thumbnail of The African revolution; 2
Hide -
This transcript was received from a third party and/or generated by a computer. Its accuracy has not been verified. If this transcript has significant errors that should be corrected, let us know, so we can add it to FIX IT+.
But the African revolution program to Bhutto means freedom. My my my. OK. In the eloquent melody of the Kikuyu tribe they sing of freedom. Who are they chanted. And only vaguely did they know what it meant. I stood outside the modern home of Jomo Kenyatta about 30 miles from the city of Nairobi and watched and heard these 50 Africans serenade their leader. He was asleep that day as Africa has been asleep and they wanted to wake him. Their song repeated over and over. Kenyatta he will bring us happiness. Kenyatta will bring us freedom. With Them boy they will save us. We will have the white man's land. There will be little work who rule. Freedom is coming. Freedom has come to much of East Africa already. And freedom soon will come to the rest of it. Two parts of that technique it has come with a minimum of sorrow and violence to another area. Kenya there are critical problems still to solve. Personalities to please and the terror of my mouth forget.
Uganda too is involved in the surge to independence. But to these 50 Africans swaying rocking to Melody shuffling barefoot on the earth of their ancestors the inevitable is yet to happen. Working revolution is yet to come. The African revolution a sound all to say to a continent in turmoil. A six part study of Africa south of the Sahara based on a 15 country tour with a tape recorder by broadcaster Harry russkie. The second programme in the series a programme titled Uhura means freedom. This is East Africa Kenya Uganda and I'm going to we turn our attention first this evening to Kenya slowest on the road to independence of all the East African territories. And yet in many ways the most advanced. Now here's how the russkie to share with us his experience of Kenya. In any dialogue in the past and potential of this remarkable East African country
some basic statistics are important. It is a land about the size of France or count of those four Atlantic provinces an area of a quarter million square miles with a population of an estimated six and a half million of whom more than six and a quarter million are Africans. The largest minority group is not European but Asian about one hundred seventy five thousand Indians and Pakistanis. There are only about sixty eight thousand white people. In other words not much more than 1 percent of the population is European and they have been there for only about 65 years. How they came and why I was described vividly by Michael Blundell. When I came out here in 1925 when I was a boy of eighteen and I and I came in the traditional manner. I wanted to see what the new country was like. I felt called to Africa and I suppose you can say I just hitched on to the last of the Pioneer period reading.
Why was it that the Europeans were so late in coming to this area of Africa I believe that in the early 1900s or only about a dozen Europeans here. That was because this part of Africa was only discovered as late as 1870 for I'd like to put that vividly for people when my father was born know as a young man a young boy. This part of Africa wasn't even known. And that is really the reason for what life was like in Kenya early in this century. It's a living memory to Michael Blundell. It was the most exciting country that. Difficult to portray vivid detail in a few words. First of all to be remote and out of this world there were only 12000 Europeans Annet two and a half million Africans. The even the beginnings of a civilized development in the form of roads and
railways even deep water baths in the hogback had not begun. The valley I went to had only got two European women in the whole Valley farms of being caught up to the bush. Many of the Africans went about without any clothes a tall and didn't worry about it. Medical services had hardly begun to Eden's was smothered at birth and used to be rescued by the missionaries. All these sort of things and above all of course when I look back on it all the thing that sticks out in my mind is how free the country was of problems and worries if once the country was free of problems and worries that is far from the case now nowhere is the past and future more constantly debated than in the lush hills of the Rift Valley there in the town of guru. I spoke to a rugged Scotsman SANDY WRIGHT I've just been 50 years in this country.
And I'm a very disappointed man that all I've worked for is of no account at all. And Sandy Wright remembers what it was like in the beginning. Now is the shadow who are independents hovers over the so-called white Highland. Well I should tell you what it was like then there were no natives here of any account and the last time I had it a claim in a sense to the US had in that they used enjoy to graze their cattle for never more than three months in the year because of a disease called CREW itis euphemistic name. But the point is this the natives who now lay claim to this land have no claim whatsoever. All these play into a bed of natives. And we were invited by a British government to take up these places. Delane there was a leader in that thing. And so the white man developed it until for many years he's been made to do sort of the BSO wealth of Kenya which is agriculture to the tune of 86 percent.
The question of the land is a crucial one. The Africans claim the white settlers swindled them out of their land took the best part. Elspeth Huxley one of the chief chroniclers of the constant crisis in Kenya has a firm view on this. That he is wrong is I mean to say that he's definitely wrong is I mean it's a video statement been made many times and it's only got a very small bit of truth in it. They've had a very small portion of this land. What is the best land still undeveloped them. No the best land is in the hands of the Africans and it's not fully developed. There is little question that the lawn till recently favored the European. In fact in the area known as the white Highlands some 16000 square miles. Some say a quarter of all the arable land in Kenya. There was a time when the European farmer was even prohibited from employing a non-European as a manager. Not until 1960 where the race barrier is entirely removed from the land. The African feel strongly on this matter of the land as explained by Michael
Blundell. Not a two issues here and that controversial widens at the first in my view it is that unhesitatingly the British government made some mistakes and some African that and was taken in 1888. Now the second issue is a much more difficult and emotional one. The extreme African nationalist view feels that old the soil of Africa belongs to them and resents the intrusion of what they consider the alien white man to death as a sort of political view which people like myself are trying to contact because we think that oh you're a piano white man born in Africa is just as much an entitlement to being an African as to Africa. But at that particular issue it's a video explosive why some African leaders have openly told the masses that they will take over the rich white lands when independence comes and turn them over to the black Africans. This question
was put to Jomo Kenyatta the bearded leader alleged to have masterminded the Mau Mau terror of a few years ago. His answer is important because it is assumed that he will be the independent Kenya's first prime minister. Well I don't know whether you know my policy or not I hate to enter into going to Russia on business. You know my declared idea and I think you have granted many times I steal stick. I don't care what somebody has to say but I still stick to my statement that all rights to private property must be guided. And I have no want to move to and from that right before the Europeans came to Kenya. The Africans there were chiefly nomadic and even today most of them still cultivate land at a subsistence level. Everywhere you go beside the road you see village compounds mud huts crammed together to form a tight private settlement.
Today the labor force of the entire country amounts to only about 600000 people. Only about 10 percent of the total population for the most part. Kenya is arid and poor and there are vast sparse areas with isolated communities. The isolation and distance has bred differences. Tribal feelings and hatreds run deep. The whole question of tribalism is a barrier to an independent unified Kenya. You know you Iraq and I know you're lying. You know perhaps in the songs of the people you can hear the sounds of clashing worlds for each tribe has its own wind its pride and prejudice. This is the sound of the Kikuyu. They are the largest tribe in Kenya about 20 percent. The song is called home to a dance song at ceremonial occasions. Yeah I'll guy you guys know you're
not a dad though you want to know what you're doing you have each tribe has its distinctive music and instruments. And here is the sound of the luau trime they make up 15 percent of the country's African population. The song is called Oh don't go. It's a song of praise at a drinking party. The instrument is called the foam. We're on. The third largest tribe is the beluga.
A different kind of people with a different music. And it. Was. Everywhere in Africa. The bass the burden is the woman. You see her carrying the wares of the world on her head and back this balloon a song normally sung by women on the way back from. But she firewood in the forest uninvolved in politics an educated the silent there's a burden on the great unknown factors in all of Africa. Yeah I. Was. Yeah there was. Was. I am.
Sure there is overwhelming the perhaps the bravest and most legendary of all Africa the Masai they are warrior herds are disappearing. Was. Was. Was was was was was. Yeah. Oh yeah oh yeah oh yeah yeah yeah. How deeply the tribal feelings go and what it means is expressed by Elspeth Huxley. I would say to go back to the origins of human society in Africa. They are the thing to which you belong they each tribe has its own language its own government its
own custom its you they on a people when they're big enough they're called A Nation and it is of course a pact among the younger educated people there is a great movement to not to abolish tribalism and as you can polish your tribe but to form a common front among the African leaders themselves. There is great difference of feeling about how deeply tribal loyalties go Jomo Kenyatta you and the tribal business and that's being is so much magnified it is known so I cute as some people think. But members of the smaller tribes feel about Kenyatta would lead a government dominated by the aggressive coup tribesmen This is the feeling of 36 year old Peter will come to a Parliamentary Secretary to the minister of finance a one time supporter of Kenya. But the son and grandson a balloon and sisters traditional tribal enemies of the Kikuyu.
We have begun to feel like a number of people have begun to feel that we are sending away to British only to take on another kind of deal is in part a kind of dictatorship headed by Kenyatta in Kenya and we are satisfied now that if that came about then certain communities certain areas like I believe for instance would be prepared just a seat from the entity today calling us Kenya that is why I think that Conetta is most unlikely to be prime minister of independent Kenya. In other words if if he were to take power and it seemed as if the coup you were going to gain dominance you might see some succession of movements as one found in the Congo after independence. We would set Melissa seeded in West Kenya. If Connecticut to climb down to the little ice is likely to be in a clear fashion we would not stay the same to tickle a king it would get out of it. The fears of the minority tribes and groups in Kenya were heightened when Kenyatta finally
made his move when he was released from his long stay in jail. It was hoped he would unite the country. Now in Kenya there are two main political parties and they have similar sounding names. The Kenya African National Union known as Kanu and the Kenya African Democratic Union called Come to somehow it was thought Kenyatta. The legend that lives would weave these two together. But last winter while I was in Kenya Kenyatta made his choice and I was in the crowded committee room when the long awaited announcement was read. He had accepted the leadership in the economy and vision kind of in recognition of me taking out a leadership brick crowd appreciation off me that could not have division to accept a leadership off kind of. And according to a unanimous Larry Thurlow who gave me second yata power to delete you and reorganize
kind of and early fiction. The only thing in the parliamentary group we have a view to setting up an efficient effective deplaned Poppy. Good timing to wean Kenya have complete to now. I stood beside Jomo Kenyatta as this choice was announced and I asked him why he had waited so long to make his decision. I have not waited too long. Everything has its time and I think it time. Yeah. It was a historic moment this can Jada had made his choice and he chose to go with come to the party dominated by his own cocoon. And thus he passed up the opportunity of bringing unity to a disunited country. His
powerful figure casts a hypnotic spell over the people of Kenya. His name is magic. The chanting began on queue outside the parliament buildings the mob gathered for if keynoted chose to lead it was argued independence could not be far behind. The choir played the real mastermind of Kenya is making his plans. Tom Moya the general secretary of the Kenya African National Union Party is waiting his turn. Only 31 now he feels he can wait for the old man. Cannot is 71 and tired. He can wait his turn to become prime minister of Kenya. Man boy himself cleverly worked out the formula by which Kenyatta could head his party. His wide eyes stared off in some distant time as we stood outside the legislature building in Nairobi and I asked
him if he thought the step to independence would come quietly. Well we are all hoping that it will. One of the fears at the moment is that there may be tribal fear clashes and we're working very hard to ensure that we win our independence peacefully and in the unity. I wonder if you could tell me what the policy of your party. Well that's a very broad question. Our party generally of course is for independence. That is one that independence we feel should be based on democratic rights for all our citizens with a government based on Africa and that does not mean that we intend to exclude the non African immigrant communities who have decided to stay in Kenya. On the contrary we intend to give each and every one of them the right to choose Kenya citizenship when independence comes and once they choose to become Kenya citizens then of course they'll enjoy equal rights with all our
people. We do not feel that they should have dual citizenship because we are afraid that that might lead to a sort of dual loyalties or double loyalties and that may pose problems for us insofar as the economic economic development of our country is concerned. We intend to have a country which of course is in the case of most of the underdeveloped countries of the world would have an economy sort of guided by the government based on a government economic plan. This does not include private investment but rather ensures that development is geared to meet certain urgent needs of the country that very broadly is our policy. But the opposition says that your party is directed more toward just one tribe as a correct or incorrect. On the contrary this is not so. The opposition is determined to try and set up little tribal states that
they have chosen to call a regional government party on the other hand believes that Kenya is too small with 6 million people. To have more than one central government we think it would be too costly to run more than one government. We also think that tribalism will be on the increase. Once you have a region of tribal governments so our party stands for a united Kenyan nation in which all tribes learn to live together. This is what we have asked the Europeans and Asians to do and there is no reason why we should not ask our own African brothers what a god less of their tribe. Also to come together and integrate into one Kenyan nation during the pre-independence period the party in power is a minority group. The Kenya African Democratic Union its head has the title leader of government business. He was Ronald in Goa a quiet pipe smoking man who would look at home on a university campus. He talks of the aims of his party a party
which shows more concern for minorities and smaller tribes. Look there are three things. First we stand for a democratic ideal. We believe that people should be free to express their views and opinions without intimidation or threats or without any force. And we believe that if a country accepts two party system before independence or after that independence this should be a free decision of the people themselves without any force. Thirdly we believe that the Constitution for freaking out must be a regional constitution a constitution that will have one unity government for IKEA and have these reserved powers to the regions strongly entrenched into the written Constitution of the country. This is the great debate not only in Kenya but everywhere in Africa. How
strong should the central government be in one country after another. The luxury of a two party democratic system as we know it seems to fade away where he stands on this question and on the question of foreign policy is clearly stated by tomboy. Well let me make this observation that although I have many friends in the West I should not wanted to mistaken for any alliance with the West. Being pro-West I stand for a neutral East policy in which we will decide our elections with various countries entirely on the merits of a given situation. Now the kind of governments that may emerge in a country like Africa must not be prejudged. Some people think that we are only having We will only have a democratic government if we have the kind of institutions that they have in mind. Well I think this is wrong. It is true that from our colonial inheritance wish out in the first
instance have been used to a particular type of institution namely that which is to be found in a metropolitan country of the colonial power. But we insist that after independence we must experiment with such institutions and buttons that fit into our own background our own structure our own social attitudes and also our culture. That's in Africa our democracy will exist but not necessarily in the same expression of institutions as one finds in America Canada UNITED UNITED KINGDOM OF FRIENDS it will have to be a type of institution that is African. Nairobi itself is much more an Asian looking city than African. There are hundred seventy four thousand people of Asian extraction in Kenya and many are small shop owners. One morning during the season of what is called the small rains with the windshield wipers beating out a rhythm. I went for a drive along Nairobi's
Main Street government road. What's interesting about it is that as you drive down I'm going say from the Norfolk hotel where I've been staying in Stanley past the various shops you think you are in Bombay listen to the names karma she shook. These are the Bombay bazaar corner kiosk fears that these are the Asian shops the Asians are pretty well entirely. They shop keepers of the city. And of course these people are wondering what is going to happen to them when the pay. And it's come as a. When I spoke to Asians in Kenya most expressed apprehension about the future. An Indian boy at the post office when he heard I was a broadcaster from abroad asked. I was born here and I shall have to leave. Where will I go. At the
moment there are some Asians in government Mr Joe Meade are a thoughtful slightly nervous man as Minister of works. I asked him about the insecurity the Asians feel. Well that is undoubtedly that apprehension deigning at the moment I think the only hope for all of the Asian population is an expanding economy. If the economy remains static then I think issues will be squeezed out of that economy. But it's a dynamic economy which keeps on expanding it to yeah. And then of course I didn't for everybody in the country and we all should expect to be quite happy in the future. Well the Asians in fact become Kenyans or. Well they tend to remain or want to remain. British. Well the knowledge majority of my age group that is that on faulty is locally Bawn and have no other home except Kenya. I should consider that most of them would like to take the new Kenyan citizenship whenever that is available.
Finally it is your desire I presume to stay in Kenya and I suppose to die in Kenya was subtle enough to die I would not like to die in any country but I do propose to stay and live in Kenya. Who will stay and who go when independence comes. It is a question others ask with great deep soul searching on the part of the European community to in Kenya the Englishman has carved out a little bit of Britain. Maybe one day to pray on a strong position in the first Test match against Pakistan at Lahore daily he listens to the BBC as if he were safely in his club in London. He keeps a watchful ear on the cricket world and reads the times but wonders where next year will find him. Miko Brando my home is yeah and my wife and I definitely intend stay. I was given the opportunity today 15 months ago off to most interesting appointments in elsewhere but we didn't
even look at it. Ah home is here. I don't Jack was born here and as far as we can stand we want to die happy. Some of the white settlers have sold their land as best they can but many will not move. No matter what. By birth as much right to the part of the land which my father had and which I still own as anybody else. In my opinion in this world I see no reason at all why should change just because the color of my skin is white I cannot see any reason why I should have to leave this country. And I have no intention of doing so. I seek no special privileges other than to be allowed to carry on my dirty work. I have a certain amount of security for my wife and family. I have a reasonable schools which my children can attend and generally carry on the way I have done without seeking any privileges whatsoever.
I think in Kenya we're all a little bit worried about the future. But as far as I'm concerned and as far as I think most other people and we all intend to stay if possible. Yes. I can't imagine a better place in the world to live in than Kenya. And as I told my daughter a year ago who wanted me to go off to another country Australia it's not difficult to uproot a 75 year old tree but just impossible to transplant it and keep it alive. But there are more than people involved in the changing face of Kenya and all over Africa its most famous treasure is vanishing the wild animal Nairobi has always been the Safari couple of the world made famous by Hemingway and Rourke. And a man who sees the problems of Kenya not in terms of black or white or tribe against tribe but through its wild game is Mervyn Cowie director of the Royal National Parks of Kenya. It's quite logical that in any new country you can't have buffaloes running around in the wee
tall blondes in your pedigree cattle and mixing up like that. But it's perfectly logical that in certain places you can preserve wild animals and in other places you have your agriculture and your cattle and other human activities. So that I believe there's still room in Kenya and hidden in East Africa for that matter to have places set aside as national parks where all these wild animals will be able to survive and live as they always have done. But assuming that all that is done which can be done we're then left with this horrible conundrum as what is the future of wild animals in the minds of the new African political leaders. Has that question been answered to zones that come up. It was partly on today at a recent conference we had in the RU show when a great number of world experts assembled there and some of the East African countries particularly Tang and eco came out with flying colors because various African ministers mates made very profound statements that they intended
to save wildlife because they recognised its economic value its cultural value and everything else. Well now there's countries that have taken a lead I believe are on the right lines. And therefore when Kenya settles down a bit and some of these photos realize who's going to be in charge of the government I hope they'll then turn attention to the main sources of national income and wild animals. One of those main sources because they attract tourists to this country and tourism is a very potential pillar in the whole economic structure. In the urgent rush to independence the important question of economics is rarely discussed by African leaders. Kenya has a deficit economy. Financially it is virtually broke. The need for planning is great money to finance projects must come from external sources. The great need for aid is put in perspective by Robert Marr and American economic expert preparing a study on East Africa.
Well it President as you know in East Africa the budgets are divided into two halves recurrent budget and development budgets recurrent how to take care of the day to day fixed charges development are all new expenses now in relation to these new expenses or the development budgets in Kenya 97 percent of the current plan the one thousand sixty one thousand sixty three program will have to be financed from loans and grants in Tanganyika 96 percent. And in Uganda. Seventy two point eight percent. But financial worries have not slowed the pace of the African revolution. This summer none 1961 the Union Jack was lowered on a new national anthem was played as Tang and he became the first of East African countries to achieve its independence. In the independent state of Tang and the songs were sung to greet and welcome the first
black East African prime minister. Why in my mind. In Tang and ego the never was any question about who was going to be in charge of the government. Only one name was ever mentioned. And always it was accompanied by glowing tributes. His name Julius NEARY consider the words of East African expert Elspeth Huxley. I don't think is a country in Africa really where things have gone more smoothly identity have been a trouble that is very largely due to the fact a series of factors which resulted in a missed to Judy's new reality coming out as he acknowledged need of all the tribes and all the peoples of the RPM's and the Indians who were there in great numbers accepted his leadership because he is a pretty and they attractive of a moderate minded man.
Consider too the complements of Tang and because last governor the man who is now her first Governor General Sir Richard Turnbull we've got in Mr. Julius Newbury a man of the most really exceptional quality. He's a natural leader a natural statesman a man of firm his principles a man of great kindness and sense of humor and a colleague of human sympathy and understanding. But the affairs of new African nations somehow never seem tranquil. Not long ago the man so universally praised a man with almost universal support stepped down as prime minister seven weeks after he guided his country to independence prime minister Nuri turned the prime minister's job over to his chief assistant rushy de koala. But all experts feel that this was strictly a tactical move and only temporary. There is little doubt that Mir area is very much in
command. In fact at the party he heads the tang uneek an African National Union has virtually no opposition. You're very absolved as a 40 year old former schoolteacher. He is one of 26 children a devout Catholic. He has a mild appearance but an intense dynamic manner. He greeted me in a formal parliamentary office wearing a brilliant green sports shirt an open toed sandals and as he spoke his eyes flashed with enthusiasm. I questioned him about many aspects of African life. I asked him if he felt any special responsibility because his country achieved independence so smoothly. I kind of had to believe in myself that we deepening down then you guys should read that I sounds it. As having great terrorist possibilities for the continent or even in the context of East and Central Africa that they're not as you guys have been that by a combination of historical circumstances that we
have won our independence in a way which has not been possible in other countries. This gives us opportunities but no more than that. Even here in this country which is considered so highly democratic I believe there is no opposition party am I correct in the US. Would this not be a challenge to you sir since you have no opposition. To run a totally democratic process here. Well what would be the challenge to me we have we have what we believe here at Toto let Democrat dicks tuitions. We certainly don't believe and what has happened in town the nick at present doesn't make us change our minds that democracy is merely a question of institutions a question of therefore we believe much more the democracy is an attitude of mind that if. A country goes to a free election with two three
four five parties competing that it's up to the the electorate itself to throw up how many bought it is they can return and weak parliament with five but they can return and a very strong element with only one diety. It's the attitude of mind what happens enough that this is what has happened about our own country. We fought an election and we won all the seats. The question is come to our national assembly and find out what is happening there. Do you find debate there the kind of debate that would find in a two party system. Or do you find a dictatorship that I say you find in town that you could perhaps more debate then you might find in some of the dupatta system countries that you think that colonialism has done any good at all I mean we're all familiar with the ills that it has brought but hasn't done any good. But I'm every cloud has a silver platter lining and you must have it must have done some good. For instance as a result of
colonialism and his stand of inheriting a hundred and twenty separate tribes Yemen headed to a country which is one country with a single administration if things like that have taken place I have a single rail line which was built by a colonial power and if you things like that so I could point to few quite good things would have been done by colonialism but but quite frankly then no excuse for colonialism colonialism has a curious past in your areas technique. There were Arabs there along its coast in the eighth century Portuguese settled in a few places after bus go to Ghana went around the Cape of Good Hope the Germans arrived in 1885 and made it one of their territories. But during the First World War the British took over and it became their mandate as agreed to by the League of Nations and then the United Nations under its trusteeship system its size its about four times as big as Britain or as large as British Columbia its population is about 9 million. It has been spared the agony of Kenya because
it has only 20000 Europeans and they own only 2 percent of the land and there are about 100000 Asians in general it is a land of plains and plateaus but within its three hundred and sixty thousand square miles are Africa's highest mountain Kilimanjaro and the continent's deepest Lake Tanganyika. Aside from the coastal area the interior lies dark primitive and ignorant. Dar es Salaam the capital is a hot humid coastal town where the rain seems to seep into everything and the name means haven of peace on the steps of the Lutheran Church where the services are conducted in English and Swahili on a sticky evening I talked to a boy about people in prejudice while in the church a brass band of Africans was rehearsing a Sunday him. I do things the way I'll put them by a. You know again as no one knew they mistook him in our country.
But now we had trying to tell them that we had then no difference you know between them when they were saved and that they all made equal. We had trying to tell them but in some utopian thank you understand of this but some. Stopped now. As noted what I understand but they do understand about the stew they put themselves into higher rank you know. Yeah but in our holy said of the Independence is that it. There one who thinks his boss is in a higher position than another person they know I'm going to say he's going to do that mine to preach from this country. I think myself Africans are very tolerant of Europeans
considering the years with nobody acted in a superior way here when choosing that a head that. They act like you do not feel any better in the US against European leaders. No anonymous if I don't and I can say that I like them very much and. I like their move to stay here even. For Eva. You know there's you know because most of them were very helpful to Africans. Yes to the Europeans and Asians have a place in the new technique. The question was put to 32 year old George koma Minister of Home Affairs. Or certainly. Certainly of course one has got to look at it from many points of view as they are Europeans or Asians who have been born here who although they are called Europeans and Asians but in fact the attorney because they know no other home. That's why our citizenship and not to mention is going to take all these
factors into account that Europeans and Asians would be able to qualify on different sections of the law to become telling theirs with full rights and so on. Again of course you will have Europeans and Asians who may come not to be a success but they might come as investors and we have already said that such people always will come. One of the most pressing problems and technique and all over Africa is a literacy. It is here that foreigners are most welcome to come and give their help and books. Here is a class of women who have never been to school before reciting from the Oxford reader for Africa. You know. That eat. Eat Eat one of those who came and will stay to
help the new state along is Cranford present in all of technique. There are only about twelve hundred high school graduates Mr near Aries Tanu party and its eagerness to get a sound education system going to turn over their brand new headquarters building to him to build a new university with no waiting in the field of education. There not only is the greatest need for trained people from outside to come and help but this need is rightly recognized by. Africans both but ordinary Africans and African leaders so that anyone interested in coming to serve at an African school or an African university college will certainly be be very welcomed and be given every every opportunity. The wider question of the place of the European and African territories generally will in the long run depend on two things it will depend on the attitude of the of the individual your
pins that come here and it will depend on the political attitude of of those who rise to leadership in the in the individual African states. The minister of finance and the young Tang Nikko was in fact British so earnest Vaizey but only a few weeks after independence he was forced to resign. And his the parts are from the first cabinet was instrumental in bringing about the resignation of Mr. Newberry at one time he was mayor of Nairobi. He chewed on the stub of a cigar in his office as he told me of what he thought were the prospects for the white man in East Africa. I'm always believe that if one preached democracy one must accept democracy. I didn't think the European as a European community will indeed have any great political implements. But I think the European as an individual with his competence and provided recognizes that he mistreat God himself as a
citizen of the country in which he is living. I'm perfectly sure that there will be a great call upon the European for his advice and guidance in the is to come. Virtually all the shops in the civil service in Dar es Salaam have been run by Asians. The minister works as a good looking Indian Mr. Jamal who considers himself very much an African. For years the white man looked down on the Asians and they in turn did the same to the African. But now things have changed. And I asked Mr. Jamal if it was not now necessary to have a greater social intercourse between the groups. Yes very much else. As you know that one off OB biggest legacies of the past has been the system of education up to now they have had three separate streams of education African Asian and European and those if a school but maybe keen to be
interested in the issues shelf off ahead of the job asked. Mission in this country not just me any troops but as a nation have been demanding for a long time now. The integration of the education system and now this has been brought about for the first time by the elected government and the new education that has just been passed by the National Assembly vish will result in an end indicated system of education and we hope that it will go a long way although of course it could mean a lot of time before it really does to your face but we hope a good long way to eliminating one videogame and sulks off off off division on this group basis. Most Indians came to Africa to help build the railroad about thirty two thousand of them were brought in to build a railroad from a bus on the coast of Kenya to Uganda to tap the wealth of that rich country. And in Uganda they constitute the trading community. But Uganda has almost no
white black problem of a total population of about 6 million there are only about 10000 Europeans and white settlement is forbidden by law. The country produces more coffee and cotton than anywhere else in the Commonwealth. Its social problems are strictly black vs. black. And this year this country entirely inland a quarter is biggest thing and the size of Britain will obtain its independence. The vital question is will these three countries Uganda Tanzania and Kenya form one federation a federation of East Africa. An economist so earnest on Federation. I didn't think the territories can be separated economically and indeed in that end interests it's paramount that they should be in one economic region. This will not only prevent political balkanize ation but will mean to have a
direct to the economy of the region and have an economy of sufficient size to maneuverability and this will undoubtedly Heyst the economic progress of the region's economic unity seems to be a matter almost of form here it seems to be completely necessary between these three states however the matter of political unity is something that other others question very much and that tendency in some areas perhaps to develop sort of a cult of the individual how is it possible that these states will ever have one political leader. Oh I don't think we had a doubt about it. The common services which have now been started the patent ministerial triumvirate So it was accepted in the June discussions make it quite easy at the appropriate point in the future of all this to be moved on to a federal basis some from one minister to replace the triumvirate of
three which now operates various services. I think the only thing that is delaying the Federation now is the fact that Chris got his independence fest and the other two countries feel that if they had to negotiate a federation on an equal basis they must get that political independence fest. Others feel a Federation is necessary but much more complex to bring about. Sir Richard Turnbull Governor-General of the Federation of East Africa. Those are very tricky constitutional problem and a tricky emotional problem. It's on the emotional side. One has to overcome the various rivalries and jealous is which are dividing Kenya at the moment and which exist so strong in Uganda. But I'm pretty certain that when those two countries have been tided up. Provided the African leaders agree we can very easily move into a federation. I say easily it won't be as easy as all that because
the Constitution making required for all three countries are such different backgrounds attending here Kenya and Uganda a pretty complicated as we've recently seen in the Caribbean. How difficult it is to form a federation which will meet the commercial agricultural and again the psychological requirements of every member of it. It can be done I think in East Africa it must be done because if we are to flourish we must have a common market with so that commercial firms can have access to what may be 20 or 25 million people instead of only 6 7 and 10 million people. I put the same question to Julius Nuri. Will there be a federation of the East African states. No I don't know and I accept that I can say I hope I can express hope but frankly all these ice fishing units and their weak units in any case
and one hopes that it will get larger and larger units built up not merely Eastern and Central Africa but I believe in the whole of Africa our hope in every respect is to it is bound up with with the unity. The question comes to the observer. Will who will be the boss them and will do so foresee a time when there would be a prime minister for all of Eastern Africa. I'm not dancing about for C but I think the question who will be the boss is a mischievous question myself. One doesn't know what we know is if you're going to have a government when the government is going to be headed by one person two people a day I don't get might be ended by time but it might be headed by some people. Headed by some people. Who it's going to be is absolutely ridiculous because you never know when it's going to happen. You don't know and even if you knew when it was going to happen it it is not really the vital matter the vital matter is if we don't
like the Balkanization of East Africa for instance we move ahead and remove the Balkanization who ends up as the head of a very large estate is completely irrelevant. The reason I asked the question is not to be mischievous but there is a fear I think in some quarters that there may be some cults of personality developing and some areas of Africa. I think Western observers need some kind of assurance that that isn't going to take place and that is really the reason for the question. Frankly I don't see why we should given our surest Western observers about anything. I mean the the unity of Africa is our own business and the machinery the institutions we set out by completely our own business the individuals who emerge out of this to head whatever unit we build up must be live good democratic process in Africa. Who would be the boss if a federation did take place has been
seriously considered by an American expert on Africa. Robert Maher under a federal structure as you probably know today they are speaking about Jomo Kenyatta as being a quisling to the governor general or the president of the Federation. They are speaking of the raree as being the prime minister of the East African Federation. They are speaking about Tom and boy being the foreign minister of an East African Federation. This raises a question which has always bothered me. What will happen to Uganda. No one ever seems to consider their role in an East African Federation. I would presume that a very good argument could be made for making the home minister in charge of internal security and perhaps defense a Ugandan. And the problem of course can become more complex in Northern Rhodesia and I as a land and wonder run D should also be included in the Federation.
But I believe that the latter three are still a bit in the future and I think if we concentrate just on the three states of Kenya Ugandan Tanganika will have enough problems in getting those three together to speculate on the future of the East African Federation is perhaps idle to speculate about the future of any African state is not practical. The Africans will do it their own way and in their own time. We may not understand that but in the words of Julius Newberry it is their own affair. The African revolution is sometimes dramatic sometimes peaceful but once it has started nothing no man can stop it. One night I drove out to the Nairobi airport and under full awesome Hunter's Moon. I drove by the road that passes through the Nairobi National Park. The eyes of builder be so long the roadside reflected the glare of the modern automobile that took me there. They stared out as animals have perhaps as before any man black
or white had ever come to the great land mass that is Africa. At the airport a crowd of Africans filled the terminal. The women swinging swaying chant of the song The farewell. An African boy was going off to study at a university in America. The whole village had come to say good bye. I am was. A good man. A super jet was to take them to Rome and then across the ocean. Most of the town's people perhaps had never been out of their village never seen or heard the sound of an engine. They waited till dawn dancing barefoot on the concrete floor of the chrome and glass building waiting for a jet. Brilliant metal earrings dozens of them hung in the ears of women as they have been for centuries but now who was coming in their bright dresses and robes. They made a sight that was like a moving human rainbow from the black past to the twentieth
century. Rushing into the African revolution and there and it was OK I did yeah. It means freedom program number two and a six part series is only African revolution with the zoo as was preferred by broadcaster Harry Ruskin after a tour with a tape recorder of 15 African countries a song for the song how the African revolution was produced for the international service of the CBC by BERNARD MURPHY. I did load unload and load the load that
I could. Load.
The African revolution
Episode Number
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/500-7s7hv75k).
Series Description
A six-part study of Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a fifteen-country tour that was undertaken by broadcaster Harry Ruskie.
Social Issues
Media type
Embed Code
Copy and paste this HTML to include AAPB content on your blog or webpage.
Host: Ruskie, Harry
Producer: Murphy, Bernard
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 62-ex1-2 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
If you have a copy of this asset and would like us to add it to our catalog, please contact us.
Chicago: “The African revolution; 2,” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 25, 2024,
MLA: “The African revolution; 2.” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 25, 2024. <>.
APA: The African revolution; 2. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from