered package aboard the mariner. We got us talking right on the first question and I guess good authority is on the second you know you want to speak about the chances of success with a second murder. Like the chances of success of any individual fly the American progress
or success or statistical basis. To be expected to go out about 10000 hours and send back information from a distance that I can tell you the significance of his attack. Like I said within 10000 miles of us. But we have a small experiment onboard this man earth which were first very hopeful. It's an experiment for surveying the radiation through a very long long swath through the whole solar system you see through a long swath of the solar system and in particular we were trying to investigate whether or not there are trapped particles around the planet. There are around the earth a very deep stake in the success of this mission 18 months not several years but another window comes around.
We hope by that time they have an even more powerful rocket to send a bigger. Approximately 18 is 18 I think it might take three months to get there right away. I do know that I've heard 36 million miles of this little package you would have to travel and I think it's fair to say with regard to the Mariner program however agonizing failures may be never the less they provide the experience which adds to what I call our technological dexterity in a nation has to acquire a certain level of technological dexterity before their successes become free. On the other hand you're not launching a satellite with the store or the storage you know becomes now rather routine matter in which the success very high in our technological dexterity here is very good. It illustrates Mr. Webb's point that to fly and fly in fly out until you reach the point in which a sufficient number of
- Space Science Press Conference
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- University of Iowa
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- Press conference at Univ. of Iowa at conclusion of 1962 Space Science Summer Study Program, hosted by National Aeronautic and Space Administration. Features James Webb and Dr. Hugh Dryden of NASA and Univ. of Iowa physicist Dr. James A. Van Allen
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- APA: Space Science Press Conference. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-qf8jjp77