One nation indivisible; Rise of nationalism
The program is produced under a grand aid from the educational radio and television center and is distributed through the National Association of educational broadcasters. The University of Michigan presents one nation indivisible. Determination. Independence. Sovereignty. These are the words which symbolize one of the most forces on march in the world today. Words which symbolize the desire of
people everywhere. To be masters of their own political destiny. This is our story. The story of nationalism in the 20th century. Told in a series of 13 radio documents created by the broadcasting service of the University of Michigan. And one nation indivisible. Then as a social animal in all times and all places he has given affection and loyalty to some group of which he was a part. First it was the family then the clan the tribe and the city. Today it is the nation man's nationalism has brought both good and evil. It has been the taproot of most wars. On the other hand it has been the mainspring of most human achievement.
Perhaps you remember this lyrical praise written by Sir Walter Scott breeds there a man with a soul so dead Who never to himself has said this is my own my native land whose hearts are with me or within him burned his home his footsteps he hath turned from wandering on some foreign Strand. That caught the sentiment or you might consider this from Rudyard Kipling. God gave all men all earth to love but since our hearts are small ordained for each one spot should prove the love it overall and long long before Kipling and sky this ancient call trumpeted out of the Book of Psalms. If I forget the old Jerusalem let my right hand forget her. If I do not remember the. Let my tongue cleaves to the roof of my mouth. If I prefer not. Jerusalem above my chief
joy. As Jerusalem was to a Jew. So were Athens and Sparta to the Greek Tire and Sidon to the Phoenician Rome to the ancient Italian. Each had its heroes and its martyrs its songs and its legends. But the modern nation is greater than the ancient city states. It's a whole countryside bound together by common sentiments traditions and institutions. The three formative agents of nationalism in the late Middle Ages the modern nation began to take shape amid a chaos of feudal tenures often War was a crucible within which the charge began to take form and then the world was faced with some driving human spirit rocketing in historical fame. Friends had it's Joan of Arc. God will lead a poor peasant class to liberate France. Switzerland had its legendary William Tell No better to dwell under the avalanche than beneath the rule of evil men.
And in the Highlands of Scotland beyond the wild North Sea there were Wallace and Bruce. It is the year 13 20 the English have been crushed by Nick Byrne In the latest battle of the conflict that has raged between the two lions in an effort to end the continuing strife. The pope in Rome uttered this pronouncement I commend you as vassals of the church to submit to your lawful overlord Edward of England. But the people order to the Scots fire the rebellious emotions of the Scottish nobles and they flung back this answer as long as a hundred Scots men had left alive we will never be subject to the dominion of England. It is not for glory right around now that we fight but for that liberty
which no good man will consent to lose. But whether his life. South of the Highlands the English too had come to know and cherish the feelings of patriotism who has phrased it better than Shakespeare at the glorious dawn of the first Elizabethan age. This royal throne of Kenya has this sceptered this earth of majesty. This sphere of Mars. This other Eden paradise this fortress built by nature for herself against infection and the hand of war. This happy breed of men. This little this
precious stones that in the silver see this blasted this this rattle and this. With more modern times nationalism comes into its own. The universal claims of hope an ember broke down before the urgent national feeling rising among the French the English the Dutch Kings triumphed over nobles central government surpassed provincialism overseas comers to the new world eclipse the local trade of three towns a gentle ways navigator discovered a new empire which he handed over not to his natives that he too small for such a burden but to Spain and as a new land flourished it opened a new era and a brand new concept of patriotism.
Patriotism had met the king or at least to the state and the government. But in 1776 nationalism came to mean the loyalty of the people to the American colonies and of a right to be free and independent state. They are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British crown and all connection between them of the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved. Yes the American Revolution set a new pattern for the loyalties of all men. But America was far off on the very rim of civilization. Had this new spirit appeared nowhere but in that wilderness of the Western Hemisphere its influence might have languished and died for in the eighteenth century Europe was a center of the world. And then dramatic exciting events began to occur in the very heart of the European continent. And it was different but the words were much
the same. It began in the back alleys of Paris and then spread like a tempest down to Marsay Bordeaux. From the river to the Spanish border all France quivered with the excitement of a new life and the chant of liberty equality and fraternity was muffled only by the steering rhythm of their war song. Liberty has become the creditor. Oh oh it isn't. Some other industry this is a jackal man riding in the mana tour of April 4th 1793. Not all moral and political cycle does political industrial
talents belong to. The young men to fight. The Mad Men before our. Women will become nurses. The children will make mint and the old men will have to get rid of things and the idea of the unity of the republic. France wasn't the state united under a king but just discovering the French people. America had become a nation by breaking her ties to Great Britain France became won by breaking the barriers that separated class from class. The spirit of her new patriotism rose to the emotional heights of a religion. Here is speaks Lasar Karnow the great organizer of victory. We citizens receive these Valvo we knew we had arrested
an honest to themselves a sacred spot for liberty may die glory may die post Perry be constant. Yes French patriotism national spirit and enthusiastic love for love part 3 was a beautiful light on the continent of Europe. But then it began to cast an ugly shadow from Corsica appeared an arrogant artillery officer who had discovered that the new bigger which stimulated Frenchmen could be turned toward the personal goal of conquest under Napoleon Bonaparte the French armies which had first rolled across the frontiers as liberators remained as tyrants. Within the occupied country is an astonishing reaction took place in Spain in
Russia in Germany the common people took up the battle which their incompetent rulers had failed to sustain against the impassioned French. Along the marshes the hapless armies of us are shattered and broken. But the Russian peasants began to fight. They destroyed their own homes by fire and in so doing blizzards destroyed the Grand Army of Napoleon the king of Spain was picked out of his crown by the French but Spanish guerrillas appeared on every hill and rock to drain away the life blood of the invaders. Something was happening. A chemical reaction of the spirit which had needed only the glitter of French Binet's to get it started. Later in the mid 20th century an identical reaction was to occur in Asia Africa and the Middle East under almost identical conditions but here in the early 19th century it was new surprising and unconquerable.
Napoleon's greatest attack ever was upon the Germans. The Germans had never had a country to call their own. Somewhere over them rule the Holy Roman Emperor a political absentee landlord to vegan distant to have real meaning close at hand some petit prince or Grand Duke collected taxes and imposed laws. Intelligent Germans prided themselves on being far above all national barriers and prejudices. Napoleon's invasions his victories his own professions and most of all his scorn roused in the Germans a keen resentment fanned by a new generation of scholars and men of action. This resentment began to take the form of a German national feeling out of the tumult of defeating a common enemy came a new concept of unity. Russ is this how long. This process. Is. Bottom line. Is they are even blue. It's one bell move at c.
Or nine nine nine. This is Arnold the German poet putting in words the spirit the blue such men as humble as John Hirst and Booker from the North Sea to the craft from the Baltic to the Alps from the Vistula to the shelf and one thing one loved one parade Gen. one enthusiasm must gather again the whole German folk and brotherly community no longer Prussians and Austrians Saxons and Bavarians relations and had ovarian all will be won by love and loyalty. God damn he moseyed on the bones of race and origin why. Doesn't he as lieben throwing. US dollars I'm. Just gon say London. Is.
Yes Napoleon quite unwittingly had ignited the fuse of German nationalism but the firewood smote her many years before flaring up to blister all of Europe. Princes were timid and jealous of people but half awake and in 1848 an attempted union by revolution failed dismally many of the noblest Germans left in despair to find new homes in America. The idealists had peyote but soon there appeared one whose methods were harsh cynical but effective. Here are the very words he thundered across the Prussian parliament. Read then own my own tastes best looser than the gross and frog and deaths I can treat justice to failure from acts that are acts in hundred nine and that's it give ease and sound I hasten on bloom. It is not by speeches and majority resolutions that the great questions of the hour can
be settled but by blood and iron this praised by Prince Bismark rang across the world set a pattern for the aggressive development of the coming German Empire. Not an iron fell upon Denmark upon Austria and upon France. When the smoke and thunder of the guns dissipated there stood the new German Empire. Next to the unification of Germany. The greatest national achievement of the 19th century was the unification of Italy like Germany. Italy had long been fractured in two important provinces each under different rule to the north imperial Austria subjugated Lombardy in Venice the Papal States maintained a firm grip on the center and in the south Naples and Sicily knew the
harsh rule of the bourbon Kings Austrian sneer that Italy was nothing but a geographical expression. The Italy which we know today had its beginning in the tiny kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia in the extreme northwest for here gathered the three great men of modern Italian history maddeningly the thinker or the statesman and Garibaldi in 1860. We might have witnessed such meetings as this between Garibaldi and Gov. or it is being rumored in certain quarters that you are a great statesman Conchobar but man to man I see no evidence of this. You present me with nothing but obstacles obstacles. I have enough of obstacles. I need help. Money guns ammunition uniforms believe me general Garibaldi. We are both seeking the same end. Nevertheless you and your red shirt radicals must lead the direction of government in the hands of those who know how to handle it. I am not sure I would trust you to handle it my dear count. You and I are not by ring of the same
target. We most certainly are not since what I am trying to win back you are trying to get away. But there was nice my own birthplace you gave it to the French. Now you want to smother me under an avalanche of obstacles so you can leave Sicily in the hands of the Mormons. Where we have nothing left to give away now except pretty much no accountable or our goals are not the same. Not at all but with or without your help. I'll make you a promise. I am going to take Sicily you need not help me but you cannot stop me. Why do you think I would try to stop you again about it. Because I am beginning to know diplomat's much to my dismay. Do your count general Garibaldi I bid you good by Constable you when I have nothing more to discuss. You called me a statesman. All right I'll disprove that by getting angry. Keep silent for a moment and listen to me. Suppose I support this. It's a city an adventure of yours. But then what happens to Piedmont
to Victor Emmanuel. Do you have any idea whatsoever. I've told you what would happen. Instead of having only Piedmont the King would have Piedmont and Sicily. That's what would happen. So you say but I say that between the French and the Austrians Victor Emmanuel would lose everything just like that. It would pick your bones clean those who love freedom must be willing to die for and have very pretty generally very pretty. But the prize I am after general is not to be gained by a few pretty phrases or a few lives. The prize is not even the island of Sicily which looms so important to you. Leave it to the boob and you surprised Gen. the great prize is all it's away. I remember that my exact words to you were these I cannot approve your expedition into survey I cannot help you in the way you want with money guns and ammunition. You know those things I admit all helpful but the aid I give you got about I will not
be just helpful it will be vital when you are storming around surveys someone must keep the British Navy from blockading your ports. Someone must keep the French from making an alliance with Naples. Someone must keep the Austrians from invading Piedmont. Now can you begin to understand my position. I still propose to lead the thousand into Sicily but we need money we need guns. If you do a bit of recruiting and some money raising his majesty would not object to strenuously object to that. However the moment you try to save us of a national send orders for your immediate arrest that's what I mean if you deny it shows him daughters for your arrest to get about hey I must to keep the foreigners pacified. However the person who carries out those orders will never be able to find you. My apologies countable. I begin to understand diplomacy after all.
Leading his famous red shirt in thousand Garibaldi did take Sicily in the most brilliant exploit of his career and Italy was on its way toward becoming a great national state. But a revealing picture of Garibaldi the man and the dedicated Italians who followed him comes not from this famous victory but from one of his many defeat. It occurred in Rome in 1849 the Valley Forge of Italian independence. It was a time of hopeless despair. French armies had all but destroyed Garibaldi's volunteers the Red Shirts faced the prospects of a long and better reprieve. Than Garibaldi reality's soldiers on the field of their own disaster. What glorious future does he offer them. Listen to his own words. I offer you hunger first and. Let him who loves his country in his heart and not with his lips come with me. Truly in its greatest moments. Patriotism like religion offers no reward but martyrdom.
Up the compelling fire of nationalism spread to Poland of subjugation and division in a more patriotic than before their land had been partitioned. It's spread to the Czechs and Hungarians against Austria. It's spread to the Balkan peoples. Each with its own national traditions and aspirations. One by one the Greeks Serbs. Thus we have traced the lofty beginnings of modern nationalism. But there is no
perfection on earth and nothing exists in isolation. The growth of European nationalism led to a search for new markets new military bases new areas for colonization new spheres of influence competition among the great powers has led to devastating wars and in their wake has arisen a new wave of nationalist resistance among colonial peoples. Most of our programs in the series will deal not with the old and nationalism of Europe but with the consequences of that nationalism in a modern insurgent patriotism of Africa and Asia present generations which have lighted their national candles from the fiery torch of European Patriots along the Nile River by the yellow one the young sea south of the Himalayas and in the shadow of
Fujiyama. So powerful is this modern nationalism the spirit that forces and direct opposition to it have been unable to escape its effect. Karl Marx declared the working man has no country yet in the Soviet Union the Communism of Marx Lenin and Stalin has blundered with Russian nationalism into a single terrifying power. And one of internationalism. Some people think this is opposed to nationalism itself. But this is like saying you cannot love both your hometown and the entire United States. Some of the greatest patriots have been internationalists
as well. For instance man thingy the prophet of Italy. Little it matters to me that Italy is dead a Tory of so many squared leads eats and cabbage cheeper little I cared for Rome. If a great European initiative is not to issue from it what I do care for is that Italy shall be great and good moral and virtuous that she comes to fulfil a mission in the word. No one I suppose ever earned the title of Patriot more convincingly than Abraham Lincoln but Lincoln constantly spoken thought of the United States as the last best hope of earth and the inspiration to free men in all countries. Here for example in other words he sent an answer to an address from working men in Manchester England a fair examination of history has served to authorize a belief
that the past actions and influences of the United States were generally regarded as having been beneficial toward mankind. I cannot but regard your decisive utterances as an instance of sublime Christian heroism which has not been surpassed in any age or in any country. It is indeed an energetic assurance of the inherent power of truth and of the ultimate and universal triumph of justice humanity and freedom. In Lincoln's words we may find the balance in which all national and patriotic movements must finally be judged. Have they contributed to the universal triumph of justice humanity and freedom. Can this contribution be measured not only in one's own country but around the whole road. Those who prefer oversimplifying their problems will ask if nationalism is good or evil. You might as well ask a fire is good or evil.
Fire can burn down a city or it can warm each man's peaceful hearth within that city. Like religion like love like ambition patriotism is capable of endless good or ceaseless harm but woe to him who mistakes its arc and flame for the absurd glimmer of an evening Firefly today and tomorrow here in our twentieth century. Nothing is more real and more powerful. One nation indivisible. One of his series of 13 radio documents on nationalism in the twentieth century. Resource advisor for this program was Preston's Lawson a professor of history at the University of Michigan. The program was written by William Bender Jr. and narrated by Lou Hamers. Members of the cast included foreign students from the University of Michigan and members of the WUOM radio go.
- One nation indivisible
- Rise of nationalism
- Producing Organization
- University of Michigan
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
- Episode Description
- This program, "The Rise of Nationalism," provides a general overview of nationalism throughout the world, past and present.
- Other Description
- A documentary series about nationalism in the 20th century.
- Broadcast Date
- Nationalism--United States.
- Media type
Advisor: Slosson, Preston W. (Preston William), 1892-1984
Narrator: Hemmers, Lou
Producing Organization: University of Michigan
Writer: Bender, William, Jr.
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 58-17-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “One nation indivisible; Rise of nationalism,” 1958-01-01, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 23, 2021, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-m32n9z00.
- MLA: “One nation indivisible; Rise of nationalism.” 1958-01-01. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. October 23, 2021. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-m32n9z00>.
- APA: One nation indivisible; Rise of nationalism. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-m32n9z00