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The national educational radio network and the University of Chicago represent China today a series of five programs devoted to exploring the significance of events in communist China and the interaction between the Chinese People's Republic and the United States of America. The talks in this series were recorded during a year long study of China held by the University of Chicago Center for Policy Study in 1066 and 1067 on today's program you will hear the last of three lectures by Tang's old professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Chicago. Mr. zos topic is revolution integration and political crisis in communist China. Today's lecture is titled The charismatic leader and the Rutan izing organization in the first lecture. Along the political community. I try to point out. That the tension between ideology and the changed environment has interrupted and refers.
To a process of political integration in China. In the second lecture I attempted to formulate the idea. That the popular support enjoyed by the elite was. Dissipated by the trend toward radicalization. Indeed policies of the elite. In this third lecture. I would deal with the problem of relationship between de careerist matic leader and the routine icing organization. One of the greatest achievements of the Chinese communists in the revolutionary period. Was their success in building up a highly unified party. This with chief men India press was particularly remarkable. In view of both the
pattern of factional politics in trendiest Centry China. And the bloody purges Indi Bush big party. The Chinese Communist Party. As a product of the Chinese society I. Was confronted with the same divisive forces that rent other groups into conflicting factions cliques in individuals. In its attempt to build a highly integrated party. It succeeded in controlling factionalism and personal conflicts within manageable proportions but I recrossed lay implementing the littleness principle of party organization. Why developing a new pattern of interparty live by checking the divisive forces at their inception and by firmly establishing the ideological and organizational or authority of Mao.
On the basis of the luminous principles it has tried to keep to a minimum what our core unprincipled disputes and struggle within the party and these knotty foreign has disputes and struggles which are started not for the sake of serving the interests of the entire party but for the sake of promoting individual and factional interests. Disputes and struggles which do not follow organizational procedures but are characterized by secret scheming against. Individual members. Decision was constantly on the alert for divisive forces within the party and has endeavored to control them by achieving unanimity in thought. For this purpose it waged a frequent struggle against erroneous
ideological tendencies on the basis of a set of principles. That is Marxism Leninism and the thought of Mao into conduct of intraparty struggle to unify the party and to combat ideological deviations. The CCP departed at an early date from Stalin's practice of bloody produce and developed a new style of inner party life. Instead of Investigation the rist imprisonment and trial impart roadies struggle it has placed primary reliance on the method of criticism and self criticism in order to resolve intra party conflicts on the basis of principle to achieve unanimity in thought and to use miles word cured a disease and saved a person.
The development of the small moderate form of intra party struggle. Took place at a time. When the CCP was still a minority party. Constantly threatened with the outbreak of a new civil war. Wendy try nice Communists had to achieve unity in order to survive. It departed from the Chinese political practice at a time in the party's insistence that no compromise of principles is permitted but it conform to that practice by allowing political opponents a route of retreat. Any chance to come back to Defoe. This moderate form of intra party struggle was a matter of necessity to preserve party unity and became
a well established practice. Although the party could not prevent a serious challenge by oppositionist elements within the party notably the end type Party faction of. And you're also sheer and the right wing couple. The opposition is in deep on the why affair. There was no bloody purge from nineteen thirty five up to nine hundred sixty five. And what has happened to the individuals. Denounced in the current crisis remains unclear. It was no accident that this moderate form of intra party struggle was developed into an institution. So I'm Hugh tenuously with the establishments and consolidation of Mao's ideological and organizational authority. Indeed the latter was probably the precondition of the former
for intra party struggle can be controlled within the set limits and can assume a moderate form. Only when there is a recognized ideological authority to distinguish between correct and incorrect principles and invulnerable organizational or thought to regulate and enforce the limits of this struggle. In a communist party the ideological of poverty an organizational authority must be identical in order for the authority to be fully effective. And this identity was achieved in the period between 135 and one thousand forty five. The historical circumstances under which Mao establishments and consolidated his ideological and organization or authority greatly facilitated the
development of a moderate form of intra party struggle and the achievement of a high degree of unity and continuing in DCC leadership. It was Mo who had Bruce developed the guerilla bases in the hinterland and formulated a pattern of political military strategy and tactics to guide the communist forces in their early successes. In expanding their control and India will against a quote mean campaign. In my elation and Cercamon did it red army was defeated in 1934 when he returned student group controlled the party operators and directed the war effort. Ma West said it was reported by one author as being put under house arrest during death. Shortly before
this time Mo kept you control over the party center. When the fortunes of the CCP were at their lowest ebb under this his leadership to CCP enter a period of rapid expansion. His successes legitimized his ideological organization or authority while his opponents were discredited by their failure their men and consolidation office pretty well not accompanied by Buddy produce most of the leaders in the period from 1927 to 1935 remained the leaders of the regime up to the winter of nineteen sixty six. The conditions which governed the successful development of guerrilla warfare demanded integration between the military and civilian officials
between the various functional groups within the party and between the elite and the masses less to CCP was constant intensely cautious of the various camps within and outside the party and took action to close down. In this integration This civilians were given top positions. For guerrilla warfare that the parents for its success won popular support which can only hope to gain by ape political economic and social programs which only civilian leaders can formulate. The political aspects of fighting a successful guerrilla war are very complex. Why are the military aspects of. Very simple. Therefore the party leaders can guide military officers while military officers cannot guide their movement. At the same time the
army took on many political and economic activities which were inseparable from guerrilla fighting. It was quote at the same time a fighting force a working force and a production force mall became the military strategy military strategist and technicians as well as the ideological authorities. He was the prophet and triumph of this tradition of civilian control over military was a fairly powerful force sanction and strengthened by both the Chinese political tradition and living this principle. Even though the military took active part in political affairs at the time of the establishments of the regime. Eliminate this principle of organization. The development of a new pet are enough in our party's
lives. The firm establishments of the ideological organization or authority of. The continuity of leadership. And the thought of Mao as. A systematic interpretation of common experience all help to bring about a highly unify elite. Thus an organic unity of the colorist Medich leader the ideology and the organization was the how many among these three fundamental forces in a period of revolutionary upheaval. Helped to explain explain the effectiveness of the CCP. In the first few years of the regime party unity was one of the main factors contributing to the establishment's of an effective political control. This effective political control enabled the Chinese Communists to regulate the demands of the various
groups in the society. It gave them a relatively free reign to establish a new governmental system to formulate their socio economic programs and to allocate resources in the light of their ideology revolutionary experience. And estimates of the situation. It render feasible the adoption of unpopular policies such as the entry into the Korean War. The campaign for the suppression of counter-revolution race and east three enter in five campaigns. These and other unpopular policies in an effort to play depleted the capital of popular support available to the regime yet circumstances help the party to balance just lost the popular support by demonstrating the effectiveness of the regime and soundness of his policies so long as the policies
of the regime met with relative success. To struggle for power within the party he could be contained. And a crisis of party unity is minimized because the issues around which destructo took plays. Were relatively specific and narrow. Ask in the case of the perch of Gulgong in 1954 and the debate over the military line in one thousand fifty eight. But. Do three years of crisis produced by the Great Leap Forward and become interesting. Together with the drastic deterioration of India's Sino-Soviet relations since 1959. Different We had quite different consequences for party unity. They raise a whole range of policy issues which call into question the basic orientation of the regime in both domestic and foreign
affairs. It is not necessary for our present purpose and the general level of our analysis to identify the specific to specific policy views of the dissident was all that is needed is for us to AFU. That all important policies of the party where China. And this challenge lead to be questioning of the extent to which Mao thought can be vigorously applied in various areas of activities and that the struggle for power within the party has evolved around this last question. One group of leaders has ever created and undertaken an extensive in vigorous application of Mao thought. Why another group has in practice failed to do so or try to restrain the
Maoist attack on the dissidents. It is this discrepancy that has created the vested interest of the former in help holding or limiting the application of Mao's thought. Let us make it possible for one group to use well-thought as a weapon to attack in Perche its opponent. But one must prove more deeply into the reasons for the division within the party. One is our explanation is twofold the first relays to what Wade calls the routine isolation of charisma. The CCP has long been led by a corrupt matic leader and at the same time has developed a large organization with a strong tradition going back to the revolutionary period. Certain developments in the party point to a process of routine isolation
which diminished the influence and the control of the colorist matic leader over the organization. In the eight Party Congress in September 1956. The statement that quote the Communist Party of China takes Marxism Leninism as its guide to action and quote was adopted in the new party Constitution to replace the statement in the party constitution of 1945 to the effect that I quote again the Communist Party of China crisis anti-work by the teaching which united theories of Marxism Leninism and the thought of Mao to them and quote. Not only had the phrase dear thought of Mo disappear into a new party constitution. But it also
it also stated the party constitution also stated that no political party. Well all persons can be free from shortcomings in Mystic in work at the same time a provision was adopted under which the party can hair and honorary chairman when necessary. This arrangement was apparently intended to give the charismatic leader an honorable position in the party. But. To remove him from day to day control over party affairs. The forces of routine I say Sion we're headed by two persons engaged in principle a in organizational work in the party. You shouty and. Who deliver respectively. The Political Report of the Central Committee.
In 1956. And you report on D revision. Of the party constitution and were re elected. And were elected respectably. The ranking wise chairman of the party and the general secretary. And they would be the chief beneficiaries of Mao's relinquishment of power. This process of routine I say surely was facilitated by a crucial denunciation of Stalin at the twentieth Congress. Which was a reflection of the same process in to solve it. Union in 1958 Mao stepped down from the chairmanship of the People's Republic under circumstances which are still unclear to us. But there are reason to believe that during the period between nineteen 59 and 1961. Most control over party affairs was further weaken as the regime
adopted a series of pragmatic policies to extricate itself from the economic crisis. Then there is some believe some reasons to believe India Eckersley off a report from Tokyo Denmark complained that during these years the party leaders treated him as if they were treating a dead parent at his funeral. The latent tension between the colorist medic NIDA and the routine icing and Bureau of bureaucratic bureaucratized organization increased. After the economic recovery in 1962. When Moll began to question the ideological purity of some of the members of the organization beginning in
1962. Well actually as Stott began a counteroffensive against his critics and to dissidents. And this tension was brought to a new height by the foreign policy crisis in one thousand sixty five. And why did he does attempt to purge the dissidents below to top echelon of the organization. The organizations effort to protect the dissidents and to restrain the tech. Led to a split between the leadership and the organization. The basic condition which had moderated in the party's struggle since 1935. And which. Accounted for the effectiveness of the CCP no longer existed. The tremendous prestige of the leader was not pitted against a strongly in
trained organization. A prolong and intense struggle ensued. The leader tried to divide the organization by using the leaders of a lower a against the top leaders and by using one functional group within the party against another. He also establishing a new movement to attack the party. In this the time he exploited the enthusiasts and grievances off to deprive to you against the establishment and the more privileged groups in the society. Thus the process of routine isolation of charisma and a struggle for succession where link up with the process of functional Devitt differentiation which constituted second explanation of the current crisis. The CCP has Indy. Passed 17 years
governing a developing society existing in a complex international situation and the process of function or suppress specialization has gone very far within the party because of the practice of assigning the same person to the same field of work over a long period of time. Going back to the Revolutionary days. Yet the operation of Mao's thought. Maybe functional thought activities in one sector dysfunctional for those in other in quite irrelevant to those in a third. For our purposes military affair and army can be taken as an example of the first. Literature of art higher education the second. Science and Technology particularly in such matter as making atomic
weapons. The third. The education training and past experience of persons working in these three types of sectors. May be related to the thought of Mao in different ways. They may be closely closely linked to it as in the case of the military leaders. Unrelated to it as in the case of the scientists. Or associated with intellect to Koreans incompatible with it. Yes in the case of those in the field of literature and education it is to say this difference in approach that makes it possible for one group to use the thought of Mao as a weapon against the other industry for power. It is true that there had been three struggles within the army over the issue of whether or not this military line should be
modified. But. What is important to us at the moment is the fact. That a group. Of military leaders. Found it feasible to apply Mao thought to the army. And could at least claim in mans success with some credibility. Well Dr. Lee Bell replaced in 1959 ponder why as a minister off to friends and Andy to operating head of the Military Affairs Committee. The most significant development took place in the army which together with the contrast being trained in the field of literature or in education. In the period between 1959 and 1960 to pave the way to the struggle for power in 1066 and shape its form.
At the time of the dismissal or prone to moral discipline ideological commitment and political reality reliability of the Army had sunk to a low point. Partly due to neglect of political work under Punk's leadership. And partly due to the impact of the Great Leap Forward. Beginning with this famous article of September 29 1959 in through a series of meetings of the Military Affairs Committee and the army political Web conferencing. Libero rigorously up to Hell and applied Ma thought on Army beauty and proceeded to devise a series of specific policies and to undertake concrete actions. What is purpose. The trend toward the decline of party membership of India companies within the army was diverse.
NDP and party branches West devilish when one third of the companies which had to elect them. It was stipulated that every put too must have a small party group in every school ought to have some party members. And what this strengthen party operators. Linville launch continuous and comprehensive program all political education off the individual soldiers. In tune to successfully indoctrinate a soldiers where asked to undertake political work among the masses.
China today
The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part one
Producing Organization
National Association of Educational Broadcasters
University of Chicago
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University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the first part of a lecture by Tang Tsou titled "The Charismatic Leader and the Routinizing Organization."
Series Description
A series focused on current events in China, as well as the interactions between the governments of China and the United States.
Global Affairs
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Producing Organization: National Association of Educational Broadcasters
Producing Organization: University of Chicago
Speaker: Tsou, Tang, 1918-1999
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-Sp.13-3 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:18
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Chicago: “China today; The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part one,” 1967-08-28, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 21, 2024,
MLA: “China today; The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part one.” 1967-08-28. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 21, 2024. <>.
APA: China today; The charismatic leader and the routinizing organization, part one. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from