The Institute on Man and Science; United States Policy in East Asia
National Educational radio in cooperation with the Institute on man and science presents a series of talks drawn from the institute's annual conference held recently in Rensselaer Vale New York. The Institute on man and science is a nonprofit educational institution chartered by the New York State Board of Regents. The annual assembly of the institute is designed to focus attention on 20th century technology and the human relationships resulting from its application. The speaker for this program is Everett F. Brum Wright former ambassador of the United States to the Republic of China. His topic is United States policy in East Asia. Here now is Ambassador GRAHAM Right. I have it's my subject. U.S. policy toward China sent I spent some years in that great country. From the very founding of our country we have had relations of
one kind or another with China. It was consistent American policy through the decades. Prevent the break break up of China as a sovereign and territorial an entity and as a corollary to prevent its domination by another foreign power. Prior to nineteen hundred the dominant motive was not on our part but desired pervert preserve equality of American opportunity and China. After 1900 when we began put on the trappings of world power our dominant mode was neither altruism or necessarily. Equality of opportunity but something regarded as more important to us. I sense the United States had come to hold a view of the domination of China by any
foreign power. But the and and then the call to its interests. That's where plans end a war with Japan to preserve China's integrity and our own security and overcoming and we won the war of the last eight. How did we manage to lose the peace after the great sacrifices. The total victory in 1945 as a minor participant I should like my share of some personal impressions and opinions with you. From the fall of the Manchu dynasty until 1927 rival warlords fought for power in China. But no leadership developed capable of organizing and unifying the country. But after 1927 the Chinese national with the ideology
and the leadership Jiang shack forged a new nation carry out process many basic farms. By 1937 China was largely unified with the remnant communists defeated and driven to the remote north west. Still much remains to be done to modernize the country and China is not yet ready at the stage where it could cope with all out Japanese aggression and the difficult internal and external problems flowing from out aggression. Nevertheless China went to war rather than capitulate ill prepared and alone in the early stages like the Chinese fought a heroic rear guard action using the strategy of trading space for time and refusing all Japanese offers quite tempting for a compromise. The wars end with victory in its grasp. China's
substance was primary cause of China's transform months. I'm a progressive and fairly open society to a closed regimented police state. It's drawing process of eight years of bitter warfare and supreme sacrifice. In other words at the war's end China is basically too stricken too exhausted to cope with the Chinese onslaught which have been carefully nurtured through the war years. This is not to say that there are not other reasons for the post-war collapse of the Chinese government. For example there was Russian aid to the Chinese Communists in violation explicit Russian surance is to Chinese Government it was the Yalta agreement with its. Return of old imperialist rights to the Russians and its
consequences for China. There were mistakes made in military and economic affairs. There was inflation. Most of it on avoidable which led to governmental and adequacy and corruption. There was failure to plan adequately to cope with post-war conditions and problems. And lastly but not less important. The failure of the United States to evaluate the problem correctly and thus to provide the gentleman Chinese government our wartime ally with continuing prompt and adequate moral and material support to meet its post-war problem in a similar postwar contingency in Europe. Although conditions are perhaps even less stringent than the problems confronting China at the time. The United States had risen or did rise wisely to the
occasion with his assistance to Greece and Turkey and a little later with the Marshall Plan which helped speed the restoration of shattered economies and all the Western thrust of communism. But under the even more dire contingencies posed by China US response the Chinese government and its enemies the Chinese communists are engaged in a spreading civil conflict to determine which with this civil war owes the dilemma for the United States should the United States render unnecessary support to the recognized government. Or should the United States step in to attempt mediation and peace with little hesitation.
The US chose the latter alternative and it first undertook a strictly informal mediation which involved face to face meeting between junking. When these tentative media Tory steps failed to bring the contending parties to amicable agreement the US government had posed for it again. The problem what to do after vacillating through the summer fall of 1940 and accepting the resignation of Ambassador Hurley who advocated by that time support of the Chinese government the US government decided once again to attempt mediation a foreign policy statement issued the end of 1945 which said in a fact that is the Chinese government and the Chinese Communist settle their differences and establish a unified administration. So would the US be
prepared Sportsnet solution that assists in war torn country to reconstruct. John Marshall China. With this new policy to attempt its implementation neither the government nor the communists received this mission with any great enthusiasm but both appeared to cooperate for a time. Yet by April of nineteen forty six when Marshall returned to the US to report on his mission his efforts came unstuck. Marshall returned to China with instructions to continue to bring the two sides together. But. At the end of 1946 he signaled his failure by returning to the United States and issuing his plague on both your houses state as a place of
civil war intensified the US tended to withdraw more and more from China and a lot of the graft. The tottering Chinese government severed its crowning blow with a practical withdrawal of U.S. support but fought a grim struggle to the end. Managing the process through remove its remnants to the island of Taiwan and finally turned on at this juncture the US appeared to be paving the way for a total of the Republic of China and recognition of communist China and in any case I'm biased. Your story was left on the mainland to deal with the triumph of communists. Well U.S. representation on Taiwan this past probability is that the
US would at that time have recognized the Chinese Communists had the latter not shown hostility and contempt for the United States and had to come in that's not Korea. Forced us to modify its China policy and its entirety. We found ourselves not only engaged militarily against the Communists but required in our own interest says Chinese government on Taiwan to descend to a rather personal level. I would not be candid if I did if I did not tell you that I was skeptical all along about the prospects for any successful American mediation and my skepticism is enhanced by the growing intransigence of the Chinese Communist aided and abetted by Soviet Russia. Still I felt
at the time that the preliminary efforts by Ambassador Hurley or perhaps worth a try. But when those efforts failed I believed then and I believe now that we set up thrown our support to the Chinese government. We had. Adopted already such a course in Greece and in my opinion it would have been appropriate as our China cars such a decision required great political courage on the part of our leaders at a time when our people were tired of war and bring the boys home was the order of the day. I recall at the time the Marshall nation as my confidence was down to the very terms of the policy Marshall was charged with executing because those terms implied that
U.S. help would be forthcoming only as the contenders came together and settled their differences peaceably but the communists bent on the road to ruin. I had only to refuse cooperation to force a US withdrawal from the China scene the Chinese communists did in fact with whole cooperation the US did in fact withdraw its support of the Chinese government as a consequence. And by. 1949 the China mainland communist after their conquest of the mainland the communists lost no time in showing their hatred for the United States. They humbled are on boy I'm biassed story they their hair a scar. Jay all those Americans you know I don't like to stay on
they seize all America properties and they went to fantastic lengths to transfer art try to transfer the hostility of the United States to the Chinese people. Any hopes of accommodation are not only a Chinese communist intervention in the Korean War and indeed for the first time in our history we faced Chinese forces on the battlefield excluding Boxer Rebellion which didn't amount to much. And so the war we had waged with to. Preserve a friendly China was lost after the Chinese Communist intervention in the Korean War was a very risky undertaking on their part. After scarcely two years in control of mainland China
the communists suffered very heavy losses partly nationalist forces. And we're glad to have the Russians arranged the talks that started in July 1951 when the communist forces were falling back and battered Re had the UN forces continue there at that time. They had good reason to believe that the Korean conflict could have been and far more satisfactory basis than the inconclusive armistice negotiated in 1953. After two years of sanguinary fix bottle there is no doubt but that they way the war was end was tantamount to the granting of a new lease on life to the Chinese communist who use their victory to refurbish their enemies with their own people
and also rot. At no time since coming to power are now the Chinese Communists abated they're biting us delegate the United States. You land which condemned them for their intervention in the Korean War. Indeed as years have gone by has spread to such an extent that the ever friendly relations with only a handful of the world's nations today they have even turned on their farmer mentor or Soviet Russia so that Chinese relations with Soviet Union are scarcely better than with the United States. The violent and aggressive intentions of the Chinese Communists ought to be cleared of all armed attack on India. Their subversive activities in Asia and Africa and their boldly proclaimed policy of wars of national liberation. Only recently the Soviet Union. Perhaps partly
propaganda and charge the Chinese Communists with the intent to stir up a nuclear exchange between the US Soviet Union. Despite the utter hostility of the Chinese Communists to the United States there are occasional calls in this country. Some of them from my political quarters for U.S. recognition of Chinese Communist China for its admission to the UN etc.. No doubt the motives of such American advocates are good but what they apparently do not understand is that there is absolutely no reciprocity on the part of Congress. Friendship is a two way street and international as well as personal relations. What is not understood among our friends and getting recognition is that any reasonable offers us accommodation to the commonness will be
rejected almost continentally and score. Andy our government has made some offers but that is perhaps to both countries. But all of them rejected out of hand and the communists have said explicitly that they would never seek membership in the U.N. organization unless it were reorganized to meet their requirements. It is sometimes said in this country that the US is deliberately isolating China from the community of nations. Real Truth matter is that the Chinese Communists have succeeded in isolating themselves from all but a handful of nations. Moreover they have evidence no sign accommodate themselves to world opinion including that of the Communist variety. So it may be
some kind of it's that they will continue to isolate themselves as long as they continue their current extremist leaders. Now even in the face of the utter Chinese coming this way and intransigence. Not to mention it's a program of people's revolution. The U.S. government has been par all along treatment regime and to attempt accommodation with it managed to both countries. In fact we have been in direct contact with communist Warsaw for several years. Admittedly the results are very meager but nevertheless affords a handy for where the two governments can get together and set forth to respect you. I happen to know they do
actually. Warsaw provides a point of contact that is perhaps more effective and the missions established in Peking several of our European allies. I was the result of Warsaw are elsewhere cannot be expected unless the guy minutes for go their aggressive ways are the US compromises its basic rights on the basis of the current Chinese position. Nothing would seem to satisfy. Them short of a complete US withdraw from the stage. In my view that is unthinkable proposition. Perhaps it would be well to state since we're talking about China policy the current official US position toward the Chinese Communist regime.
My policy is that I was I've been researching unable to research it stated by the president in his State of the Union message January Nineteen sixty seven when he said quote We still continue to hope for a reconciliation between the people of mainland China and the world community including working together in all the tasks of arms control of security and progress on the fate of the Chinese people like their fellow man. Elsewhere dependence we would be the first to welcome a China which decided to respect her neighbors rights to be the first to applaud her great energies and intelligence to improving the welfare of our people and we have no intention of trying to deny her a legitimate needs for security and friendly relations with her neighboring countries. That's President Johnson as
recently as May 17 1968. Secretary of State Rusk in an interview with a Japanese correspondent expressed hope that quote The race itself isolation will change its dedication to the file and revolutionary overthrow of governments and will decide it wants to re-enter the nation. I believe that the above quoted official policy of our government is about as reasonable and proper as goodly and places the onus certainly on the Chinese Communists to me to accepted standards of international conduct the same time I submit that it would be unrealistic to expect the Maoists the people who are now part of an hour to embrace those policies which would make for reasonable
mutual accommodation. Mainland once more is undergoing agony chaos and turmoil. The product this time of and party strife and struggle for power. Enough information is available to show that a faction of the Chinese party Communist Party led by she took steps as far back as 1959 to reverse extreme and disastrous great leap forward policies instituted by the mosse and far appear it succeeded in putting up for the past two years and has it here it's ever started to extraordinary measures to recoup their power and to return to the extremist measures always favored by the mob to carry out their plans. The Maoists mobilize the youth of
China and the Red Guard from Asia to carry out what they call the Great Proletarian Cultural ruthless and unrestrained. The Red Guard has managed to destroy the party Communist Party and the government structure. More recently seeing that things are utterly out of hand and trying to put the genie back in the bottle. He's attempting to disband the Red Guard and has called upon the army to restore order. Meanwhile the so-called revolutionary committees are being installed in the various provinces to seize the reins of power are through and support Amal and his programs. But so far as can be discerned from the
outside little progress is being made in restoring the mosse power granting the early excepts AMAL. After all 75 years in ailing health the question remains whether or not the more pragmatic she and his faction. Can you make a comeback after the battering they have taken us. The odds appear to be against the army remaining as the single most intact organization in China. It appears that military leaders are sounding more and more authority and oversee restore order but intra party conflict has seeped into the military commanders and raises speculation as to whether the military themselves can preserve a united front. Indeed Recent reports suggest military leaders in the provinces are split. And as part of this or that
faction of the US I return something I can do the warlord. It's not beyond the realm of possibility. If the king isn't able to reassert it type monolithic control. Recent reports from China fragmentary as they are telling students teachers and electrical attempting to band together with the common people to scrap common practices and substitute a more pragmatic system. Life given the utterly chaotic condition reported to exist in long fukin long sea these are southern provinces possibility arises even with a Nationalist Chinese on Taiwan may be called and restore peace and order and in any case with the situation on the mainland as
fluid as it is and with Maoism apparently on its way out it would appear manifestly an act in opportune for the United States to shift course at this time. And more especially to make any moves that could be construed as helping our supporting communist leadership. We are the United States I wish to exercise some flexibility in seeking ways and means to bring the Chinese and mainland Chinese people back in the world community. I must contend and cherish nurture keep US Army liason Chinese I just lost allies who are so thick then and who I think remain the last best hope for actually world's oldest most tenuous Thank you. You heard Everett F. drum right. Former ambassador of the United States to the Republic
of China as he discussed United States policy in East Asia. A message or drum Wright spoke at the annual conference of the Institute on man in science held in Rensselaer Vale New York on our next program. Carrington Goodrich research professor in Chinese history at Columbia University will speak on the topic. The book in China these lectures are recorded by the Institute on man and science. The programs are prepared for broadcast and distributed by the national educational radio network.
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- Institute on Man and Science
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- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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- Series Description
- For series info, see Item 3566. This prog.: United States Policy in East Asia. Hon. Everett F. Drumright, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of China, 1958-1962
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Producing Organization: Institute on Man and Science
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 68-33-19 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “The Institute on Man and Science; United States Policy in East Asia,” 1969-01-23, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 27, 2024, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-7m042p4g.
- MLA: “The Institute on Man and Science; United States Policy in East Asia.” 1969-01-23. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 27, 2024. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-7m042p4g>.
- APA: The Institute on Man and Science; United States Policy in East Asia. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-7m042p4g