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<v Host>The following program was made possible by a grant from the Florida legislature <v Host>and was administered by the Florida State Department of Education. <v Host>From Miami, a production of WPT. <v Narrator>Bernie Yokel and his family live in a coastal swamp in south Florida. <v Narrator>The mosquito that snakes that breed here spoil his pleasure and swamp life not at all. <v Narrator>He is a marine biologist conducting research on the functioning of one piece of coastal <v Narrator>wetland and its importance to life in the sea. <v Narrator>And in this Florida swamp, Bernie Yokel's work and his pleasure are also <v Narrator>inextricably linked.
<v Bernie Yokel>Looks like he couldnt submerge <v Bernie Yokel>Yeah he's alive, he is way out of his element. <v Bernie Yokel>He might have gotten caught trying to cross a creek or something. <v Bernie Yokel>He got, he's getting out the sea. <v Child>Right on target. <v Narrator>Bernie's base of operation is Rookery Bay's Sanctuary, a 6000 <v Narrator>acre estuary that was saved from being dredged and filled when a group of private <v Narrator>citizens raised money and purchased it.
<v Bernie Yokel>We're coming in to hidden river. <v Bernie Yokel>Which is a little mangrove line channel that <v Bernie Yokel>looped up in to the upland part of the sancutary <v Narrator>Until recently, our coastal wetlands, which consist of swamps, bays, <v Narrator>grassy marshes and estuaries like this one were regarded as a wasteland. <v Narrator>Private developers were encouraged to dredge and fill such worthless real estate <v Narrator>and to convert it into high priced waterfront property. <v Narrator>No one suspected the real value of coastal wetlands. <v Narrator>No one realized what was their true function. <v Narrator>No one knew that our worthless wetlands, our Wellspring's for life <v Narrator>in the sea.
<v Narrator>Even from our ordinary earthbound perspective, it is easy to see that <v Narrator>islands and peninsulas are projections of land less obvious to <v Narrator>us land dwellers, is the fact that the reverse is equally true. <v Narrator>bays, estuaries and wetlands are part of the sea. <v Narrator>And though most of us, when we think of sea shores, tend to picture sandy beaches. <v Narrator>In truth swamps, grassy marshes and estuaries <v Narrator>like these dominate all coastlines. <v Narrator>Until recently, these ragged edges of the ocean were thought to have no value to man <v Narrator>even their function as buffer zones. <v Narrator>Protecting the land from storms and the eroding action of the sea was given little <v Narrator>attention. That such wastelands could be nutrient rich havens <v Narrator>and nursery grounds for marine life was not even guessed. <v Narrator>But lately, scientists have begun taking a closer look at the wetlands. <v Narrator>Depending on altitude and climate, vegetation differs up and down <v Narrator>our coastline, yet wetlands of all types support an impressive array
<v Narrator>of life. <v Narrator>We will look at how the mangrove lined estuaries of South Florida produce a pyramid of <v Narrator>marine life extending far out to sea. <v Narrator>But what is true of mangrove swamps holds equally true for grassy marshes on the Atlantic <v Narrator>states or the juncos beds of the Gulf of Mexico. <v Narrator>Our coastal wetlands, wherever they occur, are one of our most valuable resources. <v Bernie Yokel>These areas are really unique. <v Bernie Yokel>They're doing something very special for us. <v Bernie Yokel>And that especially is producing food. <v Bernie Yokel>These regions produce food without parallel in the natural environment. <v Bernie Yokel>They produce more food per unit, area per acre or whatever you want <v Bernie Yokel>to use than any other natural area. <v Bernie Yokel>They compare very favorably with with agriculture, where you have to <v Bernie Yokel>plow and you have to cultivate. You have to harvest and you have to apply fertilizers <v Bernie Yokel>and oftentimes pesticides. <v Bernie Yokel>There's a great deal of labor and investment involved.
<v Bernie Yokel>These areas do all of this and they don't require any investment <v Bernie Yokel>of labor or materials on our part at all. <v Bernie Yokel>The red mangrove had several functions in the overall system. <v Bernie Yokel>One of the important ones you can see with this rather <v Bernie Yokel>large tree here is it consolidates the shore, <v Bernie Yokel>it holds that base system together, ties up the sediment, <v Bernie Yokel>makes a marvelous storm barrier protecting the <v Bernie Yokel>shoreline and the things behind it from storm waves. <v Bernie Yokel>It's also a major source of food in the Austrian system, <v Bernie Yokel>and the estuaries are are incredibly efficient at producing <v Bernie Yokel>food. And the mangroves, especially the red mangrove, are <v Bernie Yokel>extremely useful as a source of detritus, clues and <v Bernie Yokel>weird detritus means little tiny particles of plant material or
<v Bernie Yokel>leaf material. You can see leaves floating around these areas all the time. <v Bernie Yokel>And these leaves, of course, come from the red mangrove. <v Bernie Yokel>They fall in the water. They take on water and sink to the bottom and <v Bernie Yokel>eventually become coated with microorganisms, with bacteria, with <v Bernie Yokel>fungus. And the these microorganisms break down <v Bernie Yokel>the leaf matter so that it can be consumed by the animal. <v Bernie Yokel>And the animal actually consumes the leaf, but takes good advantage of the <v Bernie Yokel>microorganisms that sit like a frosting on the surface of the leaf. <v Bernie Yokel>A little piece of leaf is then excreted and it moves <v Bernie Yokel>off into the water press being carried by tide and becomes a little tiny <v Bernie Yokel>pepper speck or piece of detritus. <v Bernie Yokel>And it grows its own new colony of microorganisms and might be transported <v Bernie Yokel>a long distance to be consumed by another animal, either on <v Bernie Yokel>bottom or on oyster hanging on a mangrove root.
<v Bernie Yokel>All of these animals undergo a part or all <v Bernie Yokel>of their life history in regions like this, and many of them consume <v Bernie Yokel>a secondary source of food that is an animal that has been feeding off <v Bernie Yokel>of this basic productivity and is in the form of a pinfish perhaps, or a little sardine <v Bernie Yokel>or a small crab. <v Bernie Yokel>So you have the beginnings of a magnificent food chain that culminates <v Bernie Yokel>in the things that we regard as very valuable, the <v Bernie Yokel>capacity for the area to support birds. <v Bernie Yokel>Our sport fisheries, our food fisheries. <v Bernie Yokel>The capacity for the area to cleanse its own water and keep it clean. <v Bernie Yokel>But their most important function, certainly of the red mangrove is as a food <v Bernie Yokel>source. And the tribal food chain is a very important one in <v Bernie Yokel>estuarine systems like this. <v Bernie Yokel>So you you get this reward, you get this bounty from the
<v Bernie Yokel>estuaries simply because you let it alone. <v Narrator>The routine work of a marine biologist is less glamorous and more grueling <v Narrator>than many TV adventure stories suggest. <v Narrator>It is three thirty in the morning. <v Narrator>Bernie and his assistant, Bob Robinilski, are only now completing their final <v Narrator>trawl of rookery based sanctuary. <v Bernie Yokel>We had seven without a hitch. <v Bob Robinilski>Ready? <v Narrator>Each trawl must be precisely timed to last exactly two and one quarter minutes, <v Narrator>so the catch can be compared to other two and one quarter minute throws made <v Narrator>on previous night. <v Narrator>By this means, Bernie monitors the productivity of one unspoiled <v Narrator>piece of coastal wetlands. <v Bernie Yokel>Got a gallon?
<v Bernie Yokel>very little variation, they're extremely <v Bernie Yokel>consistent. <v Bernie Yokel>Come on down here Mr. pinfish <v Bernie Yokel>[unclear] Wow. <v Narrator>It was only in 1969 that two scientists, Dr. Eric Heald <v Narrator>and Dr. William Odom, first demonstrated that surplus leaves from the mangrove <v Narrator>trees form the food base for a magnificent web of animal life stretching <v Narrator>far out into the ocean. <v Narrator>Since then, many scientists have been exploring the myriad pathways of this food chain. <v Narrator>They are discovering a cat's cradle of intricate relationships.
<v Narrator>Some strands are sent to our valuable sports and commercial fisheries. <v Narrator>Others extend even to the beautiful coral reef on the edge of the continental shelf. <v Narrator>Still others with the help of fishing birds spin out of the water to sustain <v Narrator>terrestrial life. <v Bernie Yokel>Come on, Brian. Come up here. <v Bernie Yokel>What you're going to do is separate the material into three containers, one for fish,
<v Bernie Yokel>one for crustaceans and one for the rest of the animasl. <v Bernie Yokel>These animals are intermediate links in the food chain. <v Bernie Yokel>They're taking advantage of the grass as a source of food and protection <v Bernie Yokel>from larger predators and will support animals like <v Bernie Yokel>trout and red fish These animals must go to sea this fall. <v Bernie Yokel>This is especially true for the pinfish and the pink shrimp, <v Bernie Yokel>the pink shrimp. When he hatches from the egg out on [unclear] is <v Bernie Yokel>barely visible. And yet he undergoes a migration of <v Bernie Yokel>several hundred miles. He comes into these areas, grows rapidly because <v Bernie Yokel>food is abundant, and then moves back out to the same area again. <v Bernie Yokel>And it's a it's an awkward sort of life cycle. <v Bernie Yokel>And it's very much dependent upon the estuaries where it can find <v Bernie Yokel>in quantity of food that it requires. <v Narrator>The fantastic 200 miles round trip journey of the pink shrimp perfectly demonstrates how
<v Narrator>life in the coastal wetlands and life in the open sea are interdependent <v Narrator>on a more subtle plane. It also connects the work of widely separated human beings <v Narrator>out here in the region of [unclear] Few fishermen are aware of what biologists <v Narrator>are discovering about the migratory habits of pink shrimp. <v Narrator>Some might be surprised to learn that the pink gold they are mining may spend its <v Narrator>early life in the distant estuaries. <v Narrator>These men possess a different kind of expertize. <v Virgil Matthews>I think that's bad medicine, sharks. They cut up your webbing. <v Virgil Matthews>They might cut you if you'll be down there with 'em. <v Virgil Matthews>There's sharks and barracudas out <v Virgil Matthews>here. <v Virgil Matthews>[inaudible] you cut the net. <v Virgil Matthews>[unclear]
<v Narrator>While sharks may annoy Captain Virgil Matthews, they present no realistic threat to <v Narrator>the success of his operation. <v Narrator>Pink shrimp burrow under the family bottom by day. <v Narrator>And so he and his mate, Eugene Charles, fish at night without <v Narrator>discussion. They ready the trawl net for the drop. <v Narrator>The weather is marginal, the trawl begins and if the sea becomes turbulent, <v Narrator>the men will have to pull in their nets. <v Narrator>That will mean profit loss and more night to sea under the best <v Narrator>of conditions. Shrimp fishermen do not put into shore for two or three weeks at a <v Narrator>stretch.
<v Narrator>The first drag is finished and the men will soon find out how well they picked their <v Narrator>fishing ground. <v Narrator>The hall is a big room. At least one and one half times, though, a <v Narrator>large percentage are trash fish. <v Narrator>The shrimp landed here will contribute to the 100 million dollar catch <v Narrator>made annually along the coast of the United States. <v Narrator>Shrimp. Our most valuable seafood resource bring in more dollars to <v Narrator>the fishing industry than salmon and tuna combined. <v Narrator>Moreover, the shrimp boom creates related jobs. <v Narrator>More than half the fishing boats constructed in the United States are shrimp trawlers. <v Narrator>And in still another spin-off, Shrimp processing plants employ large workforces. <v Narrator>All of this employment is dependent upon the preservation of coastal wetlands. <v Narrator>Yet coastal wetlands continue to be destroyed, even while consumer demand <v Narrator>for shrimp is growing. <v Narrator>At the present time, the United States imports more shrimp than it is able to catch.
<v Narrator>Ironically, this favorite food of Americans is being purchased from several protein <v Narrator>hungry nations, including India and Mexico. <v Narrator>But the immediate concern of these highly skilled Americans is their own survival <v Narrator>and future. <v Virgil Matthews>Eight hours of work, twelve hours of sleep. <v Virgil Matthews>That takes up the [unclear]. <v Eugene Charles>It is alright for a single man, but it ain't so pretty good for married man. <v Virgil Matthews>[unclear] You know, you have 15, 20 days on the ?boat?, before you get back to the dock. <v Virgil Matthews>I think they want to do something to you, changes you. <v Virgil Matthews>It makes you think
<v Virgil Matthews>[unclear] fishermen, always a fisherman [unclear] his blood, this won't get out. <v Eugene Charles>I've been doing this ever since 1927, so <v Eugene Charles>I stop maybe a once in a while, but I wind right back up on the shrimp boat. <v Narrator>At dawn, the shrimp sorting is completed and the bottlenose dolphins know it. <v Narrator>They gather around the boat for the dumping of the trash fish, even the waste product <v Narrator>of this industry is returned to nature in the form that can be recycled into the food <v Narrator>chain. <v Virgil Matthews>[unclear] and with 30 minutes time, you have 50 or <v Virgil Matthews>20 other diving and <v Virgil Matthews>eating the fish and I don't understand how they do it from boat to boat.
<v Eugene Charles>[unclear] I'm happy to see them survive. <v Narrator>One hundred miles away, another creature that is dependent on coastal wetlands is <v Narrator>the comic old pelican. <v Narrator>Like, man, this fish eater feeds high on the food chain. <v Narrator>And it's survival or decline can be viewed as an indicator of problems that might <v Narrator>in time affect human populations. <v Narrator>In recent years, the brown pelicans failure to hatch young put it on the endangered <v Narrator>species list. <v Narrator>Reasons for its decline. Pesticide residues in eggs, contamination as <v Narrator>efficient eats and habitat destruction. <v Narrator>In this important remaining rookery or breeding place in southwest Florida, <v Narrator>Young are still being harassed and. <v Narrator>But a proposed real estate development nearby threatens to destroy the parent birds <v Narrator>fishing grounds.
<v Bernie Yokel>The rookeries support an unknown number of birds. <v Bernie Yokel>I've never really had an opportunity to count them. They have to be thousands that roost <v Bernie Yokel>there and probably thousands that nest there. <v Bernie Yokel>And they include endangered species like the brown pelicans. <v Bernie Yokel>And our hopes for the birds to give this area is charm <v Bernie Yokel>and attractiveness. They use the small fishes that surround those <v Bernie Yokel>mangrove islands as the food for both themselves and for their young. <v Bernie Yokel>Those birds are there because they can make a living there and they need to make a living <v Bernie Yokel>very easily and nearby in order to feed their young when they're nesting. <v Bernie Yokel>The big controversy that faces South Florida is how to develop <v Bernie Yokel>and keep the very things that make it attractive and salable intact. <v Bernie Yokel>You simply can't continue to tear up and <v Bernie Yokel>destroy the very essence of the attractiveness
<v Bernie Yokel>of the area. The usefulness of the area and expect it to continue to function <v Bernie Yokel>as a source of recreation, as a source of beauty. <v Bernie Yokel>The data that we and many others have come up with show <v Bernie Yokel>very clearly that these resources are necessary for Florida. <v Bernie Yokel>They urgently need to maintain their good game fishing, <v Bernie Yokel>their clean water and the populations of birds that give it color <v Bernie Yokel>and that authentic beauty. <v Bernie Yokel>We're not opposed to development. <v Bernie Yokel>We simply want to put development where it belongs. <v Bernie Yokel>And it does not belong in the wetlands. <v Bernie Yokel>The wetlands are too large a resource, too important a resource for <v Bernie Yokel>the public benefit to disrupt them. <v Bernie Yokel>They produce an annual benefit, an annual revenue. <v Bernie Yokel>And all we need to do to keep that revenue coming in. <v Bernie Yokel>And to maintain something unique and extremely beneficial. <v Bernie Yokel>If they leave it alone.
<v Tour guide>They are beautiful and don't forget that most of the the real estate of the <v Tour guide>Keys were made up of the mangroves. <v Tour guide>We're going out after the ocean, if you can hear me over there. <v Tour guide>Have any of y'all ever seen a large bird nest to build these nests above the telephone <v Tour guide>poles coming down from Homestead, great big nest on top of a poles. <v Tour guide>You know what kind of a bird that is? <v Tour guide>We southerns say the [unclear] is a cousin of American bald eagle. <v Narrator>How important the aesthetic byproducts of wetlands are to Florida can be expressed <v Narrator>concretely in dollars and cents. <v Narrator>Twenty six million people visit the state annually during this day. <v Narrator>They spend six and one half billion dollars. <v Narrator>What attracts tourists to Florida are her natural areas, places where people can enjoy <v Narrator>outdoor experiences and unique sights. <v Narrator>I'm one of the most unique sights found anywhere in America. <v Narrator>The nation's only living coral reef is located off the east coast of Florida.
<v Narrator>It was a spawning ground for countless numbers of beautiful tropical sea animals. <v Tour guide>We often see turtles down here on the [unclear] <v Tour guide>We occansionally see sharks and as I said before, we do see Barracuda. <v Tour guide>Although we have seen both, there's not been any reported attack of either one. <v Narrator>Like Pike's Peak or the Grand Canyon, the coral reef is one of America's treasures, <v Narrator>but probably few people who visit the reef are aware that its survival is linked to <v Narrator>the preservation of Florida's wetlands. <v Narrator>For unlike Pike's Peak or the Grand Canyon, the coral reef is not made of rock, <v Narrator>but it's composed of billions of tiny living animals. <v Narrator>And like all animal colonies, in order to survive, the reef, too, must eat. <v Narrator>Dr. Dennis Taylor of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences <v Narrator>tells how the coral reef is nourished, in part from sediments washed out
<v Narrator>from the mangrove swamps. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>The mangroves are the start of what we would <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>call it, the tribal food system. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>What this essentially means is that the mangroves themselves produce plant <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>material which falls from the trees and <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>which is eventually decayed by microorganisms, usually fun and crunchy and <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>bacteria. And this decayed material then is <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>washed away in the water column. Column either compounds <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>dissolved in seawater or as part of. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>It's fair to say that the nutrients produced in mangroves <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>and in the bay system are not the total requirement <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>of the coral. They're a major portion of it in <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>his underwater laboratory. <v Narrator>Dr. Taylor measures the metabolism of a piece of coral to better understand <v Narrator>its food requirements. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>The animals that we're using are two corals, two types of brain coral.
<v Dr. Dennis Taylor>Most people do not know that they're an animal. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>They tend to regard them either as plants or colorful rock. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And in fact, they are many animals. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>They're a colony of many individuals. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And this is what usually forms what's referred to as a coral head or a coral colony. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>In each of these animals that live in this colony has living inside of tissues <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>very small microscopic algae or plants. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And these are a single cell plants. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And like all plants, they're capable of manufacturing food from sunlight <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>and carbon dioxide, which would get to be dissolved in seawater and the food <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>which they manufacture, they use for their own growth. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>They also are able to excrete and transport this food to the <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>animals. And the animal uses that for its nutrition and growth. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And both of these individuals form this association. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>They are very dependent upon food levels in the water as well. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>What the algae can produce is only a part of the food economy of a car,
<v Dr. Dennis Taylor>and the remainder of it must come from either living plants <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>or animals in the water or dissolved food, which is in the water itself, <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>comes from the coastal zone, coastal wetlands, so <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>that you see here on the fringes of the continental shelf. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>In Florida, at least, and throughout most of the Caribbean, a coral reef community <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>which exists on the edge of a much broader community. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And there are a series of food and nutritional interrelationships between corals <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>and the grass bed and the mangrove swamps. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>I think one of the things which you must remember in this area is that <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>it's an area of very high temperature, particularly in the summer. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And this also makes it a marginal environment. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>It's a very difficult life for an organism in the tropics because <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>it's continually under stress, mostly in temperature stress. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And this makes energy demands very high. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And if you enter interfere with the food resource in
<v Dr. Dennis Taylor>an ecosystem such as this, even one aspect of it, the total effect, which <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>you could potentially have, is very large. <v Dr. Dennis Taylor>And this is another thing which we know very little about. <v Narrator>In reality, natural systems have no definable boundaries, even <v Narrator>as a mangrove leaf provides a food base for far flung life. <v Narrator>So the mangrove tree itself requires nutrition in order to manufacture its valuable <v Narrator>leaf crop. It uses dissolved nutrients carried from <v Narrator>inland water systems, which in accord with natural law, always flow seaward. <v Narrator>If this water is not diverted, it regularly enters the coastal wetlands, causing <v Narrator>mangrove trees to thrive and produce many leaves. <v Narrator>These, in turn, support large numbers of animals. <v Narrator>To better understand how mangrove trees vary and their capacity to produce leaves. <v Narrator>Dr. Sam Snedeker of the University of Florida has set up an ingenious experiment, <v Narrator>one that requires his crew to get their feet wet.
<v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Then we have the new chamber for a large tree. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>I want you to get back completely rigged up and make sure it is sealed so that there are <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>no leaks in it and we have to work quickly in case it rains <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>and we will be able to seal the bag properly. <v Narrator>To find out how productive the tree is, these technicians must perform an awkward <v Narrator>operation. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker> I'm hooked under that limb down there. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Watch your heads out there. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Over this branch right here. <v Researcher>We can can roll it right back here and get it down on this side. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Yeah.
<v Dr. Sam Snedeker>[unclear] right, I got to get it over this branch here, though. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Can you use the-. <v Researcher>I think I can get up-. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>No. Don't break- that's right. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>The chamber is rigged up so that the incoming air goes into the bottom <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>of the chamber and comes out the top. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>In addition, we take a sample of the air going in and sample of the air coming <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>out. We also measure the temperature and the air flow velocity. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>A sample of air that goes back to the instruments in the tent is used <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>to determine the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air, going in, <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>the concentration in the air coming out and also the water vapor <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>from determining the difference between what goes in and what comes out, we're
<v Dr. Sam Snedeker>able to monitor or actually measure photosynthesis and respiration <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>and also the amount of transpiration that occurs simultaneously with those measurements. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Basically, if we know the metabolism of a tree, it's like knowing the metabolism <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>of a person. We know how healthy it is. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>There's a great difference in the metabolism of mangrove trees depending <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>on where they are. Some are very productive. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Some are less productive in terms of maintaining the health <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>of mangroves no matter where they are located. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>They need two things. They need a source of nutrients. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>From upland sources. Runoff, drainage from upland forest <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>areas, grasslands or whatever, and they also need a regular <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>normal pattern of tidal flushing. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>In other words, a a mechanism for bringing the nutrients through the plant <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>and carrying away waves. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>The source of nutrients almost exclusively comes from
<v Dr. Sam Snedeker>further inland, it doesn't come from the oceans, but they occur from the upland system. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>But any type of barrier, for instance, a bulkhead which is set off with <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>stops, either of those flows. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>And we see situations in which the mangroves are severely altered and we might <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>expect that they are damaged in terms of their contribution to the downstream <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>estuary. The statement was made that if mangroves <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>are so important to fisheries, then all we need to do is to. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>You might say literally have mangrove farms where we raised mangroves <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>or the detritus to benefit the fisheries. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>We could then have very neat areas of residential development, other types of development <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>in mangrove. We have our mangrove farms producing detritus and <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>everything appears to be perfectly in balance. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>What we fail to remember in this regard is that <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>a mangrove farm in such a context would be a management enterprise <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>by man. It would be very expensive.
<v Dr. Sam Snedeker>You can look at the type of habitat here and see very easily that it <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>is not amenable to heavy equipment, to farming machinery, to anything that we associate <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>with agriculture. Of course it can be done, but the cost would be tremendous. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>We can have the same product from two different systems, one cost man. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>It cost us economy. It's a work service. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>It has to be paid for with dollars and fossil fuels and natural resource. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Whereas the other extreme, we can have the very same product. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker>Absolutely free of charge. <v Dr. Sam Snedeker> demands economy, courtesy of nature. <v Narrator>Estuaries not only plant and harvest themselves, they also freely transport <v Narrator>their produce from lower to higher consumer on waters that are never still. <v Bernie Yokel>What you're seeing is a mangrove leaf with a little passenger, a swimming crab, <v Bernie Yokel>and they'll frequently cling. <v Bernie Yokel>These little crabs will cling to a piece of floating material <v Bernie Yokel>and use it as a raft to carry them about in the estuary.
<v Narrator>But in the wetlands, water does more than transport food. <v Narrator>It is as essential an element of life as it did tribal food chain itself. <v Bernie Yokel>What you need to understand. <v Bernie Yokel>Along with the capacity for these areas to <v Bernie Yokel>support food is an estuary, by definition, <v Bernie Yokel>is where the sea water and the freshwater get together. <v Bernie Yokel>And in southwest Florida, this wetland area where <v Bernie Yokel>sea and. Fresh water mix isn't <v Bernie Yokel>an especially useful region. <v Bernie Yokel>And over a long, long period of time, geologic time, this system <v Bernie Yokel>has developed. <v Bernie Yokel>Such that the fresh water moves off of the land through the marshes <v Bernie Yokel>very slowly and very shallow flows. <v Bernie Yokel>It's not river like, it's sheet like and it moves through the marshes <v Bernie Yokel>and all the time it's being processed. And because it moves slow, it can't carry much
<v Bernie Yokel>dirt or silt. And when the water ultimately arrives <v Bernie Yokel>in the estuarine area, in the mangrove areas, it's clean. <v Bernie Yokel>But then man felt that he needed living area and he's made <v Bernie Yokel>some very destructive changes. <v Bernie Yokel>He's built canals, drainage canal that takes the freshwater very quickly, <v Bernie Yokel>bypasses the marsh, bypasses the filtration and the <v Bernie Yokel>settling characteristics of the marsh and brings it into the estuary <v Bernie Yokel>almost instantaneously. <v Bernie Yokel>And the net result is that the the <v Bernie Yokel>fertilizers, the nutrients, the dirt, the silt <v Bernie Yokel>and all of this fresh water arrive in the in the estuarine <v Bernie Yokel>area very suddenly and it causes a great many problems. <v Bernie Yokel>It creates problems because nutrients wash off of agricultural areas or off of <v Bernie Yokel>lawns and come into these canals. <v Bernie Yokel>And they're not removed by the marshes, but they're brought down immediately into the
<v Bernie Yokel>estuary and create big problems in the sense of of stimulating <v Bernie Yokel>simple plants so that you have an overabundance of those simple plants and the system <v Bernie Yokel>gets out of balance. <v Bernie Yokel>For every change we may get, there's a penalty we have to pay. <v Narrator>Impeding the flow of freshwater into the wetlands can have a catastrophic effect on <v Narrator>animals too. The juvenile animals that inhabit wetlands are adapted <v Narrator>to life and water that is salty one day and fresh the next. <v Narrator>As these individuals mature, however, they require a more stable environment <v Narrator>and they move into the ocean. <v Narrator>Their departure makes the coastal wetlands safe for the next generation of young. <v Narrator>But, man, by interfering with the normal flow of freshwater into estuaries, often <v Narrator>create sailing conditions that adult fish and marine predators find comfortable. <v Narrator>They therefore remain in awe or enter these nursery zones and prey upon the young. <v Narrator>Well, such a situation may temporarily delight fishermen in the long run, it will
<v Narrator>severely cripple their sport. <v Biologist>Boy, is that a nice trout <v Biologist>How many of those trout did you catch? <v Narrator>The survey of fishermen is being conducted by Everglades National Park biologists <v Narrator>to determine if adult fish and predators are indeed beginning to invade <v Narrator>coastal nursery zone. <v Biologist>Did you release anything out? <v Fisherman>Everything [unclear] catfish, shark. <v Biologist>Ok now slow up a little bit for me, please. <v Biologist>You got, you released one shark? <v Fisherman>Killed one shark. <v Gary Davis>Our task in this, is first to document. <v Gary Davis>What's going on, to define this is really what's happening. <v Narrator>Biologist Gary Davis of Everglades National Park discusses the long <v Narrator>range implications of man's manipulation of water systems with Tom Schmidt <v Narrator>and his team of biological technicians. <v Gary Davis>What I'm asking you, do you see the kind of change that we're seeing,
<v Gary Davis>for instance, with the trout, you're just talking about you saw a lot of big trouts. <v Biologist>The trout look like they're getting over. <v Tom Schmidt>Third and fourth then. <v Gary Davis>They're catching fewer fish, because [unclear] so instead of an estriol system where we <v Gary Davis>get a lot of fresh water flowing into the system now we're starting to get increase on <v Gary Davis>these kind of a coastal marine thing where we have more [unclear] animals involved. <v Gary Davis>So we're catching fewer, but they're larger. <v Biologist>We do have fishermen that are going just for sharks, <v Biologist>but there is so many released, do you think this will ?affect? <v Biologist>The number of predeators [inaudible]. <v Gary Davis>Seems to be a trend we're losing that the nursery ground where we have the <v Gary Davis>young fish being produced, they're being replaced by the larger predators, <v Gary Davis>the adult redfish, the barracuda and sharks that you're talking about. <v Gary Davis>So it is still a productive area. But in a different sort of way, instead of having the <v Gary Davis>nursery zone, we're losing that. <v Gary Davis>And in the long run, we're going to lose the whole fishery. <v Gary Davis>We control the flow of water into the park, through the gates to any canal.
<v Gary Davis>And the other water delivery systems. <v Gary Davis>And the trick is to manage the system so that we recreate the natural flow of water <v Gary Davis>through the slough into the estuary in this coastal zone. <v Gary Davis>It's a matter of balancing the quality of the water, the quantity of <v Gary Davis>the water and the timing, the seasonality of when it flows. <v Gary Davis>This whole system is balanced to a marked wet and dry season <v Gary Davis>and by our artificial manipulations, we extend the wet season halfway <v Gary Davis>through the dry season. <v Gary Davis>See, we're going to defeat that balance. <v Gary Davis>And there are a lot of things that are key to this timing, the shrimp that come up from <v Gary Davis>[unclear] on the ground has come into the estuary that has the right water levels and the <v Gary Davis>right conditions. <v Gary Davis>We have to balance the water flow and the systems for the wading birds that feed on the <v Gary Davis>edge of the slope so it doesn't dry out early enough for them, so concentrates <v Gary Davis>the fish they can eat. They don't have food for their young. <v Gary Davis>So they can't feed the young and the young die. <v Gary Davis>And that's what's happened over the last 10 years with the oyster population.
<v Gary Davis>Same thing is true of when we raise the water levels. <v Gary Davis>We have to be careful with things like alligators out in the slough system because <v Gary Davis>the alligators are building nests. They lay their eggs and then the water level rises <v Gary Davis>through the rainy summer season. <v Gary Davis>And we'll flood those nests if we flood it too high. <v Gary Davis>The alligators have figured out over the years about how high they have to build those <v Gary Davis>nests to keep the eggs afloat. <v Gary Davis>So we have to balance the quality, quantity and timing <v Gary Davis>so that we don't mess up all the ecological <v Gary Davis>systems that have been matched to that water flow, the natural unimpeded <v Gary Davis>water flow. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Guess what. <v Mrs. Kushlan>What? <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>I think that's it. <v Narrator>Dr. Jim Kushlan is a biologist who is studying the nesting habits of wild <v Narrator>alligators. Unarmed, he and his wife Maryland's slosh <v Narrator>through the swamps of the Everglades, searching for nestlings to capture and tag. <v Narrator>Together, they also collect data on drowned out nests.
<v Narrator>With this information, Kushlan will recommend to the engineers who manage four <v Narrator>critical locks called the S12 structures, how best to <v Narrator>release the park's quota of fresh water for unless the water enters the park in <v Narrator>a manner that imitates natural runoff. <v Narrator>Many animals will fail. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>But the larger ?male? is probably the one that lives in a pod just on the other side of <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>that hammock there.
<v Narrator>A mother alligator is unusual in the reptilian world, like a bird <v Narrator>or a mammal. She will defend her nest and come to the aid of a baby in distress. <v Narrator>An irate alligator is an animal to be respected. <v Narrator>Nonetheless, the Kushlan's carry out their work, armed only with their own sharp senses. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>So the little one side on the net. So that means that probably in the Grantham place <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>around here, we would have to go looking for.
<v Dr. Jim Kushlan>There's one over here. <v Mrs. Kushlan>A little one? <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>After they hatch them, the mother and the little one go off some distance from the <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>nest itself. And she has a dent in the march and you can see right here, it <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>goes down. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Good, five or six feet. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>And there was a little one that was right here. What they do is they stay in this murky <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>vegetation, rather than going out in the middle of a pond where they can get eaten by <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>fish or whatever. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>So they're little and probably in this area here. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>And they're very good at keeping hidden. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>This is the nest by itself. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>It's- what <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>happened in this particular nest, apparently. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Here's an egg that didn't hatch.
<v Dr. Jim Kushlan>No development at all at. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>This nest was was put down a little bit too low, and when the water level came back up <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>after the rainy season began, it drowned out some of the eggs. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>So that's why there's only a few eggs scattered around the nest and others in the nest <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>that didn't hatch out. And it's very critical for <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>the animal to be able to predict the water level and how much water is <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>in the area. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>What happens is that the alligator is a very sensitive indicator <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>of water conditions. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Its entire lifecycle is geared to the rising and falling of water levels. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>And this in turn is is geared to the changes in discharge. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>So that by opening up, say, the [unclear] structures north <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>of the park at the wrong time of year, alligators who had built <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>their nests at a low level because of low water levels would have
<v Dr. Jim Kushlan>their entire nesting season wiped out. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>So that. Well, we have to. What we're trying to understand here is <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>why an alligator builds a nest at a certain location in a certain depth of water, <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>a nest of a certain size in order to correlate this with water conditions <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>so that when the time comes to actually regulate water, we'll know what not <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>to do. <v Mrs. Kushlan>I am gonna take him back to the boat.
<v Mrs. Kushlan> <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Fifty five grams <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Total lenght, eleven even. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>[unclear] five and one quarter. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Nose to eye, 5/8ths.
<v Dr. Jim Kushlan>That looks like a [unclear] blue, yellow, gray, brown. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>We'll let him go right where we found him. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>Right over where we found that other that one juvenile, a mother is probably <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>very close nearby and what the rest of her clutch. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>We just back off and <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>let her take things their own way. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>It's it's really her home. <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>And we don't like to intrude on it much more than we have to get the information we <v Dr. Jim Kushlan>need. <v Narrator>Even world biologist like Jim Coastland are trying to figure out ways to reverse <v Narrator>the damage a man has inflicted on wetlands systems. <v Narrator>Man continues to try to dominate nature with little concern for long <v Narrator>range effects.
<v Bernie Yokel>The vessel in the background is a large dredge <v Bernie Yokel>that is used by the Deltona Corporation to <v Bernie Yokel>move sediments from the bay bottom and <v Bernie Yokel>pile it up on the inshore areas to create living <v Bernie Yokel>area. This is done usually on mangrove <v Bernie Yokel>areas that have been prepared, and consequently the dredge <v Bernie Yokel>moved the sediments on top of the old mangrove. <v Bernie Yokel>The effect of this kind of development is, <v Bernie Yokel>in my view, not in the best interest of Florida, are <v Bernie Yokel>of the public resources. <v Bernie Yokel>It takes bottom sediments that are oftentimes quite <v Bernie Yokel>healthy and productive themselves and pile them on top of mangroves <v Bernie Yokel>that are productive and useful in their own right.
<v Bernie Yokel>And as a consequence, you deal a very severe one two punch to the <v Bernie Yokel>environment. You deprive of habitat, which is very necessary for the support <v Bernie Yokel>of the animal life. You deprived of the source of food afforded <v Bernie Yokel>by the grass beds and by the mangrove. <v Bernie Yokel>Secondarily, after the bay bottoms are piled in <v Bernie Yokel>upon the mangroves, they become residents locations <v Bernie Yokel>such as those that you see in the background here. <v Bernie Yokel>And so an extremely productive unit is replaced by <v Bernie Yokel>man's presence, which serves as a source of pollution. <v Bernie Yokel>And so you deal the environment, yet another stroke <v Bernie Yokel>and cause problems that derive from sewage products, <v Bernie Yokel>from the fertilizers that are put on on the lawns. <v Bernie Yokel>From the organic matter that comes away from these houses and
<v Bernie Yokel>sometimes in the form of lawn cuttings and shrubbery clipping. <v Bernie Yokel>And a whole host of ways, the man tends to complicate <v Bernie Yokel>and disrupt. <v Bernie Yokel>This area by his very presence. <v Bernie Yokel>I'm convinced that that people can live close by these areas and <v Bernie Yokel>can make good use of the natural benefits that come <v Bernie Yokel>from them. But you can't you absolutely can not cut <v Bernie Yokel>off the sources of production and the means of supporting <v Bernie Yokel>the animals that that give it substance and value. <v Narrator>Unfortunately, as waterfront property becomes more scarce, it also becomes <v Narrator>more desirable. Developers find no lack of buyers for the wetland acreage. <v Narrator>They continue to dredge, drain and destroy. <v Narrator>But of late, public recognition of the importance of preserving wetlands has halted <v Narrator>some dredge and fill operations, at least temporarily.
<v Narrator>Construction workers who have lost jobs as a result of these building moratoriums have <v Narrator>rallied to support land developers and labor leaders from as far away as Washington, <v Narrator>D.C., appear at hearings to urge that construction work be resumed. <v Robert Georgene>If this project had not been stopped, six or seven hundred men <v Robert Georgene>would be on the job today. <v Narrator>At this hearing this Friday AFL-CIO leader, Robert Georgene <v Narrator>makes his case before the arbiters of the conflict, an Army Corps of Engineers <v Narrator>pannel and the depression we now find ourselves in. <v Robert Georgene>We must encourage, not discourage, responsible, needed <v Robert Georgene>development. <v Narrator>Support for the development project arrives by the bus load <v Narrator>boosters are brought in from distant points to swell the audience. <v Speaker A>I am proud to speak on behalf of the International Union of Operating Engineers. <v Speaker A>We all want to preserve and protect the mangroves.
<v Speaker A>The shellfish. <v Speaker A>And all those wonders of nature with which this area has been so generously <v Speaker A>endowed. <v Speaker A>But in our zeal not to choke out the mangroves, have <v Speaker A>we not choked out the most important of all, lifelong. <v Speaker A>The human being. <v Speaker B>Any man that would selflessly put 1000 men out of work so that he <v Speaker B>could catch a tarp or a snook isn't much of a man in my book. <v Narrator>For those who oppose this development, also address themselves to economic issues. <v Speaker C>First and very important is that the mangrove wetlands are some of the most productive <v Speaker C>natural areas on earth. <v Speaker C>The complex animal food chains that result from our list lead upward <v Speaker C>to the higher levels where we find the animals that are important to man as food,
<v Speaker C>recreation and to satisfy aesthetic needs. <v Speaker D>Based on a public study by the National Marine Fisheries Service. <v Speaker D>Eighty five percent of the commercial fish and shellfish harvested from South Florida <v Speaker D>waters consists of species that are dependent upon entering habitat during <v Speaker D>some phase in their life cycle. <v Speaker D>The majority of the Southeast region's recreational fish species are also after <v Speaker D>independence. Combined, these species support fish and turf industry, conservatively <v Speaker D>estimated to be worth about 600 million dollars annually to local <v Speaker D>and state economies. <v Speaker E>We can preserve this productive ecosystem and thus maintain the excellent sport and <v Speaker E>commercial fishery and abundant bird life of the region for the benefit of many <v Speaker E>succeeding generations. <v Speaker E>Or we can dredge and bulldoze this mangrove wilderness into a subdivision for the short <v Speaker E>term economic gain of a private corporation and its employees.
<v Bernie Yokel>The difficult part of the defense of these areas is <v Bernie Yokel>the fact that that a developer can repeatedly request permission <v Bernie Yokel>to make alterations to dredge, to fill. <v Bernie Yokel>And he only has to get permission once. <v Bernie Yokel>And that area then is destined for change. <v Bernie Yokel>If he succeeds in getting his permit, then that area is lost. <v Bernie Yokel>It's a very frustrating thing for the conservationists because he has to win every time <v Bernie Yokel>to protect an area. <v Bernie Yokel>Time after time, their requests come in and time after time you've got to win <v Bernie Yokel>or those areas are lost and they're lost permanently. <v Bernie Yokel>And that's something that can be put back. It's an irreplaceable loss. <v Bernie Yokel>And it's a loss of resources to you and to me and to everybody <v Bernie Yokel>who enjoys the benefits that come <v Bernie Yokel>by every year. Just as sure as there is a year you get these
<v Bernie Yokel>benefits. These are the things that disturb me about <v Bernie Yokel>our land management policy. <v Narrator>Our land management policies regarding coastal wetlands are not defined. <v Narrator>A recent court directive to the Army Corps of Engineers mandates that the Corps <v Narrator>consider impact on wetland ecosystems before granting dredge permanence. <v Narrator>Responsibility still lies with the public to express its will. <v Narrator>This estuary, Rookery Bay Sanctuary, was safe from development only <v Narrator>through the action of a group of citizens when lots of this region seemed imminent. <v Narrator>They rallied public support, raised money and purchased the land. <v Narrator>Then they donated it to the National Audubon Society to manage. <v Bernie Yokel>This area is not threatened, nor is the sanctuary threatened <v Bernie Yokel>seriously by any developmental changes. <v Bernie Yokel>We've actually seen some improvement in water quality since we've been here,
<v Bernie Yokel>and it come as a result of keeping people informed <v Bernie Yokel>of what some of the problems were with with water quality and <v Bernie Yokel>getting their cooperation. <v Narrator>Keeping people informed is the beginning. <v Narrator>But more important, we need to develop a long range management plan <v Narrator>for these critical areas. <v Narrator>Our most precious assets are those resources that are self renewable. <v Narrator>Our wetlands conserve us and our great grandchildren and great grandchildren. <v Narrator>Or we can destroy these wellsprings of unending supply <v Narrator>to benefit a limited segment for a brief time. <v Narrator>In the words of Henry David Thoreau. <v Narrator>Man is rich in proportion to the number of things he can afford to leave <v Narrator>alone. <v Narrator>The wetlands demand nothing more of us.
Producing Organization
WPBT-TV (Television station : Miami, Fla.)
Contributing Organization
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
WPBT2 (Miami, Florida)
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Program Description
"WELLSPRINGS, a one-hour color documentary, narrated by Jose Ferrer, explores the delicate balance between the mangrove swamps of Florida's coast and the deep ocean. The program is a report on the interrelationships which link the wetlands to the survival of coral reefs, shrimp, a variety of fish and many species of wildlife. The particular focus is the imminent destruction of 2,900 acres of Southwest Florida's mangrove shoreline by the Deltona Corporation. WELLSPRINGS was designed to inform viewers about the projected impact of the dredging of the wetlands by Deltona in order to expand a nearby housing development. Drawing on research and experiments by a variety of marine biologists, the program analyses the potential consequences of such development projects. Broadcast after the first hearing by the Army Corps of Engineers on the proposed dredging, and before the final review, the program was intended to provide an understandable framework within which to access the ecological importance of the decision. "WELLSPRINGS profiles the work of Bernie Yokel, a marine biologist, whose major interest is the ecology of a coastal mangrove swamp near Naples, where the dredging is scheduled to take place. Yokel is an eloquent spokesman for his environmental research and demonstrates a unique capacity to make complicated scientific data immediately understandable. "Also featured in WELLSPRINGS are Captain Virgil Mathies and Eugene Charles, two weathered anachronistic fishermen who follow the pink shrimp to the Dry Tortugas and have no understanding that their catch grew to adulthood in the mangrove estuaries. Dr. Dennis Taylor, of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Miami, is shown at work among the coral reefs, Dr. Sam Snedaker conducts an exotic experiment to measure the metabolism of mangrove trees, and Dr. Jim Kushlan and his wife are seen fearlessly probing alligator nests in the Everglades to determine optimum water levels for the swamp. "WELLSPRINGS weaves this incredibly diverse cast of characters into an understandable report of ecological interrelationships."--1976 Peabody Awards entry form.
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Narrator: Ferrer, Jose
Producing Organization: WPBT-TV (Television station : Miami, Fla.)
Speaker: Charles, Eugene
Speaker: Kushlan, Jim
Speaker: Yokel, Bernie
Speaker: Taylor, Dennis
Speaker: Snedaker, Sam
Speaker: Mathies, Virgil
AAPB Contributor Holdings
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: cpb-aacip-8ce534d370e (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Community Television Foundation of South Florida, Inc
Identifier: cpb-aacip-83a55eb0b65 (unknown)
Format: video/mpeg
Generation: Copy
Duration: 01:00:00:00
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Chicago: “Wellsprings,” 1976, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, WPBT2, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “Wellsprings.” 1976. The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, WPBT2, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: Wellsprings. Boston, MA: The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, WPBT2, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from