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The Institute on world affairs the Institute on world affairs held each year on the San Diego State campus brings together statesman scholars military leaders and businessmen from all over the world. The purpose of this institute is the understanding of the problems and challenges that face man gained through knowledge and discussion. This year's theme was toward a new world and here to introduce this session speaker is Professor Minos generalise director of the Institute. We have now reached the midpoint. In this year's Institute inquiry into. The theme of the new world. We've entertained you know many opinions. Expert all of them. On many perspectives of what the problems and occasionally possible speculations and what this new world. Could. Be.
But if past performance is of any. Importance in evaluating the future. I think we can safely say. That if any major effort need be made toward a new goal it has to be primarily first and foremost in the direction of peace. It's not only a very elusive word it's a very and even most elusive practice. Almost everything that is done. On this earth I would say whether individually or collectively or internationally. Has that like no teeth. We attach it to religion. We attach it to economics we attach it to politics. To social effort etc. etc.. No matter where we look to this. Much Trouble globe of ours today. It is a predominant concern of all thinking people.
It is toward this particular effort. That we would like to direct our inquiry today as it will be entertained and handled. By a man. Who is not only an expert but also famous in his own right. His dedication is. To introduce a speaker of the sea evening I want to welcome once more to our podium. Good friend vice to the institute. Colonel Irving Saud colonel saw. Was. Ready they I'm going to talk very shortly about our distinguished guest because I do not want a private pleasure hearing his sage words. We have three areas which he can be proud of and one which he asked lived down to chill which should be proud of his faculties probably one of the greatest
educators we've ever had in this country. The other is he has enlisted his efforts in and toward world government. And peace and so on. They want to hash it down is one for answer for me. Robert HUTCHENS Robert Maynard Hutchens. It was originally. I won't go to childhood because of many reasons. But we've all got a start but he was first. At Yale as dean of the law school secretary. Then. He became the youngest college president the United States in the forgive me to say this but I say it anyway because of 30 he was president of the University of Chicago. Then after that he was in the Ford Foundation lots where I have the pleasure he gave you no
doubt Tyson's very well. And then after that he came a scatch to the fund for the public and from my group the Center for Democratic Studies at Santa Barbara which he is the head of this institution is Donne's a very remarkable things and I'm very proud to be associated with it. And and the things it has done as of in terms of betterment for. Human beings and so many directions of a day and a democratic nature. It is been lately identified in efforts to carry out Pope John 23rd parchment terrace and I hope he's going to speak on that because the center is a center which she is and has carried on several readings in this area hoping to. Articulate are implemented and
perhaps implement the words of late Pope John 23rd and possibly tears as my very good fortune and a great pleasure to introduce Dr. Robert manner. PAUL SOLMAN I am sore and tended to be very kind as he always is. Well I must say I cannot hear this record read without thinking of the Frenchman who was asked what he would do if he had his life to live over again and he said I'd shoot myself. In fact almost the only portions of my life that I care to remember are those which I spent with Colonel Solomon. Working
on. You Nesco working on educational television working on the problems of establishing liberal education in the United States. I have to begin by telling you about the Center for the Study of democratic institutions and I will try to do so in a very modest way. It consists of 25 senior men located in a remote hamlet in Southern California spending million two hundred thousand dollars a year trying to figure out how to make democracy work. Group meets every day at 11 o'clock. Discusses a paper submitted by one of its members or by a guest. For an hour and a half through lunch. These discussions
result in tapes which are circulated all over the world. Second in publications seven million of which are now available are now in use in various parts of the globe. Supported by 25000 members and it is there for small private. And wholly independent receives no government assistance. It is not exempt from local taxes and has no government contracts. It has no university connections. It is small private and wholly independent. That has fallen into the habit of holding occasional public meetings. Why don't desire to draw attention to a public issue that it
thought was of particular import. So on this 10th anniversary the 10th anniversary of the founding Corporation the fund for the Republicans held a convocation on the prospects of democracy in New York held one bureaucracy in Los Angeles another in Los Angeles not long ago on the university. This is the organization that in 1963 read with considerable excitement and secular call of Pope John 23rd called to Mintaro members of the center believed that this document might change the world. And so far as any document can contribute to this in some respects. The expectations of the center were almost immediately verified by the conversion of that rock and the then
president of the United States John F. Kennedy born as American University speech in the June before he died announced in effect the end of the Cold War. President Kennedy took precisely the line of Pope John 23rd had taken and insisted the dialogue was possible with other people simply because there were people and the dialogue was possible with other people in spite of any differences of ideology that might exist among. Them at this time you will recall it was the leading doctrine in the United States doctrine not holy dead. The Communists cannot understand any language except for. One Pope John 23rd. Again the introduction. Of what may yet become. A
total change in the attitude given in this country on this point. The senator had of course already concluded that the absence of nuclear war was necessary though not a sufficient condition of the survival of democratic institutions and therefore felt that the message of Pope John should be taken seriously and that mankind should be continuously reminded of it. The first question of course was whether the pope was right whether it is correct to say that dialogue is possible among people of different ideologies set to determine to try to find out. And it agreed to hold in February of 1965 in New York a convocation call women terrorists. To make the effort to discover whether those of different ideologies
backgrounds religion education. Could talk with one another and form a charter of practical agreements no matter what their theoretical differences we were assured in the State Department Of course that the Russians would not attend and that if they did attend they would try to disrupt the meeting for propaganda purposes. They and their satellites if they may still be called that did. I did not try to disrupt the meeting. They gauged and said instead and a civilized conversation held before twenty five hundred representatives from all over the world. This is not of course conclusive evidence. The Times may have been acutely favorable but it did suggest that dialogue and principle was possible. This was February 1965.
I hope that was not cause and effect. But the first thing that happened immediately after watching the entire US convocation was the escalation of the war in Vietnam. The escalation proceeded during the months that followed causing increasing concern at the United Nations. In June of 1965 the entire secretariat of the United Nations plus several ambassadors from all over the world came to Santa Barbara and stayed with us for Sunday's debating the question whether it was possible now to hold another watchman Tyra's convocation for the purpose of reaffirming the principles of Pope John 23rd and seeing what could be done about it. I must say that I looked upon this prospect.
With some hesitation. A tremendous amount of effort is involved in one of these enterprises and the more international it is the more effort this involves. A tremendous amount of money is also involved. I didn't feel up to either one. Nevertheless one of the persuasion of the secretary out on the ambassadors I did agree to hold a preliminary exploratory meeting May of 1966 in Geneva. This meeting was held with the representatives of 13 countries including the Soviet Union and several other behind the Iron Curtain countries. In order to make our position as strong as possible I stated that in my opinion another meeting women terrorists was impossible because of the war in
Vietnam. I did not see how it was going to be conceivable we could keep Vietnam out of the discussion. I didn't see how it was possible that we could do anything about a tsunami that time would be spent in another terrorist convocation and simple recrimination of the most profit was for a. Unanimous opinion of the other representatives of the United States and representatives of the other 12 countries was to the contrary. They insisted that it was the worse things looked the more necessary it was for the Center for the Study of democratic institutions to try once more. To bring together a terrorist convocation elaborate the principals of the pope put him unsuited. On the last day of this meeting. The principal Russian representative
after talking to Moscow proposed that the Center for the Study of democratic institutions stop the war in Vietnam. I laughed hysterically. But the Representative Nick tell Nicholai was a resoundingly title of director of the Institute of world affairs and economic institutions. In Moscow. The sterno themself went on to say that all government positions were frozen. No government could be expected to do one thing and that is a matter of fact no government could do anything. Only a private institution he said would establish those informal contacts which might lead to a relaxation of official additives. While he had talked of Moscow and we know to
the extent that it was of value to us we could count on the support of the Russian government. We reluctantly agreed to try not merely to hold another part of the intel as convocation but to stop the war in Vietnam. Our consultant and longtime associate Louise Kitt a new young. Former ambassador from Mexico to the United States and of the Soviet Union went to China where we had previously made vain attempts to establish contacts through Edgar Snow and China but with no results whatever. But he was deafened by the loud speakers. I decided to get out and go to her lawyer. And annoy you received a warm reception and a long conversation with the men and
arranged for a visit. Members of our staff to work out the details of future collaboration. With the consent of the State Department side or side lawyers Kidani Ashmore and William Wagner's rector of the Sutter who was editor of The Miami knows till the noise it received. Once more a very warm reception. They were entertained at length by Holcim men who all gave them to one to stay in the United States would stop the bombing of the North United States could expect almost immediate entry into peace negotiations on the part of North Vietnam. It was agreed that this message should be retailed of the State Department. Other Thereupon Mrs.
Ashmore and bags should return to annoy your daughter to see whether it was possible. As we were had been instructed of the Geneva meeting to stop the war in Vietnam. Report of this meeting was delivered to the State Department which thereupon escalated the war in Vietnam. Naturally men then declined to receive any further representatives of the Center for the Study of democratic institutions. Still while Ashmore and bags were in Hanoi Coachy men had agreed in principle to attend a terrorist convocation under the auspices of the center. If one were a hell. Our people replied. If there was to be a discussion of the might of the auspices of the center could only be held if all three
Vietnam's were president annoy Saigon and the NLF In any event. Saigon alone excepted because the NLF declined the NLF declined because Saigon accepted the NOI and declined because Saigon had accepted because the NLF decline. The result was that nobody from Vietnam was allowed to speak. This point therefore we had the acceptance and principle of attendance at the commentaries convocation. We had failed in the second and I think most urgent more urgent aspect of our work. We had failed obviously to stop the war in Vietnam. If anything we appeared to have made it worse. We did proceed to organize a second terrorist
convocation as we and we have been requested to do. We held in Geneva Yanda men 1967. Brought together three hundred fifty citizens politicians journalists intellectuals statesman some 70 countries. These were the opinion makers. They were all invited in their private capacity and urged to speak with as much frankness as they. Those are public positions. If they had any I would allow them to do. Having shown that dialogue was possible the job now was to turn to immediate practical questions. The American government though coal allowed Ambassador
Goldberg to be announced as a speaker representing the American point of view. It was agreed to who would be present and would open the kind of the case for Arabs and Israelis in large numbers agreed to be on hand. This was the situation at approximately the middle of May of this year. A week before the convocation was scheduled to open an oil which had accepted in principle declined to attend. Making some rather invidious remarks about President Johnson with a home for some reason that the moment appeared to confuse us. Though time most of the Arabs. Almost all. All the Israelis and Ambassador Goldberg had to stay home to see what
could be done about the Arab-Israeli War which broke out almost exactly as the convocation opened. Mr Goldberg was not replaced. I must say that I thought the American government rather took the view that the Arab-Israeli War was a fortunate event and that it made it impossible for him to attend this convocation. This brings us up to Saturday the convocation opening on Sunday May 28 on Saturday May 27. The Soviet Union would drow mentioning certain American war crimes which we had not committed them apparently thought we had some responsibility for. Saigon was excluded and the foreign minister of Saigon
spent some time being interviewed by the press writing on television in Geneva the East Germans withdrew all the other satellite countries stood pat. We were then opening a dialogue with a very large proportion of the dialogue is missing. Nevertheless we decided to proceed. Thanks to the wonders of technology who was able to open the convocation Anyway he opened it by Telstar. The pope sent to Cardinal of Switzerland a message which he once more advanced the idea of a tax on armaments as a basis for an International Development Fund.
And then after these formalities were over the convocation plunged as anybody could predict it would immediately into Vietnam for senators of the United States senators Fulbright Pell Clark and brook. Broke up Massachusetts. Along with Professor Jay Kenneth Galbraith of Harvard along with the foreign minister of Thailand along with Justice Sir Thaddeus McCarthy of New Zealand defended the motives and the generosity of the United States. It would be impossible to say however that any one of them supported the present actions of the United States and Vietnam. So I thought it was McCarthy's last line. It was probably characteristic of all O's who defended the position of the United
States. He said the United States might be wrong but he did not think it was evil. The majority of those in attendance at the conference gave the war and Americans actions in Vietnam and unreserved condemnation and this included especially Martin Luther King made a speech at the convocation entirely devoted to the war in Vietnam. At least speaker after speaker said no matter from what part of the world he came in no matter what his background was at least let us stop bombing the North. At this point the East Germans came back. They had never left Geneva and sitting there arguing and telephoning to Berlin they had concluded they
concluded finally to remain. This alone made the convocation an historic occasion because this was the first time since the war that the East Germans and the West Germans had met public and had discussed their differences and their agreement. The first time since the war they were grateful and they announced this would be the opening of future discussions between. I need not say that there was ample room for future discussions between them because of differences between them on the right in terms of the unification of Germany was very severe and dig. At this point then the six southeastern Asian nations the representative of the conference came forward to ask the senator to bring them together and to bring in also the three.
They wanted to do this is a step toward looking toward federalization the neutralization of the region. The natural question that was the one we asked we sell Why do you want why do you want us to bring you together why don't you get together yourselves. They point it out. And this I think is perfectly characteristic of all governmental negotiations. I pointed out that it would be impossible for any one of them to take the initiative because anyone who took the initiative would be distrusted by all the rest. Therefore I had to appeal to some outside agency. Even this small institution in the remote hamlet in Southern California could do the trick. Some outside agency had to start discussions if they were to take place at all. The Center agreed
to undertake some preliminary explorations of this proposal and these explorations are now being conducted in the Far East by General Khan who won distinction as the commander of the UN forces in West area and was a Pakistani who was then long associated with the center and who has the confidence of the South-East Asia.
Toward a new world
Pacem in Terris, part one
Producing Organization
San Diego State University
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program presents the first part of a lecture by Dr. Robert Hutchins, director, Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions.
Series Description
Lectures recorded at San Diego State College's 25th Annual Institute on World Affairs. The Institute brings together world leaders to discuss issues in politics, culture, science, and more.
Global Affairs
Public Affairs
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Producing Organization: San Diego State University
Speaker: Hutchins, Robert Maynard, 1899-1977
Speaker: Generales, Minos D.
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-9-15 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:03
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Chicago: “Toward a new world; Pacem in Terris, part one,” 1968-03-19, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 19, 2024,
MLA: “Toward a new world; Pacem in Terris, part one.” 1968-03-19. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 19, 2024. <>.
APA: Toward a new world; Pacem in Terris, part one. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from