With. Cooperation with national educational radio presents on his 400 anniversary a series of four programs written and narrated by conductor and musicologist and now Mr. Jenkins. Produced his already on a text by autopsy or a new cine for the marriage of money and a message to Henry the Fourth of France in Florence in the year 600. A new art form was born. This state symbolically represents in music history the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the bedrock. But before going on a word of definition as to the terms Renaissance and Baroque in music man Fred book officer in his beautifully clear book music in the Baroque era defines these ages very neatly. The Renaissance had only one practice and one musical style while the baroque had two practices and three styles. The
practices being old and modern The styles being church chamber and theater music in the Renaissance the text was the text was depicted in a restrained manner in the Baroque. The text was represented in a highly effective manner in the Renaissance. All voices were equally balanced in the box. There existed a polarity of the outer voices. The Renaissance used diatonic melody of small range the bedrock diatonic and chromatic melody of a large range where the Renaissance counterpoint was modal. The baroque was tonal while the Renaissance harmony was a byproduct of part writing by rock harmony existed as a self-contained unity. The Renaissance did not necessarily distinguish between voices and instruments for both were interchangeable but the Bach thought idiomatically and insisted on a difference between vocal and instrumental styles. However the idioms among themselves were interchangeable.
Thus it can be seen that the advent of the age in music was one of the most overwhelming stylistic revolutions ever to take place. Now the Florentine Cammarata a sort of cultural club to which both Parry and renew Cheney belonged were intrinsically interested in a reconstruction of Greek drama. They were totally unaware that in their attempts to recreate a lost art they had an actual fact invented a new one. The essential characteristics of this new form were expressive narration by means of dramatic singing over a bass line. This style was known as Monody as opposed to the Renaissance polyphony or many voice driving the bass line could be played by a number of different instruments. Some of them by their very nature such as the harpsichord spinnet organ Lute the arbor or to their own name were capable of filling in the implied harmonic structure. The vocal writing attempted as far as was possible to imitate in music the meaning of the text. And from this developed gradually a series of what today we would call cliches in the 17th century the
theoreticians called them the affections of the soul to the north of Florence in Mantua at the Palace of the Gonzaga has there lived one of the greatest geniuses of operatic music of all time. Cloudy o Montevideo who is a four hundred birthday is celebrated this year at the dawn of which we speak. Mountain Eddy had already been in service for a decade. Had traveled with the Duke to Hungary in the campaign against the Turks and had been part of the revenue on a journey to Flanders. This second trip more peaceful in nature introduced Malta Verdi to French music and the French style of composition a style which was to have a profound effect on some of his later music as we shall see that it possibly multivariate accompanied you to Florence for the abovementioned festivities and must certainly have received detailed information about music life and the methods and aims of the Cammarata at Florence from the Manchu and singer Francesco Rozzie who sang in the performance of Already the Duke's two sons were passionate music and theater lovers and it is probable that to them
we owe the intense operatic activity which took place in match where most of it was commissioned to write his first opera or fail on a text by Joe Jr. It was probably composed during the winter of 16 I was 6 16 I was 7 for the first performance took place in the state rooms of the academia daily inveigled in February 16 0 7. Over the next two years it was given a number of times both in Mantua and interim Oma and both libretto and score were published. Witnesses to the sensational and lasting success of the work. It remains the earliest opera still to be performed to the day in September of 16 07 motivate he was deeply shaken by the death of his beloved wife but only two weeks after her death he was summoned to prepare the music for the forthcoming marriage of the hereditary prince Francesco with the infanta Margarita of Savoy. These festivities turned out to be the first opera festival and was scheduled for May and June 16 0 8. It consisted
of Montevideo is an opera now last given on May 28 Well Raney's it dropped a Gaga and a new Internet so as a double bill given on June 2nd. Marco da ya know it's based on an idea by Francesco Gonzaga consisting of a so-called Tornado or attorney combined with operatic music was given on June 3rd and the following day Monteverdi presented his own opera ballet in Delhi in Granted on June 5th. The festival ended with another opera by Mark Rebecca yano its Achrafieh Cho beefy genea the news of this opera festival spread all over Europe and catapulted mantra to vie with Florence as the foremost city of opera in the world. Before turning to the music itself a word about the forces model that he had at his disposal as it took place under the patronage no expense was spared to make it as lavish as possible.
While the Florentine works could boast only for container or base instruments and a small chorus besides the soloists the score of or fail reveals that motivated he had two harpsichords two double basses tend the yellows one harp two little French violins to get that only two wood organs three violist a gun ban four trombones one reed organ to quantity or wooden trumpets one Piccolo one trumpet three muted trumpets a large zipper and several recorders. This huge apparatus is no chance orchestra but one chosen carefully with instrumental colors suited to the expressions demanded by the various dramatic situations musically the work combines forms that monetary had known and previously employed the pastoral scenes from Acts 1 and 2 are derived from the style of the favela passed around the Lament for already in Act Two is in magical style recalling among others those magical dramas of the Roxio Becky and you cannot answer the Florentine intimate yet contributes or there was great
color to the aria but send the spirit down. The orchestral returned early or simple can be traced to Johnny Got His brass music for the Church of St. Mark's in Venice. There he welded all of these different elements into one consciously unified structure at the service of the poetic and dramatic ideals of the affections of the soul in a style which he called it represent a Tivo or representation. So we shall see that the stylistic parents of or fail are the dramatic goals of the Renaissance and the concepts of Greek tragedy of the Florentine humanists. The overture to or fail is a small tripartite symphony. The germ of both the symphony and operatic overture to come. It consists of a fast a section followed by a slow after which the fast is again repeated and a form which you later see the same word appear in another guise. When we speak of mounted it is church music in the last of these four talks. Here now is the overture to fail.
Ignore. The opera opens with a prologue song by music in treating the audience to take current interest in the drama that follows the curtain rises on ACT 1 a pastoral seed in which Orpheus and your idiocy proclaim their love to the rejoicing of nymphs and shepherds. Here now is a choral ballet one of a style of which Malta Verdi was very fond indeed. We find it's like also in his glory and in some of his magical ballad The nymphs and shepherds saying Leave your hills and springs lovely nymphs come and dance with us while the sun watches your steps. Even more interesting than the vision of the stars waving about the moon the dance of the stars in heaven.
The form of the pastoral ballet is even more clearly visible in the second act. Here is a strong thick song interspersed with orchestral interludes the strawberry being given sometimes to Orpheus sometimes to a shepherd or duet of two shepherds or even a chorus was. The. Night.
Yeah yeah yeah yeah. Yeah yeah. We eat.
We eat whole. Come old.
Up to now all has been joy and happiness no action persay has disturbed the calmness of the sea but suddenly a messenger arrives with the news that a treacherous serpent has bitten your idiocy and that she has died. The messenger is Sylvia. You're a disease faithful attendant. And she burst on the scene of the orchestra changes from joy to almost spooky gloom.
Oh. Orpheus is stunned by the tragic news and swears that he will descend into Hades to recapture his bride. The psychological clonic to the opera is reached with this decision and it is beautifully set in the lament to say Mark. Oh.
Come. Here For. Us was this.
In the third act Orpheus guided by hope descends into the bowels of the earth. Hope accompanies him only to the banks of the sticks and leaves him there in the charge of count on but can not be moved even bought off is a song. So we go back to sleep and office passes over the river. Here is the opening verse of the Great Hall sent a spirit.
Or are. We.
Oh yeah. The fourth act takes place in the palace of Pluto. Proserpine not having heard officers lament pleads with her lord to release your idiocy. Persuaded by her entreaties agrees but under the condition that Orpheus not look at her until they have both left his realm. Here is the fateful command.
Thank you. Ya eat eat. Eat eat eat. Eat eat
eat. Is off us and your idiocy. Take the road back to the world of the living. A noise is heard. Orpheus turns to look at his wife and at that instant she is snatched from him. Doomed for ever to remain in Hades. Here is the scene of this destruction. Why.
At this point I would like you to compare another concept of the same see from another performance. I leave the preference to the listener without any further discussion. So. True. I.
Was in the final act Orpheus is sorrow at last moves even his father Apollo to take pity on. He offers Orpheus immortality and together they ascend into heaven while the shepherds sing a sacrificial prayer as an accompaniment to the apotheosis. Thank you. Thank you. The joys of musical examples has been dictated by the plotline in order to have full appreciation of this amazingly rich score. It would be necessary to hear it all the way through. So if this short sample of multivariate or fail has quieted the listeners appetite
- Producing Organization
- Radiotelevisione italiana
- Contributing Organization
- University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
- AAPB ID
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- Episode Description
- This program focuses on the relationship between the Renaissance madrigal and the madrigal of Monteverdi.
- Series Description
- A discussion of the work of Monteverdi, hosted by Newell Jenkins and featuring musical illustrations.
- Media type
Host: Jenkins, Newell
Producing Organization: Radiotelevisione italiana
Writer: Jenkins, Newell
- AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 67-48-1 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
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- Chicago: “Monteverdi; Madrigals,” 1967-08-18, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed March 23, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-4x54jz1v.
- MLA: “Monteverdi; Madrigals.” 1967-08-18. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. March 23, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-4x54jz1v>.
- APA: Monteverdi; Madrigals. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-4x54jz1v