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<v Speaker>On tonight's special edition of the Wisconsin magazine, an examination of water <v Speaker>from acid rain research to the effects of this summer's drought, from the mystique <v Speaker>of fly fishing to a profile of Wisconsin's latest environmental purchase, the Chippewa <v Speaker>flowage. All about water. <v Speaker>Tonight on the Wisconsin magazine. <v Speaker>I'm Dave Iverson. Tonight, our program is a little bit different. <v Speaker>Each of our stories this week has to do with water. <v Speaker>A number of years ago, I saw Charles Kuralt introduce a story about water.
<v Speaker>It was a story about a small town in Oklahoma. <v Speaker>And what Kuralt said was this from the days of the Roman aqueducts to a <v Speaker>small town in Oklahoma. <v Speaker>Water has always made all the difference. <v Speaker>Tonight, we're going to look at the ways in which water affects our lives. <v Speaker>And we start with a story about the Chippewa flow edge, the Chippewa flow, which is a <v Speaker>new acquisition to the state of Wisconsin, something we've picked up for the price of six <v Speaker>point nine million dollars. <v Speaker>It is a remarkable combination of land and water. <v Speaker>Our Queller produced this report narrated by Joanne Garrett. <v Speaker>Our story starts here at the bottom of this dam, a gray concrete mess <v Speaker>forever dampened by the unending spray. <v Speaker>It was built in 1921, the signature of an industrialized society. <v Speaker>But do not mistake. This story is one about urban aggression. <v Speaker>Rather, it is about a wild place in northwest Wisconsin created <v Speaker>by mixing human design and the natural process.
<v Speaker>There are a lot of ironies in life, and not the least of those is <v Speaker>the one of the trip wildflowers being established by a dam, <v Speaker>holding back a lot of water and triple our river and <v Speaker>setting up an enormous shoreline that's very complicated <v Speaker>and convoluted. Probably shoreline big enough to get lost in. <v Speaker>This is the Chippewa flowage and uncivilized area created by a damned really. <v Speaker>Third largest body of water in Wisconsin, perhaps the greatest piece of wilderness <v Speaker>between Milwaukee and Canada. <v Speaker>A portion of these waters and lands were recently purchased by the state of Wisconsin, <v Speaker>a move celebrated by many people, including the vice president of the Wisconsin Nature <v Speaker>Conservancy, Brant Haglund. <v Speaker>I am a person of modern, post-industrialist world,
<v Speaker>a world with a lot of concrete, with a lot of gray in it. <v Speaker>But here along the shores of the Chippwea Flowage, here's green. <v Speaker>And we're not going to wreck it. We are going to constrain ourselves. <v Speaker>We're going to act for future good to keep <v Speaker>the shorelines green and the waters blue. <v Speaker>And that's to set up constraints for ourselves and future generations. <v Speaker>And in this place, I'm glad for. <v Speaker>Consider the dimensions. The flowage holds 10 billion cubic feet of water. <v Speaker>It has 230 miles of shoreline. <v Speaker>One hundred and forty islands dot its waters and bays. <v Speaker>But what makes it really unique is the absence of shoreline development. <v Speaker>Ninety nine percent of the shoreline has never been altered. <v Speaker>Only a few resorts and cottages have ever been built here. <v Speaker>Jane Bidwill is part owner of one of them. <v Speaker>Host lakes are totally overdeveloped or totally developed, and everybody has
<v Speaker>their summer home and their place to get away from it. <v Speaker>But here the person to come and camp on an island all by themselves <v Speaker>and not have to listen to some ways boombox and not have to look out at some of these <v Speaker>living room lights. You can get away from everything. <v Speaker>Totally undeveloped. <v Speaker>Pristine, quiet, undeveloped place <v Speaker>to get away from urban stresses. <v Speaker>Trees. Stumps. <v Speaker>You don't see houses and don't some buildings. <v Speaker>So you see eagle sitting in trees. <v Speaker>You just see a pristine nature. <v Speaker>Aldo Leopold once wrote, Our ability to perceive quality in nature <v Speaker>begins as an art with the pretty.
<v Speaker>It expands through successive stages of the beautiful values as yet uncaptured <v Speaker>by language. <v Speaker>Since the early days, going back to the 1920s, the flow which has been owned <v Speaker>and managed by northern states power. <v Speaker>Back then, the company refused to allow any significant development of the shoreline. <v Speaker>Development brings pollution, something that doesn't mix well with making hydroelectric <v Speaker>power. Today, the flowage is still used as a water reserve to <v Speaker>assist downstream electrical generation. <v Speaker>Brant Hagelin. <v Speaker>A Chippewa flowage will release water that will eventually <v Speaker>produce power that will eventually produce jobs that will eventually <v Speaker>produce many other economic benefits and a <v Speaker>pure, clean reservoir of water. <v Speaker>It is a marvelous asset and one that Wisconsin should be really
<v Speaker>proud of. <v Speaker>The flowage is now owned in part by the federal government, the Lac Courte Oreilles <v Speaker>Chippewa Band of the Ojibwe Nation, and as the new kid on the block, <v Speaker>the state of Wisconsin, a change in ownership, but not in mission. <v Speaker>What you see now is what you will see in the future. <v Speaker>DNR spokesperson Paul Gottwald. <v Speaker>It's pretty hard to find it undeveloped shoreline in Wisconsin <v Speaker>and face other states power over their years of management that they <v Speaker>didn't allow the development to take place. <v Speaker>Virtually better than 90 percent of the shoreline is undeveloped. <v Speaker>And our goal is to keep it that way. <v Speaker>The best thing that could have happened to us because we did sit in limbo for so long, <v Speaker>not knowing who was going to buy it and wondering if northern states power, who stood to <v Speaker>make a lot of money by selling it off chunk by chunk, private to private <v Speaker>owners, they had the the ability to do that, but they didn't. <v Speaker>They kept it in one chunk and sold it to the state and kept it in its pristine
<v Speaker>wilderness state, which has been promised to us by the state now. <v Speaker>So it's wonderful. <v Speaker>The foliage has a sort of crystal ball texture. <v Speaker>You can't tell if it's 1940 or 1988 or even <v Speaker>2001. The telltale signs of civilization are absent. <v Speaker>No one is suggesting anything else. <v Speaker>There's still a place to get away from it all to find yourself. <v Speaker>I think everybody needs a quiet place to go and <v Speaker>walk through woods and not see a sign of man somewhere. <v Speaker>To me, that's what it means to me. <v Speaker>And I think that's what people are looking for nowadays. <v Speaker>I think that the generation. <v Speaker>Five hands, one hundred years from now, we're gonna look back at the people in 1980. <v Speaker>They're going to say, you know, those people did it right. <v Speaker>They had a chance to see an asset frittered away.
<v Speaker>And they seized an opportunity instead. <v Speaker>Our story ends at the beginning. <v Speaker>The Chippewa River that feeds the flow, which Leopold wrote <v Speaker>Wilderness, is the raw material out of which man has hammered the artifact called <v Speaker>civilization. You can see civilization by looking out your window, <v Speaker>but you can see where it came from. By looking here.
<v Speaker>As of the 1980s began, a new phrase entered the environmental dialog. <v Speaker>Acid rain. The likes of the Adirondacks and New York were showing disturbing changes, <v Speaker>and scientists in Wisconsin were starting to wonder if the same thing could happen here. <v Speaker>In 1985, our state became the first in the union to pass acid rain legislation. <v Speaker>Has it worked? Should the federal government now follow suit? <v Speaker>Reporter Art Hackett decided to look into those questions and find out the latest on <v Speaker>how acid rain is affecting our lakes. <v Speaker>Judy, who do go is about to do in a matter of minutes. <v Speaker>What acid rain does over a period of decades, clad in a rubber <v Speaker>suit and a facemask. She's going to take a cruise with a jug of sulfuric <v Speaker>acid, the same stuff that's in the battery of your car. <v Speaker>When she's done dumping it in a little bit of Little Rock Lake will be a little
<v Speaker>different. <v Speaker>And what we're really doing is sort of mapping the course of a way <v Speaker>that a lake responds to having acid added to it. <v Speaker>University of Wisconsin researcher Tom Frost and the rest of the people working on the <v Speaker>Little Rock Lake experiment want to know how the lake responds because <v Speaker>what comes out of powerplant smokestacks may eventually do the same thing <v Speaker>as a jug of acid. Power plants burn coal. <v Speaker>Coal has sulfur in it. <v Speaker>The burn sulfur goes out the smokestack as sulfur dioxide <v Speaker>when it comes down along with the rain. <v Speaker>The net effect is the same as millions of Judy do goes cruising. <v Speaker>All of the lakes all over the country. <v Speaker>If the rule of burning fossil fuels in producing acid rain is a certainty, <v Speaker>the effect of that acid rain as it falls in the lakes of northern Wisconsin <v Speaker>is far less of a certainty. <v Speaker>How much damage does it do?
<v Speaker>How long does it take for the damage to occur? <v Speaker>Those are some of the questions they're trying to answer here at Little Rock Lake. <v Speaker>Little Rock Lake is a lake divided, divided by rubber curtains. <v Speaker>A second one was added this summer to assure that water's pure and polluted <v Speaker>shall not mix. Until this experiment is done, the goal is to measure <v Speaker>all the subtle changes that take place even down to the microscopic animals. <v Speaker>These students of Tom Frost's are collecting. <v Speaker>We've seen some species disappear and in other cases, other species <v Speaker>that were relatively rare in the lake have increased markedly during the course of the <v Speaker>experiment. <v Speaker>And what we're seeing there is are fundamental differences in the Lakes <v Speaker>food web. The lake is just changing and it's in its basic nature. <v Speaker>Ultimately, those kind of changes will be reflected in the abilities of the fish to <v Speaker>gather their resources.
<v Speaker>For the fish, it's kind of like if the supermarket you had shopped in four years <v Speaker>was closed under straight. Bill Swensson of the University of Wisconsin Superior says <v Speaker>this has yielded a lake full of stressed out fish. <v Speaker>That stress, we believe, might cause that animal to be less efficient at converting <v Speaker>what it uses to itself, burn more energy, grow slower and have a higher mortality, <v Speaker>given the limited amount of acid input is resulting in lower <v Speaker>food conversion in young bass. <v Speaker>When we go, we have gone downhill further. We found some effects on reproductive success, <v Speaker>it appears. <v Speaker>And as these things are occurring, where we're losing young <v Speaker>bass in the population and the acidic base, <v Speaker>as researchers search for acid rains effects, legislators are at <v Speaker>the same time trying to stop any more acid rain from falling. <v Speaker>These laws seem to be having an effect.
<v Speaker>Wisconsin's acid rain law passed in nineteen eighty five. <v Speaker>Cut the amount of sulfur dioxide in the air by one third. <v Speaker>The acidity of rain has also started to drop. <v Speaker>Tom Shefi is with the DNR Bureau of Air Management. <v Speaker>Quite frankly, I was very surprised that we would see that rapid a turnaround. <v Speaker>I thought that the the acidity of the rainfall would very slowly <v Speaker>and gradually decrease. <v Speaker>And this is a very pleasant surprise to me. <v Speaker>That pleasant surprise carries a price tag. <v Speaker>Wisconsin Electric of Milwaukee, the state's largest electric utility, will eventually <v Speaker>wind up spending 35 to 50 million dollars a year to comply <v Speaker>with the law. But utilities, by and large, felt the controls were reasonable. <v Speaker>Mark Steinberg is superintendent of air quality for Wisconsin Electric. <v Speaker>And we also felt, based upon interviewing <v Speaker>our customers. Public opinion surveys, that the public felt very strongly about
<v Speaker>the need to do something with acid rain. <v Speaker>And people may start feeling even stronger about acid rain because even though <v Speaker>acid levels are dropping, there are still signs acidity may hurt people as <v Speaker>well as fish. Back at Little Rock Lake, Nancy Richardson is trying <v Speaker>to trace the flow of the toxic heavy metal mercury through the lake's food chains. <v Speaker>There's a fair amount of evidence that mercury levels in fish are higher in waters <v Speaker>that are more acid. <v Speaker>Mercury contamination makes fish unsafe to eat. <v Speaker>UW researcher Carl Waters says it's a widespread problem <v Speaker>in Wisconsin. <v Speaker>Officials say more than 300 lakes surveyed, about 90 have had advisories <v Speaker>issued because of mercury contamination. <v Speaker>While acid rain does seem to cause problems, Mother Nature keeps trying to help. <v Speaker>In Little Rock Lake, for example, acid is perpetually being added to the water. <v Speaker>The lake, through a number of natural processes, keeps trying to neutralize the acid
<v Speaker>because some lakes seem to be able to cope with acid rain. <v Speaker>Some utility officials question how big a threat acid rain really is. <v Speaker>Ed Newman is director of environmental affairs for Wisconsin Public Service, <v Speaker>a Green Bay based electric utility. <v Speaker>You just can't go out and say there's an acidic lake in Wisconsin. <v Speaker>The rainfall is acidic. <v Speaker>Therefore, it's a cause effect. <v Speaker>There are so many things that are happening that we don't understand. <v Speaker>We didn't understand and we're understanding more now. <v Speaker>But we still have a lot to learn. <v Speaker>But we don't know why those lakes are sitting. <v Speaker>But the DNR contends there are at least nine lakes in Wisconsin where there is <v Speaker>a clear chemical link between the sulfuric acid in the water and the sulfur <v Speaker>dioxide that comes out of power plants. <v Speaker>Ed Newman, though, has another possible explanation: bogs. <v Speaker>DNR used 12 lakes as their suite of lakes to say <v Speaker>that these lakes mean acidify by acid deposition.
<v Speaker>All but one of those lakes had major bog systems on it. <v Speaker>The dispute is over whether a bug can acidify a lake without leaving telltale <v Speaker>brown stains. The DNR, his position is that bogs just aren't <v Speaker>the problem. Tom Shefi. <v Speaker>Well, it's certainly not in the mainstream of scientific thinking if they're arguing that <v Speaker>bogs acidified lakes. <v Speaker>I thought we had dismissed the Killer Barg issue some years ago. <v Speaker>UW Madison Lake researcher Tom Frost. <v Speaker>There's no doubt, first of all, that the rain is acidic because of the effects of <v Speaker>fossil fuel burning. That's an absolute fact. <v Speaker>And there's just no getting around it. <v Speaker>There are lakes in the Adirondacks and in Scandinavia that show very strong <v Speaker>evidence of having been affected by that acid produced by fossil fuel burning. <v Speaker>Evidence for acidification of lakes in Wisconsin is much more limited. <v Speaker>We've got thousands of lakes and perhaps some no fewer than 10 show <v Speaker>some evidence of having been affected.
<v Speaker>This debate will continue because the federal government may soon follow Wisconsin's lead <v Speaker>and may attempt to pass federal acid rain controls. <v Speaker>Acid rain is a national problem. <v Speaker>Half of Wisconsin's acid rain comes from places as far away as Missouri <v Speaker>and Ohio. But when the national debate takes place, expect utility <v Speaker>lobbyists like Walt Sandburg to question what effect the acid rain <v Speaker>actually has. <v Speaker>Are you saying flat out that you don't think it is a problem or you just don't know or. <v Speaker>I'm saying I don't know. <v Speaker>There is undoubtedly some connection, but I don't think we <v Speaker>can show that spending a dollar on <v Speaker>a particular piece of equipment or one of our utility generating plants <v Speaker>is going to result in the dollars worth of benefit to the environment or <v Speaker>perceived or otherwise at this time. <v Speaker>It's hard to sit here and tell you that pollution reduction
<v Speaker>is not a good thing to do. You can't I honestly, philosophically <v Speaker>can't say that. <v Speaker>And it sounds as though when we're sitting here arguing, begging the point, you're <v Speaker>arguing the point that sulfur dioxide reduction isn't necessary. <v Speaker>We're talking out of both sides of our face. <v Speaker>I agree that it's necessary, that it's a good thing. <v Speaker>Pollution reduction is a good thing to get something for it. <v Speaker>It's always nice. <v Speaker>When the acid rain controversy started, there were dark visions that Wisconsin lakes <v Speaker>would become like those in upstate New York lakes in which there were no fish. <v Speaker>It's now fairly clear that won't happen here. <v Speaker>But what's been discovered at Little Rock Lake is that there will be changes. <v Speaker>How great those changes will be won't be pinned down for several years. <v Speaker>The question is whether those changes will be great enough to warrant a change <v Speaker>nationwide in the way electric utilities do business.
<v Speaker>[singing] Water, water, water, water. <v Speaker>The effect of acid rain on Wisconsin Lakes has worried state fishermen for a number of <v Speaker>years and fish are the subject of our next report. <v Speaker>But not just any fish. This is a story about trout. <v Speaker>Now, more has been written about fly fishing for trout than just about any other kind <v Speaker>of fishing. Ernest Hemingway, Charles Kuralt, Jimmy Carter and Don <v Speaker>Johnson have all been hooked on fly fishing. <v Speaker>I'm not a fisherman, so I wouldn't know. <v Speaker>But the best line I ever heard on this particular subject was this <v Speaker>fly fishing, said Arnold Gingrich, is just about the most fun you can have <v Speaker>standing up. Here's Steve Gendasech's report on fly fishing.
<v Speaker>Spectacular catch under a bridge. <v Speaker>One day, Tom Windelberg decided to leave all of their concerns behind and go fishing. <v Speaker>Well, I had a little pinto wagon that was livable. <v Speaker>And if you scratched up a little in the back and I'd <v Speaker>just load it up with my fly-Fishing cattle and I would go from place to place. <v Speaker>And I decided to live along the streams and actually spend a lot of time <v Speaker>being there. And I enjoyed the heck out of it. <v Speaker>I did that for for two years. <v Speaker>For two years. This self-proclaimed truck bum lived in fished on the banks of Wisconsin <v Speaker>trout streams. <v Speaker>Why would- why would a fly fisherman spend- spend all that time? <v Speaker>OK, what I did is really not that unusual. <v Speaker>There's something about the fascination of clean flowing water, the <v Speaker>outdoors, the environment, the beauty of the trout, the beauty of the water. <v Speaker>Perhaps even more than the beauty of the trout.
<v Speaker>The active fishing itself is almost more important than catching fish. <v Speaker>Except for those times you're not catching fish. <v Speaker> Windelberg may be an extreme example of an angler who got hooked on fly fishing. <v Speaker>But he says many trout fishermen catch the same bug at one time or another. <v Speaker>And they become hopelessly involved with it to the point where they give <v Speaker>up skiing. Their families and other <v Speaker>secondary encumbrances and burdens. <v Speaker>As fish go, the trout has inspired philosophers and poets more well known than Tom Windle <v Speaker>Berg. Ernest Hemingway was a devoted trout angler and wrote affectionately about <v Speaker>this most wary of fish. And Robert Trever, writing in Trout Magic, told
<v Speaker>us why he fishes. <v Speaker>I fish because I love to because I love the environs <v Speaker>where trout or farm, which are invariably beautiful and hate <v Speaker>the environs where crowds of people are trying to variably ugly. <v Speaker>For many anglers, the subtle art of fly fishing is the only way to catch trout <v Speaker>someplace right up in here. There was a fish working earlier in. <v Speaker>Gary Borger is a prominent Wisconsin trout angler. <v Speaker>He is also an associate professor of botany at the University of Wisconsin, Wausau, <v Speaker>and a producer of instructional fly fishing videotapes. <v Speaker>Probably more than anything, people like fly fishing because it's like solving a giant <v Speaker>puzzle. What are the fish eating? <v Speaker>Can I select the right fly? <v Speaker>Is my casting good enough? Can I put the fly where it's supposed to go and all that? <v Speaker>And then can I catch the fish? <v Speaker>I was a little surprised there. That's about where those fish were working and we saw <v Speaker>from up above. Well, fly fishing is a very old sport. <v Speaker>The first real written book that we had one five fishing that actually describes
<v Speaker>the technique of fly fishing, how to build rides, how to make flies is just about 500 <v Speaker>years old. Fourteen ninety six in England. <v Speaker>For a sport steeped in legend and mystique, fly fishing starts with a simple enough idea. <v Speaker>Tiny hand tied lures made out of fur and feathers are cast upstream. <v Speaker>These artificial flies land gently on the water near a hungry trout <v Speaker>just lying near your feet. <v Speaker>The idea is to fool the fish who thinks it will swallow up its favorite bug. <v Speaker>This timeless sport of English, gentlemen, is now trendy, Daffy's, with money and leisure <v Speaker>time are taking up Rod Real Vest and waiters evidence. <v Speaker>This television commercial where a young couple escaped to a trout stream with their fly <v Speaker>rods and naked. <v Speaker>Again, the words of Robert Trever. <v Speaker>I fish because of all the television commercials, cocktail parties <v Speaker>and assorted social posture, and thus escape because
<v Speaker>in a world where most men seem to spend their lives doing things they hate, <v Speaker>my fishing is at once an endless source of delight and an <v Speaker>act of small rebellion. <v Speaker>So fly fisherman make up only about seven percent of the total number of sport fishermen <v Speaker>in the country. Their number is growing. <v Speaker>Rod Warren from Green Bay had never held a fly rod before coming to this fly fishing <v Speaker>class on the Wolf River in June. <v Speaker>Fly fishing just seemed to be a, I guess, progression from spinners <v Speaker>and worms to fly fishing, and he seems to be a mystique about it. <v Speaker>I want to find out what that was all about. <v Speaker>What is that mystique? Not sure. <v Speaker>Haven't found out yet. Yeah, I caught a fish on the fly. <v Speaker>That's like. Yeah. Though I'll get closer to the magic, I guess. <v Speaker>All right. And stay in the same plane. <v Speaker>All right. You don't want to end up down here and stopping back here. <v Speaker>OK. All right. Give that a try. <v Speaker>And don't don't like that. <v Speaker>There are now dozens of fly-Fishing schools across the country that teach the techniques
<v Speaker>of casting. Dave Ritz conducts this class on the Wolf River in Langley County. <v Speaker>And then at the end here, forward cast, pretend you're wringing water off of the tip of <v Speaker>your rod. So you want to take that and bring it off. <v Speaker>Take your thumb and force it forward. <v Speaker>Like a hammering that nail into the wall or... <v Speaker>Fly fishing is considered the most elite way to fish. <v Speaker>There are so many aspects to this sport, one could specialize in casting, fly tying <v Speaker>or entomology, which is the study of insects and would have a fly fishing instructor. <v Speaker>Dave, Ritz. <v Speaker>In some regards, it's a thinking man's sport. <v Speaker>But more important, I think it's an observant man's sport. <v Speaker>It's very important to observe nature and be able to get <v Speaker>your cues from nature when you're fly fishing. <v Speaker>See what insects are present on the water, what type of insects the fish might be feeding <v Speaker>on, and to match those insects in that hatch in the natural land and <v Speaker>larva or pupil limitations as your midges, the small copper <v Speaker>nymphs. <v Speaker>Still, you don't have to have PhD to enjoy fly fishing.
<v Speaker>Patience may be more important than skill. <v Speaker>Tom Lindenberg worked almost forty five minutes trying different flies before he landed <v Speaker>this brown trout on light tackle. <v Speaker>All the mileage on the reading when you catch a minor. <v Speaker>Wendelbergh is the author of hundreds of articles on truck fishing, a dedicated fly <v Speaker>fisherman and an expert fly tire. <v Speaker>When I was a kid and I got my first fly tying kit, I read the instructions and threw it <v Speaker>away. <v Speaker>With chicken feathers and bits of fur from elk, deer and rabbit, Wendelburg can fashion <v Speaker>imitation flies that will fool the trout. <v Speaker>There's something about a fuzzy body that really catches fish. <v Speaker>There are dry flies which float on the water and what flies would sink under the surface.
<v Speaker>Which one you fish with depends on what the fish are feeding on. <v Speaker>And the more one knows about what the fish are eating or entomology, the more successful <v Speaker>one becomes. <v Speaker>That's one of danger to fly fisherman has over. <v Speaker>Other anglers is being able to predict what fish are going to <v Speaker>be eating and when you're going to be eating it. <v Speaker>Another advantage to fly fishing is the solitude one finds on trout streams. <v Speaker>Solitude, as described by Robert Trever in his book Trout Magic. <v Speaker>I fish because only in the woods can I find solitude without loneliness. <v Speaker>Because bourbon out of an old tin cup always tastes better out there <v Speaker>because maybe one day I'll catch a mermaid. <v Speaker>Trout anglers are somewhat unique in the fact that <v Speaker>they're very solitary and that kind of pursuit. <v Speaker>My day is spoiled if I see a boot track on my favorite stream. <v Speaker>Bob Jackson is a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin Lacrosse there.
<v Speaker>He has surveyed Wisconsin anglers to find out what it is they like about truck fishing. <v Speaker>Hello. I clean day. Having said, I don't mind riding to the stream with <v Speaker>somebody and riding home with them and maybe talking a few words with <v Speaker>one old man at midday. <v Speaker>But that's all I want to see. <v Speaker>Jackson conducted the survey with the State Department of Natural Resources. <v Speaker>Wisconsin Trout Anglers studies are the result of serving nearly 1000 trout fishermen <v Speaker>in Wisconsin, according to the study. <v Speaker>The most important pleasures of trout fishing are beauty and solitude. <v Speaker>I fish because trout do not lie or cheat and cannot be bought <v Speaker>or bribed or impressed by power. <v Speaker>But to respond only to quietude and humility <v Speaker>and then lose patience. <v Speaker>The trout itself is beautiful, I grew up with mystique about it. <v Speaker>The trout has been raised to almost mythical status.
<v Speaker>It is a hard fish to catch. So it has been mistakingly referred to as smart. <v Speaker>According to Gary Borger. <v Speaker>Let's put it this way. 50 percent of a child's brain is devoted to vision. <v Speaker>50 percent is devoted to hearing. That doesn't leave much for smarts. <v Speaker>But they're extremely wary. And that's that's why I tried so hard to catch, because <v Speaker>they're extremely wary. <v Speaker>Because trout are so wary, so hard to catch, that is part of the thrill, Jackson <v Speaker>study found that fly fishermen are more interested in the method of catching fish than <v Speaker>with filling their Creoles with a day's catch. <v Speaker>I think I see an Aldo Leopoldian kind of philosophy emerging, <v Speaker>a oneness with the Earth. <v Speaker>The results of this oneness with the trout is that many trout anglers have adopted a <v Speaker>catch and release policy by carefully releasing the trout back into the stream. <v Speaker>It will be around for someone else's fly another day. <v Speaker>There are people that are catching the 100th fishing season, and it's not that the <v Speaker>resource isn't important. It's that the resource is so important you <v Speaker>realize it can be harvested. <v Speaker>You have that love affair with the trout.
<v Speaker>And they tell us that of all the satisfaction, you have the right anything from me <v Speaker>and the natural setting to catching the trophy and so on, that releasing the fish <v Speaker>is probably one of the two or three most satisfying aspects of their <v Speaker>whole experience. <v Speaker>Let me go. Is there something about putting it back? <v Speaker>Seeing the way it turns people. <v Speaker>After Tom Wendelburg caught this trophy sized trout he revives it before he releases it. <v Speaker>Look at those gills beginning to work. I had one I revived for 40 minutes, and then <v Speaker>it paid off. I saw him again next year. <v Speaker>It's got to be a couple of fish. <v Speaker>That right. <v Speaker>It's interesting that fly. <v Speaker>One of the things that so intrigues me about fly fishing that I like so much <v Speaker>about it is it is the great escape. <v Speaker>And you lose all sense of time. <v Speaker>It is all sense of care. You're not worried about anything except what's happening out <v Speaker>there on the river.
<v Speaker>I fish not because I regard fishing as being so terribly important, <v Speaker>but because I suspected so many of the other concerns of men are equally <v Speaker>unimportant and not nearly so much fun <v Speaker>doing it as a big one. <v Speaker>So far on this program, we've talked about the beauty of water and water quality. <v Speaker>But right now we're going to take a few moments out to talk about the ways in which human <v Speaker>beings need water in order to survive. <v Speaker>Joining me to do that, as always, is our medical consultant, Dr. Ted Goodfriend. <v Speaker>We think of water as a given, something you're looking at, something you enjoy. <v Speaker>But but what do we need inside? <v Speaker>Well, stop to think for a minute that we are half water. <v Speaker>So we need water to survive, to exist. <v Speaker>Do we need it every. Every. Is there a I guess, a prescribed amount? <v Speaker>I mean, do people have to have a certain amount each day? <v Speaker>Well, you may have had somebody tell you when you were young to drink eight glasses of
<v Speaker>water a day. I think that's a little extravagant. <v Speaker>You could probably do on half as much. But we always need water. <v Speaker>And there are times when we need more doing. <v Speaker>Do we have to have is do we know anything about water, therapeutic effects? <v Speaker>I mean, people drinking lots and lots as opposed to a little bit. <v Speaker>I have a book which I just picked off a newsstand that talks about the healing <v Speaker>effects of water. And there is a lot of fad ism about that. <v Speaker>But I don't believe that that really holds much water. <v Speaker>I think we don't need water to do to purify us any more than the minimum amount. <v Speaker>Does everyone need the same amount? <v Speaker>Everyone needs the same amount except when they are either sick <v Speaker>or sweating. For example, in very hot climates, you have to drink more water or if you're <v Speaker>ill, if you had some reason for losing water like diarrhea or vomiting, you'd need <v Speaker>more. But everybody needs a minimum amount of water. <v Speaker>We would die a lot sooner without water than we would die without food. <v Speaker>What is it specifically do for the body? <v Speaker>I mean, why why do you need water as opposed to Coca-Cola or whatever?
<v Speaker>I mean, what is it? What does it actually provide the body with? <v Speaker>Water is the main stuff of which blood is made. <v Speaker>So without water, you couldn't have circulation, you wouldn't have any oxygen going to <v Speaker>your brain, you'd die from that. <v Speaker>Water is also the bathing fluid that into which our cells put <v Speaker>their waste products. And then out of which the kidney removes them. <v Speaker>All right. And we will talk in a moment about the kinds of water that there are and why <v Speaker>pure water is important. That'll come up in just a moment. <v Speaker>[singing folk song] <v Speaker>Dr. Ted Goodfind will rejoin us in just a moment to talk more about the water we drink.
<v Speaker>But first, this story about what happens when water isn't around, when water doesn't <v Speaker>fall from the sky, when things dry up like they did during the great drought <v Speaker>of 1988. <v Speaker>Thousands of Midwestern farmers will probably go out of business because of <v Speaker>the long, hot summer, because of this drought. <v Speaker>It was a time that made us realize, perhaps more than any other, just how directly we are <v Speaker>all affected by water and what happens when we don't have it. <v Speaker>Reporter Art Hackett spent the summer following one Iowa farmer. <v Speaker>Here's Art's report. <v Speaker>It is the 20th of June. <v Speaker>There's only been half an inch of rain since Mother's Day. <v Speaker>Today, Greg Katar is in the field plowing up seeds he planted in May. <v Speaker>Seeds that never germinated. <v Speaker>I made a mistake when I told it, and I. <v Speaker>I lost some moisture in the tillage process, but with no rain since <v Speaker>Mother's Day, it was it was doomed.
<v Speaker>The crop is, Milo, sometimes known as green sorghum. <v Speaker>A crop that's used to feed cattle. <v Speaker>Katar decided to plant it this year instead of corn. <v Speaker>Perhaps his instincts were telling him something. <v Speaker>Milo is more drought resistant, but not this drought resistant. <v Speaker>I guess it started so early in the spring. <v Speaker>That was what my father had been farming for 70 years. <v Speaker>And he's never seen it this dry, this early, this severe before <v Speaker>even the 30s. <v Speaker>Today, Katar faced a choice he could give up on the prospect of producing grain from this <v Speaker>field and to plant a grass crop instead. <v Speaker>But because of a recent drizzle, he thought it might be just barely moist enough. <v Speaker>He decided to plant Milo again. <v Speaker>What goes through your mind when you're having to do that? <v Speaker>Well, today I'm really one, and if I'm wasting my seed again,
<v Speaker>I've already got my fertilizer and so I don't have that expense again. <v Speaker>I'm putting more fuel into it. <v Speaker>I'm just I'm really, you know, questioning the wisdom <v Speaker>of what I'm doing. <v Speaker>Greg Katar at least has the luxury of a second shot at his crop of grain sorghum. <v Speaker>He's not so lucky with some of his other crops like alfalfa and oats. <v Speaker>In those cases, he's going to have to take whatever Mother Nature dishes out. <v Speaker>This alfalfa was seeded at the end of March, <v Speaker>first part April, and normally it should be the height of this <v Speaker>Otis right now that I ate early in the spring. <v Speaker>I didn't even know if I was going to emerge. <v Speaker>It was so dry and dusty and and it was so much heat. <v Speaker>And as you can see, it has finally emerged, but they don't look very healthy. <v Speaker>Alfalfa is used for hay to feed the cattle.
<v Speaker>Midwest farmers usually harvest one crop of alfalfa in the spring, <v Speaker>one in mid summer and one in the fall this year. <v Speaker>The second cutting, as it's known, was non-existent. <v Speaker>And the fear on this one hundred five degree June afternoon was <v Speaker>that the crop would die altogether. <v Speaker>If you get right down here close, you can see these alfalfa plants and starting to wilt. <v Speaker>That's my next three years a crop. <v Speaker>And that's the crucial thing for me is whether this seeding survives <v Speaker>the impact to lose it. If this seeding dies from me, that impact is going to be felt much <v Speaker>longer than the Milo that that's <v Speaker>that's going to make me forced me to liquidate my cattle herd if I lose this. <v Speaker>It's now July the 8th. And there's been no rain since the Miloje was planted
<v Speaker>and it's still hot. <v Speaker>You know, we dug down here at all five days ago, <v Speaker>you know, and you can see these sprouts and then you could find the kernels. <v Speaker>And they had a they had germinated and they had to shoot on. <v Speaker>But you can see a lot of that. Never made it never made it out of the ground. <v Speaker>We were we were thinking we were going to get maybe like a 100 percent stand at that time <v Speaker>because it's still. But this, you know, jumped up to one hundred ninety eight. <v Speaker>Ninety seven. That took care of that. <v Speaker>You know, I'm amazed there is any here at all to tell you the truth. <v Speaker>We've had just nothing for moisture since we planted it. <v Speaker>We had that for tents there a couple of days for planet, you know, there in <v Speaker>June. <v Speaker>You said you were wondering then if you're wasting your seed or not. <v Speaker>Did you?
<v Speaker>Yeah. Well, what do you think? <v Speaker>It sure looks to me like I did. <v Speaker>The drought had some strange effects on the natural desires of farmers today. <v Speaker>Keiter was actually hoping it wouldn't rain. <v Speaker>That's because of the drought continued. <v Speaker>Just a little longer. There was a chance corn plants on neighboring farms wouldn't <v Speaker>even form ears. Kater would then be able to bond earless stocks <v Speaker>cheap if it doesn't rain. <v Speaker>Well, if it rains, that probably won't be able to probably just go <v Speaker>for early weaning of the calves. <v Speaker>Keep the calves. Sell the cows because they're the big forage consumers. <v Speaker>And try to hold over the badger heifers to breed back next <v Speaker>year and be back in the cattle business in two years. <v Speaker>You'll want it to rain or don't you? <v Speaker>Yeah, I do. But. <v Speaker>Economically would be the best for me right now if it hold off for about a week.
<v Speaker>Just because the fact that I would be able to get some corn <v Speaker>for silage or I hope like I could buy something from some neighbors <v Speaker>in the next two days. <v Speaker>It would rain nearly an inch in August and September. <v Speaker>Rainfall would be at or even above normal. <v Speaker>The corn fields that Cater had hoped to chop for salvage were in some cases producing <v Speaker>yields of over one hundred bushels an acre. <v Speaker>Nowhere near the records, but not bad for a year when a total failure <v Speaker>of the corn crop had been feared. <v Speaker>It is now September 26. <v Speaker>Greg Cator is now harvesting some of the alfalfa fields he'd given up for dead. <v Speaker>Never ceases to amaze me the survivability of alfalfa. <v Speaker>We had three year old plants that were dormant the second week in June <v Speaker>just dried up. And they look for all purposes to be dead <v Speaker>and they're green and growing again now.
<v Speaker>So. <v Speaker>I guess I was whining too soon. <v Speaker>Some of Keita's milo crop also bloomed into what looked like fluffy years of <v Speaker>corn. This will wind up in his silos. <v Speaker>He'll be counting on it to help assertive cattle make it through the winter. <v Speaker>But even though fall turned out to look so much better than summer, Tater's <v Speaker>still faces problems. <v Speaker>He's going into winter without his usual stockpile of hay. <v Speaker>The winter reserve was used up in July when green pastures turned brown. <v Speaker>As Greg Katar takes in his fall harvest, the questions on his mind are whether <v Speaker>the rains will continue through the winter and whether next summer <v Speaker>will be dry too. <v Speaker>I mean, are you out of the woods financially on this? <v Speaker>Ask me in April. <v Speaker>Art Hackett produces our last report.
<v Speaker>Ted Goodfriend rejoins us now to talk a little bit more about water and the way it <v Speaker>affects us inside our bodies. <v Speaker>Ted, we were talking before about everybody needs water, but what kind of water do we <v Speaker>really need? <v Speaker>Well, we need water that's pure to a certain extent. <v Speaker>We need water that doesn't have bacteria in it that would give us diseases, especially <v Speaker>bacteria from other people. That's not good for everyone. <v Speaker>You read every year about water contamination problems or people becoming more <v Speaker>and more concerned about water quality. <v Speaker>What are the big things to really worry about? <v Speaker>As I mentioned, the bacteria that are viruses that would come from other people would be <v Speaker>serious bacteria that come, let's say the green stuff that gets <v Speaker>in our lakes by the end of the summer is not very serious. <v Speaker>So if you take a gulp of lake winger water, when you're swimming at Violence Beach in <v Speaker>Madison, for example, that's not the end of the world. <v Speaker>No big deal. By the way, it always strikes me as ironic that we worry about getting a <v Speaker>little diarrhea from contaminated water in the spies of Europe, where people go to drink <v Speaker>special waters. They're so full of minerals that everyone instantly gets diarrhea from
<v Speaker>it and they pay for it. <v Speaker>Now, what about mineral water? That is certainly something that's become extremely <v Speaker>popular in the last few years. You go and buy, you know, a bottle of water for 50, 60 <v Speaker>cents or whatever. Is it better for you? <v Speaker>I don't think so. I think there are less controls to keep the bottled <v Speaker>water pure than there are on our tap water. <v Speaker>Our tap water is a remarkable achievement of public health and sanitation. <v Speaker>And I think it's pure than a lot of the bottled water. <v Speaker>So are people wasting money when they buy bottled water or add. <v Speaker>Well, let's go to the next part of my question, I guess, which is adding the purifiers, <v Speaker>the home water purifiers, again, unnecessary. <v Speaker>If there were contaminants in one's water supply, for example, if the well was <v Speaker>contaminated, I would say it's not unnecessary. <v Speaker>It would be unnecessary from my point of view for city water or water that comes <v Speaker>out of a tap because some of the purifiers have been taken off the market for adding <v Speaker>worse things than they were taking away. <v Speaker>What about the overall quality of water is in in our state? <v Speaker>I mean, are we blessed with with good quality water that people really can have every
<v Speaker>reason to feel good about drinking? <v Speaker>It's interesting. We have water at least around here that's hard, has a lot of minerals <v Speaker>in it, and some people go to great lengths to remove those minerals. <v Speaker>They are adding back salt. I might add, which isn't good for you. <v Speaker>But the minerals that we remove assiduously with our water softeners <v Speaker>apparently are responsible in England for a longevity effect. <v Speaker>In other words, when they studied all the people of England, when public health surveys, <v Speaker>the people from hard water areas lived longer than the people from soft water <v Speaker>areas. <v Speaker>Now say so far you've put the bottled water people out of business, that the water <v Speaker>purifiers aren't so hot. And now you're saying we shouldn't have water softeners either? <v Speaker>Well, water softener is really do a great job to protect your appliances, but I think <v Speaker>they may do some harm to your own pipes inside. <v Speaker>What about the kinds of things that we drink other than water? <v Speaker>A lot of people don't drink much water. They drink pop, they drink this. <v Speaker>They drink that. I mean, you know, the beer advertisements may say it's <v Speaker>the water, but in fact, is it and is it more important to drink water than all that other
<v Speaker>stuff? <v Speaker>It's not more important to drink pure or tap water than it is to drink water that comes <v Speaker>in a can of water. That's ice cubes. <v Speaker>I know some people whose only source of water is the ice cubes that they add to their <v Speaker>drinks. But but I think it's interesting that people are very concerned about the purity <v Speaker>of their of their tap water. And yet they will pour that water over leaves to make tea <v Speaker>or over beans to make coffee and not worry about the thousands of ingredients or hundreds <v Speaker>that are added when they do that. <v Speaker>So all those other things, if you're really going to be concerned about what you put <v Speaker>inside, you shouldn't just worry about what comes out of the tap. <v Speaker>It's all that other stuff. <v Speaker>I would say the purest thing you put in your body is the water that comes out of a tap. <v Speaker>All right. Ted Goodfriend, thanks very much. <v Speaker>If you would like to comment on this week's broadcast, write The Wisconsin magazine <v Speaker>821. University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin. <v Speaker>53706.
<v Speaker>We wrap up tonight's program with a story about life along the most famous body of <v Speaker>water that touches our state. The mighty Mississippi. <v Speaker>CBS does a documentary program called 48 Hours. <v Speaker>It takes you to a dramatic location, an emergency room, the Middle East, or the back <v Speaker>streets of New York, and tries to convey to you what life is like there over <v Speaker>a 48 hour time span. <v Speaker>Well, what follows is our version of that, a simpler version. <v Speaker>It's one day and one small Mississippi River town. <v Speaker>This is called 24 hours in Trempealeau. <v Speaker>We look to water as a source, a source of growth and of life, but <v Speaker>water is also the source of social interchange of trade <v Speaker>and of community. The town of Trempealeau sits on the edge of the Mississippi, <v Speaker>just north of Lacross. The Chippewa came by here first. <v Speaker>Then the Europeans roughly translated. <v Speaker>Trump alone means mountain, whose feet is bathed in water and water, has always
<v Speaker>been Trempealeau's lifeblood. <v Speaker>Trempealeau's heyday was in the middle part of the last century, 15 to 20 steamboats <v Speaker>stopped by here each day. The town grew large enough to support six barbershops. <v Speaker>One even came complete with its own palm tree. <v Speaker>But like so many small towns, Trempealeau's heyday is now just a memory. <v Speaker>Today, Trempealeau couldn't be quieter. <v Speaker>The steamboats are gone and the barges don't stop here. <v Speaker>But people are still anchored here to this small town into the river. <v Speaker>To me, it's it's a sense of it's a great sense of peace <v Speaker>and a great sense of home tremolo. <v Speaker>Resident Eddie Allen is a songwriter who's lived along the Mississippi most of his life. <v Speaker>I think of the river as the circulatory system of the country, just like you would think <v Speaker>of the veins in your arm as his is pumping blood to
<v Speaker>the river pumps a bit more muddy blood. <v Speaker> The muddy Mississippi still pumps blood into Trempealeau. <v Speaker>But ever so slowly. A hundred years ago, the center of town was the Trempeleau <v Speaker>hotel. It still is today. <v Speaker>You can't buy dinner here for 25 cents anymore, but a room still costs just 15 <v Speaker>bucks a night. And it remains the town's political and social center. <v Speaker>[indistinct conversation] <v Speaker>They call themselves the Trempealeau Board of Trade. <v Speaker>A group of old time residents who meet at the hotel every morning for coffee and <v Speaker>conversation. Ritual is important to the Board of Trade. <v Speaker>A daily dice game determines who buys the coffee. <v Speaker>[indistinct conversation] <v Speaker>No one's quite sure who came up with the name. <v Speaker>Board of Trade. But over the years they've debated town politics, raise money for
<v Speaker>charities and as befits their name, traded on the stock market. <v Speaker>We purchased stock when I went to sell it for the <v Speaker>Board of Trade. The brokerage firm wanted a resolution from the <v Speaker>board of directors. All of the things that the corporation would have to submit. <v Speaker>We were a little bit nonplused as to how it affected. <v Speaker>Each man here and grew up on the river. <v Speaker>Each moved away. Each came back. <v Speaker>The Mississippi and has always been home. <v Speaker>And it wasn't until I was gone from here about ten or fifteen years and came <v Speaker>back to visit. And all of a sudden I realized that I missed the river and the bluffs. <v Speaker>There's nothing like that in Janesville. <v Speaker>It's a little hard to follow this next comment, fly swatting <v Speaker>instead of gavel pounding was taking over the Board of Trade meeting. <v Speaker>But listen anyway to how Mike Nielson sums up why life and Trempealeau is hard to <v Speaker>beat. <v Speaker>I told em, they talked about the scenery and one thing, you know, and I said,
<v Speaker>well, if you stay here long enough to wear one pair of shoes, you <v Speaker>never leave. <v Speaker>Wear out one set of shoes here and you'll probably never leave, which is why being named <v Speaker>the Trempealeau citizen of the Year is considered a high honor. <v Speaker>The Board of Trade helped select the person for this lofty post, and last year they <v Speaker>selected Squeak Mycroot, a man who has a reputation for being one of the best <v Speaker>fisherman on the Mississippi. <v Speaker>Well, if you don't get fish, I think think like one <v Speaker> Squeak Mycroot is another lifelong river man. <v Speaker>At age 14, he got his first job aboard the last of the Mississippi steamboats. <v Speaker>He's never left the river. <v Speaker>Every day I hear of other than where you go and so <v Speaker>many tourists. <v Speaker>You wanna go fishing you go fishing. If you don't want it, don't go. <v Speaker>On this date, the fish weren't biting much. <v Speaker>It didn't matter. <v Speaker>You took my all.
<v Speaker>Well, some days you just don't catch none. <v Speaker>I got I got a couple friends. <v Speaker>I take them fishing every once in a while. <v Speaker>I say, well, we can't catch fish. <v Speaker>But when we were at the train. <v Speaker>My wife will say how can you stand it out there? <v Speaker>Well, it's easy. <v Speaker>No problem. <v Speaker>There are few problems around here. <v Speaker>Last year, the number of violent crimes in Trempealeau county, assault, battery and the <v Speaker>like numbered exactly zero. <v Speaker>With the approach of nightfall, the term below hotel again becomes the center of things. <v Speaker>Eddie Allen, who is a baker by day, becomes Trempealeau's balladeer by night. <v Speaker>[singing folksong] From the birch canoe to the age of steam.
<v Speaker>To the people yet to come. <v Speaker>The river has carried a thousand dreams, but promises <v Speaker>for none. It'll be here after I am gone. <v Speaker>Carrying your precious cargo on. <v Speaker>River Road. Why? <v Speaker>It's no doubt easy to overly romanticize life along the Mississippi, <v Speaker>but there's no overestimating the power and persuasiveness of the river. <v Speaker>We only spent a day in Trempealeau, not long enough to wear out a pair of shoes. <v Speaker>But as for coming back. <v Speaker>No problem. <v Speaker>[singing] That is flowing in the old river of life. <v Speaker>Flowing down to the sea. <v Speaker>And that wraps up our special edition of the Wisconsin magazine, our program all about
<v Speaker>water. We hope you've enjoyed it. And we will see you again a week from tonight. <v Speaker>I'm Dave Iverson. Have a good week.
Series
The Wisconsin Magazine
Episode Number
No. 1504
Producing Organization
WHA-TV (Television station : Madison, Wis.)
Contributing Organization
PBS Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip-29-82k6dthf
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Description
Series Description
"THE WISCONSIN MAGAZINE (Show#1504) is a theme show. This special edition of the weekly one-hour news and public affairs program looks at WATER. "Segment#1: 'The Big Chip' Producer: Mark Weller Length: 7:21 "Wisconsin now owns a remarkable combination of land and water, a place left largely untouched by time. It's known as the Chippewa Flowage. "Segment#2: 'A Lake Divided' Producer: Art Hackett Length: 9:47 How is Acid Rain affecting Wisconsin's Lakes? In 1985 Wisconsin became the first state to pass Acid Rain Legislation. Our report looks at whether its working. "Segment#3: 'Hooked on Trout' Producer: Steve Jandacek Length: 11:54 A report on the growing popularity of Fly Fishing for trout "Segment#4: 'Drought of '88' Producer: Art Hackett Length: 7:45 Report on how one northeast Iowa farmer reacted to the worst drought since the 1930s during the 1988 growing season. "Segment#5: '24 Hours in Trempealeau' Producer: Dave Iverson Length: 6:30 "Wisconsin Magazine's crew spent a day in Trempealeau, a small town along the Mississippi to sample the flavor of life along the Big Muddy. "The 1988-89 season marks the 15th year of THE WISCONSIN MAGAZINE, making it one of the longest running locally produced programs broadcast on public television. For more information, please see attached materials."-- 1988 Peabody Awards entry form.
Broadcast Date
1988-10-26
Created Date
1988
Asset type
Episode
Rights
Content provided from the media collection of Wisconsin Public Broadcasting, a service of the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System and the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board. All rights reserved by the particular owner of content provided. For more information, please contact 1-800-422-9707
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
00:58:44.521
Embed Code
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Credits
Producing Organization: WHA-TV (Television station : Madison, Wis.)
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Wisconsin Public Television (WHA-TV)
Identifier: cpb-aacip-04981391512 (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Generation: Master
Duration: 00:57:46
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: cpb-aacip-860f6da7255 (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Duration: 0:57:46
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Citations
Chicago: “The Wisconsin Magazine; No. 1504,” 1988-10-26, PBS Wisconsin, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-29-82k6dthf.
MLA: “The Wisconsin Magazine; No. 1504.” 1988-10-26. PBS Wisconsin, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-29-82k6dthf>.
APA: The Wisconsin Magazine; No. 1504. Boston, MA: PBS Wisconsin, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-29-82k6dthf