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<v Speaker>KCTS9 program shelter produced by Dave Davis. <v Speaker>It's 57 43 recorded March 21st, 1984. <v speaker 1>This bottle with me, I gotta find my own jug. <v narrator>This is a story with a large cast of characters. <v narrator>It includes the Downtown Drunk, a family that has just arrived <v narrator>on a bus from Maine. <v narrator>And the head of the largest agency in the federal government. <v narrator>There's a cop on the beat. <v narrator>The mayor of a large West Coast city and the director of a shelter for the homeless. <v narrator>All of these people and a complicated set of issues are linked together by this man.
<v narrator>And thousands of others like him. <v narrator>They are a national crisis. Headlines on the nightly news. <v narrator>These are the homeless. <v narrator>Each is here for different reasons, but they all have one thing in common, no place <v narrator>to live. Surrounding them, often without their knowing it is an elaborate <v narrator>maze of social services, budget debates and policy decisions. <v narrator>At issue is how much should be done to help and who will pay the cost. <v narrator>For the time being, a search for food and a place to sleep. <v narrator>At night, they go looking for shelter.
<v narrator>Every day, this ritual repeats itself. <v narrator>A crowd gathers on a downtown sidewalk. <v narrator>At noon, the doors open and people go inside. <v narrator>Inside, the waiting begins again. <v narrator>Sandwiches are being prepared out of leftovers donated by supermarkets and food banks. <v narrator>This is dinner for the 230 people sleeping here tonight. <v narrator>When the food is gone, there's more waiting. <v narrator>Until the sleeping mats are put down each one in a numbered space on the floor. <v narrator>At 11 p.m., the lights will be turned off and another day is over. <v narrator>We are in a shelter for the homeless in Seattle, Washington. <v narrator>But this happens every day in cities across the country. <v narrator>There are more than two million homeless nationwide. <v narrator>The question is why and what should be done about it? <v narrator>Budget allocations and policy decisions will be based on the answer to a fundamental
<v narrator>question who are these people and why are they here? <v speaker 2>I was in L.A. Dancing. <v speaker 2>Doing videos and the contract I had ran out. <v speaker 2>And the friend that I had met up in California, L.A., they told me about <v speaker 2>Seattle and they told me how beautiful it was. <v speaker 2>They had a pretty nice place for me to stay if I come up with them. <v speaker 2>Since I didn't know anybody in L.A., I decided to do that and <v speaker 2>come here and I come to find it was a little different than what they told me. <v speaker 3>It was because my drinking. It was my fault, you know. <v speaker 3>It just got way out of proportion. <v interviewer>Do you still have a drinking problem? <v speaker 3>Oh, yeah. Three fifths of wine a day. <v speaker 3>Fourth fifths, depends on how my panhandling goes. <v speaker 4>I was bounced around in foster home to foster home until I was 13. <v speaker 4>And at the age of 13, I was on my own on the street. <v speaker 4>I really shouldn't be up here. <v speaker 4>I should be at my own place because I've got two kids right now that I'm in the process
<v speaker 4>of trying to get back. <v speaker 5>If somebody says, hey, I want you to go to work for me tomorrow, you know, <v speaker 5>where's my where's your tools? <v speaker 5>You don't have any tools. How are you going to go to work for me? <v speaker 6>I got my SSI got fouled up. <v speaker 6>And if I ever get it straightened out again, we can get an apartment again and <v speaker 6>live like people again. <v Eddie Sayen>I I ge- I try I try to try to get myself together and <v Eddie Sayen>get my belongings and- and <v Eddie Sayen>do my things, you know, and and um. <v Robert Wilson>I save up every piece of garbology that I can possibly find. <v Robert Wilson>What it goes into is, is the idea that starving <v Robert Wilson>artist without a home, homeless. <v Robert Wilson>And from there I collected before I left, I collected all my friends and where they're <v Robert Wilson>working. If they are working in places that I stop off and live jobs
<v Robert Wilson>that I've had. I've been on the road for about five years now and <v Robert Wilson>my last paycheck from a one day job that I took that somebody offered me one whole day's <v Robert Wilson>work and my girlfriends. <v Robert Wilson>All the places I've lived in the past five years, the addresses of the people that I've <v Robert Wilson>lived with, that's the bottom line. <v Robert Wilson>You know, it's taken its toll on people, so they rely on drugs and alcohol. <v Robert Wilson>And uh-. <v interviewer>Is that a big problem for you? <v Robert Wilson>Yeah, that has been I am an alcoholic and. <v Robert Wilson>I'm not proud of it, but I drink for, you know, for faith. <v Robert Wilson>You know, it's it's Dutch courage in the dictionary. <v Robert Wilson>You know, it's alcoholism. <v speaker 8>If you're not, like, depressed, you can't really do anything good for yourself. <v speaker 8>If you feel bad about yourself. <v speaker 9>See a lot of people come in, but we don't see many people get well and leave. <v interviewer>Why? <v speaker 9>Maybe in an enduring sense of hopelessness. <v speaker 9>So. <v speaker 9>Hopelessness about what, I don't know.
<v speaker 9>That'd be relative to each person. <v speaker 9>But maybe a sense of hopelessness. <v narrator>The causes of homelessness are complicated. <v narrator>It often seems to be a combination of things not easily separating. <v narrator>But spend time in a shelter like this one and there is another unavoidable question, <v narrator>to what degree are these people personally responsible for the problems that brought them <v narrator>here? Could they have made different choices? <v narrator>How much help do they deserve? <v narrator>For most of us, the answers will depend on knowing more about why these people are here. <v Ken Cole>I know when I first came into the Senate and saw what I immediately <v Ken Cole>deduced in my own mind as being able bodied adults wondering, <v Ken Cole>well, gee, they're kind of ripping off things. <v Ken Cole>Just stand down here, getting a free meal at Salvation Army and <v Ken Cole>everything. But the more I talked with the people, the more
<v Ken Cole>I realized that this was no joy ride. <v Ken Cole>This was survival that we see in this shelter, <v Ken Cole>a very dysfunctional population. <v Ken Cole>People who are really down and out. <v Ken Cole>It's not just unemployment. <v Ken Cole>And often it is an issue of mental illness or <v Ken Cole>alcoholism, substance abuse. <v Ken Cole>We feel that at least 40 percent have some type of <v Ken Cole>identifiable mental illness problem. <v Ken Cole>And that can range from anywhere from severe depression to severe <v Ken Cole>psychosis. <v Eddie Sayen>I've been alone ever since I was seven years old and traveling, so I just a- situate <v Eddie Sayen>myself as nowhere. It just just kind of I don't wander. <v narrator>Eddie Sayen has been diagnosed by psychiatrist as a chronic schizophrenic. <v narrator>He Is 43 years old and lives at the downtown shelter. <v psychiatrist>And then when you were seven. [Eddie Sayen: Yeah.] Your dad shot your mom, huh? <v Eddie Sayen>I really want- I don't want- it's not nice- it's not a good thing to talk about.
<v narrator>At the age of seven, Eddie watched as his father murdered his mother. <v narrator>Since then, he has been in and out of state mental hospitals 21 times. <v Eddie Sayen>Small kid at seven years old that doesn't have anybody, I just go into any situation <v Eddie Sayen>that you know, that I can get into. <v Eddie Sayen>I think the shelter after a while, I found the shelter and it was it was pretty nice <v Eddie Sayen>for me. <v interviewer>What happened? <v narrator>Without hope from the shelter staff, Eddie would be totally unable to manage his life. <v narrator>They make sure that he sees a doctor when he's sick. <v narrator>That he has food, clothes and a place to sleep. <v narrator> Eddie spends his afternoons, drinking coffee at a cafe <v narrator>down the street. <v waitress>OK, here. OK, OK. <v waitress>You want something to eat today? <v Eddie Sayen>Oh no, I'm not hungry. <v waitress>Are you ok? <v Eddie Sayen>Yea, I'm all right. <v waitress>OK. <v Diner owner>So Eddie, how are you coming along on your book? <v Diner owner>How far are you into it now? <v Eddie Sayen>I wrote every book in publication already. <v Diner owner>You wrote every book and publication already?
<v Eddie Sayen>Yea I did <v Diner owner>Most of the time he writes. You know like... Sometimes he'll come in and grab <v Diner owner>a piece of newspaper and just take his pen that he always comes in <v Diner owner>with just scribbles over the whole pen, over the whole paper, you know, completely, we <v Diner owner>think. And you ask him what he's doing. <v Diner owner>He says says he's writing a book. <v Diner owner>He doesn't cause any trouble. He comes in here with the shelter program down the street. <v Diner owner>You know, they're here. He doesn't bring his friends in here. <v Diner owner>It's OK. One is enough. <v narrator>A large percentage of the homeless suffer some form of mental illness. <v narrator>Many live entirely in a paranoid world of their own delusions, scavenging for food <v narrator>and sleeping in alleyways.
<v narrator>Most of these people were once in state mental hospitals. <v narrator>Drugs developed in the 1950s led to the belief that severely disturbed no longer <v narrator>required hospitalization. <v narrator>They could be treated at walk in mental health centers. <v narrator>Over the next 20 years, tens of thousands of mentally ill were released onto the city <v narrator>streets. <v Eleanor Owen>These individuals who were formerly hospitalized and would <v Eleanor Owen>be able to come to the mental health centers, get their medication once a month, <v Eleanor Owen>occasionally see a doctor, never have to go to a hospital <v Eleanor Owen>at implying that they would get married, have jobs, pay taxes <v Eleanor Owen>and live tranquilly among their neighbors. <v Eleanor Owen>I mean, this was a farce. <v speaker 10>And I've seen all these characters in the street and the riots, <v speaker 10>the wrath. <v speaker 10>The speech, the way everyone feels.
<v speaker 10>And I just had another eviction notice and more bills and more <v speaker 10>bills and more bills. And pretty soon I won't be able to pay all my hospital bills <v speaker 10>because something will come up that that they won't be able to pay for. <v speaker 10>And I'll die. <v narrator>I know I need to be here. A group therapy session at Harborview Mental Health Center. <v narrator>All of these people are severely disturbed. <v narrator>All of them have been in state mental hospitals. <v narrator>All of them have been homeless at one time or another. <v narrator>Eddie Sayen is a member of the group. <v narrator>With a lot of help, these people barely manage to take care of themselves. <v speaker 11>I know an Eskimo girl to Morrison. <v speaker 11>She used to come there, but she just. <v speaker 11>She can't be bothered. Maybe she is not that social, she just want to talk to the nurse <v speaker 11>once a week, but she doesn't come anymore. She doesn't take her medicine. <v speaker 11>So you start sliding downhill. <v speaker 10>The limbs go numb. The legs go numb. <v speaker 10>The hands go numb. They get so bad off their hands feel like
<v speaker 10>they're going to fall off. They can't see with their eyes out of their hands. <v speaker 10>They never will be able to eat properly again, even if they do get the interest because <v speaker 10>they wore so much street strain and rejection. <v Eddie Sayen>I had some papers with the government. Just all the usual things I could be I got to <v Eddie Sayen>write to the federal government a letter to the White House, you know-. <v psychiatrist>What do you got to say in that letter Eddie? <v Eddie Sayen>Well, I had to study ?inaudible?. <v Eddie Sayen>I wri- write a good letter. You know, explain. <v narrator>Everyone agrees that the current mental health system is failing the most severely <v narrator>disturbed. Inadequate funding often means that not everyone who wants treatment <v narrator>can get it. Some are too frightened or distrustful to seek help. <v narrator>But even those getting treatment often end up living on the streets or at emergency <v narrator>shelters. <v Jim Mundt>Coming to the Community Health Center does not guarantee a decent place to live. <v Jim Mundt>And that's where a major part of the systems gap is right now, is <v Jim Mundt>that there aren't. <v Jim Mundt>Anywhere close to the kinds of residential facilities that we need,
<v Jim Mundt>if we're really serious about, not only <v Jim Mundt>in a very limited sense maintaining this group of people in the community, but also <v Jim Mundt>maintaining them in the community in some decent standard <v Jim Mundt>of living. <v narrator>Schizophrenia is not the only form of mental illness at the downtown shelter. <v narrator>Robert Wilson suffers severe depression, complicated by alcoholism. <v narrator>Homelessness itself is part of the problem. <v Robert Wilson>Basic elements of roadology is faith. <v Robert Wilson>If you lose faith on the road, you do one or two things. <v Robert Wilson>You go into a bar and get yourself smashed with what little money you have or you find <v Robert Wilson>someone to talk to or cry to, you know. <v Robert Wilson>And I've done a lot of that. <v Robert Wilson>Done a lot of crying lately. The longer you spend on the road, it seems like the longer
<v Robert Wilson>I'll never get off the road. <v Robert Wilson>Sometimes I'm happy, sometimes I'm sad. <v Robert Wilson>Sometimes I'm tired. And sometimes I'm glad. Glad to be tired, aching and worn, bruised <v Robert Wilson>and spit out, abused and torn. Glad to make it through another terribly long day and to <v Robert Wilson>wake up on dreams of yesterday, to step off my porch and see a blind man mugged <v Robert Wilson>and stabbed. I say, God, what is this world of such toil and waste? <v Robert Wilson>But what should I care? It'll soon be erased. <v Robert Wilson>Sometimes I'm happy and sometimes I'm sad. <v Robert Wilson>Sometimes I'm tired. Sometimes I'm glad. <v Robert Wilson> It'll be through all over some dark, rainy day, and even eternity will pass away. <v narrator>Mental illness is never a matter of choice.
<v narrator>Most would agree the mentally ill deserve help. <v narrator>But what about alcoholism? <v narrator>What do we owe the person who chooses to drink? <v narrator>These men are street alcoholics, known nationwide as skid roaders <v narrator>bums.
<v Speaker>[Music plays]. <v speaker 12>I'm sleeping underneath the freeway it hurts. <v speaker 12>I'm used to making about fifteen, twenty two thousand a week. <v speaker 13>Reagan did it to me. Right there. <v speaker 14>I'm drunk, but I'm not. <v speaker 14>But I'm not wiped out. <v speaker 14>But I need a drink, man I need a drink, badly. <v speaker 14>Today I was going to be a good boy. <v speaker 14>But then I said, to hell with it. <v speaker 15>I'm an alcoholic. <v speaker 15>?Inaudible? <v speaker 15>I can't get a job no where. <v speaker 15>What am I gonna say? I've been sleeping in a shelter, same as Salvation Army. <v speaker 15>I've got nothing left, nothing left. <v speaker 15>You don't think I can do. I can't even buy a bullet to put it in my fucking
<v speaker 15>brain. You understand that. <v speaker 15>That's how sick I am. <v speaker 15>Fuck the rest of the bullshit. <v police officer>Hi, how you doing today gentlemen? <v police officer>OK. <v police officer>When they're not being obtrusive. <v police officer>Or stopping people, bumming money, drinking in public. <v police officer>Creating a scene. Then we'll probably let them stay there. <v police officer>If they get the least bit out of hand, they very well know that the big cops <v police officer>gonna move them along. And if they don't go with that, then they'll go to jail. <v police officer>Don't have you drinking right now. But if you found a way in there, make sure you kind of <v police officer>keep your bottle-. <v police officer>Downward trend in life to know how to get on welfare <v police officer>in this state, how to get food stamps <v police officer>where all the free food lines are. <v police officer>Any money they do get. Just go to whatever habits they have.
<v police officer>Most of it is all revolved around alcoholism. <v police officer>It's a shame. <v Ken Cole>We see them, they come in early in the day, they're already drunk, they've already <v Ken Cole>gotten their alcohol level up and they just spend the rest the day in <v Ken Cole>sort of a stupor. And you'll see you'll see them out here just lying around. <v Ken Cole>And that's a pretty bleak lifestyle. <v narrator>Most street alcoholics are continually cycling through treatment programs like this one <v narrator>operated by the County Health Department. <v narrator>Alcoholism renders those susceptible to it, unable to control their drinking. <v narrator>An alcoholic must completely avoid alcohol. <v narrator>But this takes a strong will and a lot of encouragement. <v narrator>For those too long on Skid Row, the incentive to make this effort is long gone.
<v Craig Miller>It's a very difficult cycle to break. <v Craig Miller>When his basic feeling is that he's worthless, <v Craig Miller>he's a bum. He can't do anything. <v Craig Miller>And that's how they get to seeing themselves. <v Craig Miller>And once they picture themselves that way, it's difficult to try and convince <v Craig Miller>them. No, it's not that way. You can live any way you choose. <v narrator>But these men have been in and out of dozens of treatment programs. <v narrator>Only 15 percent of them will remain sober for five years or more after they leave <v narrator>here. <v Craig Miller>The problem is, once they leave treatment, there is not an adequate <v Craig Miller>follow up system to care for their needs. <v Craig Miller>The resources for halfway houses, for follow up <v Craig Miller>alcoholism treatment programs are extraordinarily limited, particularly <v Craig Miller>with people who are receiving public assistance. <v Craig Miller>A number of people will end up, again, homeless wanderers, <v Craig Miller>practicing alcoholics, and the cycle starts all over.
<v narrator>How far should we go for the alcoholic? <v narrator>Should we be funding more halfway houses and follow up treatment programs? <v police officer>An awful lot of these people would have to go out and manage for themselves if they <v police officer>didn't have these social services to go to. <v police officer>We're getting a larger transient population. <v police officer>It's tougher for the police department cuts in our taxation bases, the various <v police officer>missions, social health services, people here genuinely trying to help people. <v police officer>They're doing a good job. On the other hand, they're making Seattle a mecca <v police officer>for people that come from the entire western part of the United States because it's <v police officer>easier to obtain free services here in Seattle than other places. <v narrator>Alcoholism leads to unemployment and homelessness. <v narrator>But sometimes it works the other way round. <v narrator>It all starts with a lost job. <v narrator>Unpaid bills. Idleness.
<v doctor>Have you been signing in? <v speaker>Oh, yes. <v speaker>I don't-. I've been diving in from renting in fact. <v speaker>I got a family, too. <v speaker>We went together last time. <v narrator>The millionaire club in Seattle is a nonprofit agency that finds day work for the <v narrator>unemployed. But there are rarely more than 30 jobs available on any given <v narrator>day. And over 100 have signed up for work. <v narrator>Unemployment doesn't always lead to homelessness, but it can begin a downhill slide. <v speaker 16>Well, I've got an application in quite a few places, but <v speaker 16>nothing until after the first year. <v speaker 16>Luckily, we came up with the money to pay the hotel for another week. <v speaker 16>Last night. <v speaker 16>Don't get something else. <v interviewer>What do you do if you don't get any work this week? <v speaker 16>You end up having to go to the mission. <v speaker 17> They get discouraged, sometimes. <v speaker 17>But I just feel like just packing our bags, and just leaving. <v speaker 17>[laughs] Going someplace else, where I'll, <v speaker 17>go make California but I know things is tight there.
<v speaker 18>We came up here looking for work in the shipyards. <v speaker 18>I'm a ship fitter, welder by trade. I've been here for about two months and I've gotten <v speaker 18>out one day. <v speaker 18>So we're thinking about going to Southern California, if things don't pick out by the <v speaker 18>first of the year. <v interviewer>How are you feeling about things now? <v speaker 18>Pretty depressed, pretty depressed. <v speaker 18>I've been a working man all my life. I've never been out of work this long before. <v speaker 18>And it's really caused some tension in my house. <v interviewer>Do you have a family? <v speaker 19>That's a good question. I'm not sure. <v speaker 19>I was married, I don't know if I still am or not. <v speaker 19>I think she's in California, but I don't know for sure. <v narrator>Many of the homeless are men and women with families known as the new poor. <v narrator>They are victims of a long economic recession. <v narrator>Criss crossing the country in search of work, they have become modern nomads. <v narrator>Ernie and Teresa Graham arrived a few weeks ago from Maine. <v narrator>They left their home state after months of unemployment.
<v Ernie Graham>Things just kept going right downhill. <v Ernie Graham>Day after day. And it just so depressing. <v Ernie Graham>You go down to the employment office and there'd be in line all the way out to the <v Ernie Graham>parking lot, almost into the street in the newspaper you'd look <v Ernie Graham>and there'd be. Wow. Complete pays rate for <v Ernie Graham>bankruptcies. Businesses is going out of business. <v Ernie Graham>Everything falling. <v Ernie Graham>And the turn to another page and you see a whole page <v Ernie Graham>full of divorces, people getting divorced. <v Ernie Graham>It just, things just did not look any better. <v narrator>After several weeks in Seattle, the Grahams ran out of money and ended up at an emergency <v narrator>shelter for families. <v Martha Dilts>Families, you don't see as much because they're sleeping out in their cars or sleeping in <v Martha Dilts>the parks in the summer, they're crowding with other families. <v Martha Dilts>They really are the invisible homeless, but they are quite a presence in our society and <v Martha Dilts>we're very disturbed how normal the situation of being homeless has become.
<v Martha Dilts>I think people also forget we're talking about children. <v Martha Dilts>I mean, three fourths, the people we serve are, are children. <v Martha Dilts>And how can you possibly blame children for being homeless? <v Martha Dilts>They certainly can't understand why they have to move from place to place, sleep in their <v Martha Dilts>cars, why their parents seem angry, you know, and upset. <v Ernie Graham>You felt pressured because it's not really knowing where to go, who to talk to, <v Ernie Graham>or who to see what to do. <v narrator>The Grahams were lucky. This shelter turns away 10 families for everyone they accept. <v narrator>But To make room for someone else, the Grahams will soon have to move again. <v narrator>So far, they've been unable to find work. <v Martha Dilts>Until we have enough jobs for people, until we have enough job training to provoke people <v Martha Dilts>into jobs. And until we have enough low income housing, I think that the ranks of the <v Martha Dilts>homeless will keep increasing. <v narrator>Increasing most quickly are homeless families headed by single mothers. <v narrator>These women with young children are unemployed. <v narrator>Some have sought protection from family violence.
<v narrator>This shelter, located in what used to be a suburban grammar school, is reserved for women <v narrator>and children. <v narrator>Old classrooms now serve as dormitories, and the long, empty hallways are a place for the <v narrator>kids to play. <v narrator>This shelter is a refuge where families can sort out the problems that brought them here. <v speaker 20>He had told me at one time that if I ever left him <v speaker 20>and got custody of my child, he would kill me. <v speaker 20>Then there was an incident where he had been drinking and we went out in a boat <v speaker 20>and I went to get in the boat and he pushed me back into the water. <v speaker 20>And as I fell from the boat, I cut both my legs and he made me swim to shore. <v speaker 21>My husband had lost his job and had moved out of the home <v speaker 21>and I was employed. <v speaker 21>But I'd quit my job because I didn't have anyone to care for the children. <v speaker 21>And having dad gone just kind of adds to the confusion. <v speaker 22>You have to make sure that you've got enough room to where you got- enough space where
<v speaker 22>your children can stay in. And then on top of that, if you don't have the amount that you <v speaker 22>need for first and last month's rent plus deposit, you cannot <v speaker 22>get a home. And you got to have a certain amount of education before you can get a job <v speaker 22>to where you can support yourself and your family. <v speaker 23>I've never really got out on my own before, I'm only 19. <v speaker 23>I've lived alone. I've lived without my parents for a few years, <v speaker 23>but I was always living with a friend or living with my boyfriend, and I always had <v speaker 23>someone there to take care of me. <v speaker 23>Being in Seattle all alone, with no friends, <v speaker 23>no family or nothing. <v speaker 23>was- one of the most frightening things that ever happened to me. <v narrator>The burden of homelessness falls heavily on single mothers. <v narrator>Without specialized job skills, women have a hard time earning enough to support a family
<v narrator>and also pay for childcare while they work. <v narrator>Most of these women will remain dependent on welfare. <v narrator>But a welfare check is never enough to cover the cost of moving into permanent housing. <v Deanna Grace>I've seen people get 120 and there's expected to move on that. <v Deanna Grace>And then they go get a room downtown. <v Deanna Grace>On 9th or eighth, or- one of the low, low, low income rooms that may have <v Deanna Grace>a board over the window and they're there for maybe two weeks. <v Deanna Grace>And for whatever reasons, they didn't get the paperwork in or whatever. <v Deanna Grace>They don't get that regular grant check and then they're at another shelter. <v Deanna Grace>So it's just, as I was saying before, just a vicious circle. <v narrator>But finding space at another shelter is not easy. <v narrator>City shelters are usually full. <v narrator>For those that end up with nowhere to go, there is one last place to try. <v speaker>Excuse me ma'am. <v speaker>Yes? <v speaker>Can I get a coffee or something? <v speaker>Sure thing, help yourself. <v narrator>One of the older shelter agencies in the city is Operation Nightwatch.
<v narrator>A church sponsored organization, Nightwatch, is open from 9:00 p.m. <v narrator>until 2:00 in the morning long after other shelters have closed. <v narrator>Nightwatch volunteers search out the last available shelter beds in the city. <v speaker 24>And we still can try filling in places. <v Rev. Norm Riggins>Yea you can filling in and then you can [inaudible] probably call you [speaker 24: Ok] <v Rev. Norm Riggins>and give you maybe two, maybe three beds at union. <v Rev. Norm Riggins>A lot of the people on the street know that they can come to our office. <v Rev. Norm Riggins>And if there are beds anywhere, we will write them a referral with the rooms that we have <v Rev. Norm Riggins>and a few beds we get at the mission. <v Rev. Norm Riggins>The various sleeping places, we'll run 25, 30 beds a night. <v narrator>But by midnight, all shelters in the city are usually full and Nightwatch will begin <v narrator>turning people away. Those turned away will have to sleep in the streets. <v Rev. Norm Riggins>We went out and did an actual count between midnight and three o'clock in the morning and <v Rev. Norm Riggins>we counted 400 in the downtown area of Seattle sleeping out.
<v Speaker>[Music playing.] <v Speaker>People be getting ready to go. <v Speaker>I'd like to welcome everybody who's been able to come today.
<v Speaker>This is the fourth annual press conference of Emergency Housing Coalition. <v narrator>Each November, the Seattle Emergency Housing Coalition holds a press conference to <v narrator>announce the results of a survey of conditions at shelters around the city. <v Ken Cole>The situation is increasingly grim, although the missions and the shelters <v Ken Cole>downtown see a certain number of regulars. <v Ken Cole>There is a staggering flow of new faces. <v Ken Cole>Our estimate for a turn away in the downtown is about 900 people per month <v Ken Cole>are trying to get into shelters and not able to make <v Ken Cole>it into one. <v Martha Dilts>During November 1983, 18 family shelters participated <v Martha Dilts>in both count of the number of people that they did serve, a number of people who were <v Martha Dilts>turned away during that month for one month period. <v Martha Dilts>Three thousand one hundred and thirteen people were denied shelter at local family <v Martha Dilts>shelters. This is a 26 percent increase over similar statistics <v Martha Dilts>that we procured during September 1982. <v Martha Dilts>I think that's quite a dramatic increase.
<v Speaker>There is an institutional response possible. <v Speaker>The feds aren't giving us any money. <v Martha Dilts>The requests for shelter have probably tripled in the last three years. <v Martha Dilts>And that's because of institutional issues, because of lack of mental health programs, <v Martha Dilts>because of lack of jobs, because public assistance is not adequate. <v Martha Dilts>I think in this community, we need to look next year to just maintaining our current <v Martha Dilts>level of shelters. And that is a problem that's at this current time. <v Martha Dilts>We're looking for a cutback of probably up to 40 percent of current shelter beds just <v Martha Dilts>because a lack of funding. <v narrator>City shelter directors are worried, despite a record increase in the demand for shelter, <v narrator>there may be budget cuts for the coming year. <v narrator>The final decisions will be made by politicians and government administrators. <v narrator>What can be done for the homeless will depend on what they decide. <v Hon. Charles Royer>We're talking about women and kids. <v Hon. Charles Royer>We're talking about people who are not lazy. <v Hon. Charles Royer>They are occasionally mentally ill or <v Hon. Charles Royer>occasionally sick.
<v Hon. Charles Royer>Always unemployed. <v Hon. Charles Royer>But they always also represent a further cost to the society. <v Hon. Charles Royer>If this kind of hopelessness and homelessness and drift is allowed <v Hon. Charles Royer>to go on. We deal with them in the courts or we deal with them in our hospitals or <v Hon. Charles Royer>we deal with them in some way that costs society money. <v Hon. Charles Royer>People seem to still believe the truth that the shelter <v Hon. Charles Royer>requirement is primarily seasonal. <v Hon. Charles Royer>That's [inaudible] you see. <v Hon. Charles Royer>It's not just winter, I mean, it's almost a 12 month operation which has terrible <v Hon. Charles Royer>staffing cost implications. <v narrator>Seattle Mayor Charles Royer is considered a liberal. <v narrator>During his year as head of the League of Cities, he gained a reputation as an advocate <v narrator>for the homeless. <v narrator>The problem is money operating shelters is expensive. <v narrator>And he must assess how many city dollars will be required for the coming year. <v speaker 25>That's where you can see the water damage that we've had over the years from the plumbing <v speaker 25>in the hotel upstairs. So the renovation, the physical renovation of the building will be
<v speaker 25>an excellent change. <v speaker 25>We'll be able to put some energy into fixing the <v speaker 25>floors once we know there won't be any more leaks from the pipe. <v Hon. Charles Royer>Now, it is not that Seattle is not taking care of its own. <v Hon. Charles Royer>We're taking care of our own and Detroit's own and and Mississippi's <v Hon. Charles Royer>own and North Carolina's own and Oklahoma's own. <v Ken Cole>Look at what the federal government did with the Social Security program. <v Ken Cole>And we certainly felt that on the streets, particularly with the mentally ill. <v Hon. Charles Royer>The president's budget, which he'll announce has <v Hon. Charles Royer>further reductions in means tested entitlement programs and <v Hon. Charles Royer>health cutbacks and job training program cutbacks and housing <v Hon. Charles Royer>and all the emergency kinds of programs. <v Hon. Charles Royer>And we'll feel that. <v Ken Cole>I think the folks involved in shelter really fear and this goes for food banks, <v Ken Cole>too, that you're involved in a Band-Aid, you're a Band-Aid on
<v Ken Cole>a gaping wound, and you're worried that the solution is just <v Ken Cole>more Band-Aids. <v Hon. Charles Royer>Sixty seven cents out of every tax dollar collected in the city of Seattle goes back to <v Hon. Charles Royer>Washington, D.C. <v Hon. Charles Royer>Maybe they can send a few back. <v narrator> To plead the city's case, Royer sent assistant Tom Keefe to Washington, D.C., <v narrator>to testify in congressional hearings on homelessness. <v narrator>These 1982 hearings with the first time Congress had investigated this issue since <v narrator>the Great Depression. <v Tom Keefe>The homeless people in Seattle, Washington, cannot be easily stereotyped. <v Tom Keefe>The problem has grown to affect a cross-section of working class America. <v Tom Keefe>We still have the transients, seasonal workers and elderly men who have populated <v Tom Keefe>our skid roads area since Seattle was founded more than a century ago. <v Tom Keefe>But their situation has grown more desperate. <v Tom Keefe>With each reduction in federal and state assistance, there was a time when the missions <v Tom Keefe>operated by church groups were considered the bottom of our social safety net. <v Tom Keefe>Now, those who sleep in the missions are the lucky ones.
<v Tom Keefe>For many, others are in far worse circumstances. <v Tom Keefe>The city of Seattle presently spends approximately one half million dollars a year to <v Tom Keefe>provide emergency shelter to the poor. <v Tom Keefe>Double the amount we spent just three years ago. <v Tom Keefe>Fully 50 percent of the people who use Seattle's emergency shelters come from areas <v Tom Keefe>outside the Seattle metropolitan area. <v Tom Keefe>30 percent come from outside the state of Washington. <v Tom Keefe>We simply cannot meet this national problem with our local resources. <v Rev. Eduard Loring>In Atlanta, Georgia, we have. <v Rev. Eduard Loring>A conservative estimate that we make is three thousand five hundred homeless <v Rev. Eduard Loring>men and women. There are at least a conservative estimate, at least <v Rev. Eduard Loring>1500 people in Atlanta, Georgia, for whom there is absolutely <v Rev. Eduard Loring>no room. <v Carol Bellamy>It is evident from our extensive experience in New York City that localities and <v Carol Bellamy>charitable organizations simply do not have the resources to fully cope with the problem <v Carol Bellamy>of the homelessness of the homeless. <v Carol Bellamy>And so we need the help of the federal government. <v Hon. Ted Wilson>It is a function of federal responsibility to deal with interstate problems.
<v Hon. Ted Wilson>Now, cities and states alone did not create this economic mess we're in. <v Hon. Ted Wilson>The federal government does have a role. <v narrator>Following these hearings in 1982. <v narrator>Congress allocated 50 million dollars for shelters across the country back to the Federal <v narrator>Emergency Management Agency, FEMA. <v narrator>Two hundred and ninety thousand dollars went to the city of Seattle. <v narrator>It was divided among 17 different shelters. <v narrator> <v Speaker>But this year, with our FEMA funds from the federal government. <v Speaker>We purchased additional mats which you'll see over here. <v Speaker>See they're about six inches narrower. <v Speaker>[?: Yeah] The federal government helped us purchase a narrower mat so [?: they cut back] <v Speaker>fit a few more people. It's a cutback. It's a visible cutback in funding. <v Speaker>And that helped us squeeze in a few more. <v narrator>But budget projections for the coming year do not look good. <v narrator>The FEMA money will be cut from 50 million to 30 federal block grants and <v narrator>revenue sharing will also be cut. <v narrator>All told, there will be half a million dollars less for emergency services in the city.
<v narrator>The mayor must decide what to do. <v Hon. Charles Royer>We have different perspectives, the Reagan perspective is reflected in the Reagan budget. <v Hon. Charles Royer>And it's not a budget or set of priorities that <v Hon. Charles Royer>are relevant to what really goes on in the cities. <v Ken Cole>Would you like to meet the mayor? This is Dan Blowfield. <v Hon. Charles Royer> the mayor. <v Dan Blowfiled>Wow. Wow, the mayor. <v Hon. Charles Royer>At some point, leadership has to take a position that, OK, <v Hon. Charles Royer>the Moral Majority is going to the- anti-welfare people are going to take <v Hon. Charles Royer>a chunk out of me if I support this thing. <v Hon. Charles Royer>But it's the right thing to do. <v narrator> But the only source of additional revenue is the city is the city council. <v narrator>Emergency services in Seattle have traditionally been paid for with federal dollars <v narrator>allocated to the city to spend as it wishes. <v narrator>But now the mayor will ask the council for 500000 city tax dollars. <v narrator>Say something which has never before been done. <v narrator>The council is reluctant to go along.
<v Norm Rice>And the mayor's proposal raises, but does not address major policy <v Norm Rice>issues such as are the s- survival needs of our citizens a local <v Norm Rice>responsibility? How can we afford to provide these services over time <v Norm Rice>and not just on a one time only basis? <v Norm Rice>And what is the cost to providing these services? <v Tom Byers>Our community has done exceedingly well in shelter and food <v Tom Byers>and medical care, and our systems are really the envy <v Tom Byers>of a lot of. <v Tom Byers>A lot of cities around the country. <v Tom Byers>The problem is that that that system is now under assault by <v Tom Byers>a fundamental change in policy from Washington, D.C., <v Tom Byers>which has cut the supply lines for that system. <v Tom Byers>And really changed the nature of the <v Tom Byers>of the funding relationships. <v Norm Rice>My concern is what if general revenue sharing? <v Norm Rice>I'm saying this to everyone. Not to the executive, is cut severely?
<v Norm Rice>And then we have made a commitment of general fund and we have <v Norm Rice>to then make it up in police and fire. <v Norm Rice>The consequences are. And I just want to lay it out, either cut <v Norm Rice>the budget drastically, which then is cutting the same people and everything else <v Norm Rice>across the board, or we raise taxes. <v Tom Byers>We are left with our neighbors without medical care, without <v Tom Byers>food, without shelter. <v Tom Byers>And we have to wrestle with the definitions of what is basic <v Tom Byers>service in that new environment. <v narrator>The immediate problem was finding more money for emergency shelters. <v narrator>But some fear that shelters will become a substitute for permanent housing,
<v narrator>downtown redevelopment has brought with it a major problem. <v John Fox>What we have here are a number of buildings owned by one developer, and they <v John Fox>have made a habit of buying up low income housing and <v John Fox>systematically vacating the units, deferring maintenance, allowing them to run down, <v John Fox>and eventually they look like this. <v John Fox>And ultimately, their plan is to demolish and replace with <v John Fox>condominiums or other uses. <v John Fox>In the last 20 years, we've lost over half of the low income housing in downtown. <v John Fox>There were over 15000 units in 1960. <v John Fox>Now we're down to about eight thousand. <v John Fox>And according to the city's Department of Community Development, we are likely to lose <v John Fox>over half of what we what remains to office <v John Fox>and condominium development. And this particular building right here, the San Telmo <v John Fox>apartments, houses about one hundred to one hundred and twenty five low income people, <v John Fox>mostly elderly. Also some refugees, Asian refugees.
<v John Fox>Some of them will move out of the city. <v narrator>Some of them will move into the streets, ordinances restricting condominium conversion <v narrator>are under the jurisdiction of the city. <v narrator>But the construction and renovation of low cost housing have generally been paid for with <v narrator>federal dollars. These dollars are disappearing. <v John Fox>Prior to the Reagan administration in 1980, the city was providing assistance to <v John Fox>about 1000 households and about half of those units were in new construction. <v John Fox>Federal assistance primarily or only providing assistance now to less than <v John Fox>500 households a year. <v John Fox>That's less than two percent of the housing assistance needs. <v John Fox>In Seattle, there are over 35000 households in need of housing assistance, <v John Fox>according to the city of Seattle. And again, we're providing a minimal amount <v John Fox>of assistance to those folks. <v narrator>Federal housing policy is determined in Washington, D.C. <v narrator>It changes with the political priorities of each administration. <v narrator>Phillip Abrams is second in charge of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
<v narrator>He insists there is no shortage of low cost housing. <v Phillip Abrams>But generally there is enough housing available <v Phillip Abrams>throughout this country to house all Americans poor middle income. <v narrator>The only problem, according to Abrams, is that some are unable to afford the housing <v narrator>that is available. <v Phillip Abrams>There is an affordability problem, but the most effective way socially <v Phillip Abrams>and from a budget point of view of assisting people who have an affordability problem, <v Phillip Abrams>poor people is with vouchers. <v Phillip Abrams>And so we are expanding the current program of vouchers, which has 750000 <v Phillip Abrams>families being assisted. <v Phillip Abrams>And our proposal in Congress has endorsed it. <v Phillip Abrams>This year is to expand the voucher program, to address <v Phillip Abrams>the affordability problem, to give poor people the money they need <v Phillip Abrams>to pay market rents so that they can use the housing that is available. <v narrator>The Reagan administration will replace the federally subsidized construction of low cost
<v narrator>housing with a voucher system. But contrary to administration claims <v narrator>a major research study predicts we will need one point seven million more low cost <v narrator>housing units by 1990. <v narrator>Will a system of rent vouchers ever be able to meet this need? <v Speaker>[chatter]. <v speaker>Come back with me, if the press will come back with me. <v Margaret Heckler>Yes. <v speaker>Secretary, is-. <v Margaret Heckler>Tell me about your [inaudible]. <v speaker>That's right. Just give you a tour. <v narrator>Margaret Heckler is secretary of Health and Human Services, the largest and one of the <v narrator>most powerful agencies in the federal government. <v narrator>She has personally intervened to help open a number of shelters across the country, <v narrator>including this one for teenage runaways. <v narrator>Another group that often ends up homeless. <v narrator>But secretary, Heckler is part of an administration whose philosophy has been to cut <v narrator>funding for social services.
<v narrator>She believes that solving the problem of homelessness should not be primarily a federal <v narrator>responsibility. <v Margaret Heckler>I think that we do have a new philosophy. <v Margaret Heckler>I think the president's philosophy is to link the private sector with the public sector <v Margaret Heckler>and to say that we just can't have unlimited growth in spending, let us use <v Margaret Heckler>our money and at the same time trigger private investment. <v Margaret Heckler>Now, Orion Center is the perfect example. <v Margaret Heckler>I'm not suggesting that this is an easy answer, but I am suggesting that creating just <v Margaret Heckler>another federal program that will go on and live beyond <v Margaret Heckler>its scope and grow like Topsy as they all do, is not <v Margaret Heckler>meeting the real needs. <v Margaret Heckler>We don't need a government that is overrun <v Margaret Heckler>with the bureaucracies and regulations and excessive cost. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>If you start putting taxpayer dollars into these programs, strict tax dollars, <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>then you you lose a lot of the humanistic part that's so important to the poor people, <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>to the homeless people, the ones I'm speaking about and I've talked with
<v Dr. Harvey Vieth>people. And what really comes out of it is they said the most important thing where you <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>start with these people is with with love. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>You start with love and then you and then you build from there. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>And then the priest out there and the other providers, that's what they have to do with <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>these people. <v Rev. David Bloom>What the Reagan administration seems to want to depend on are handouts. <v Rev. David Bloom>It is incredibly taxing on those agencies that with their limited resources, try <v Rev. David Bloom>to provide it. There is no way that the churches of our community or any community <v Rev. David Bloom>can possibly begin to deal with the <v Rev. David Bloom>massive human needs in our communities, particularly in this case <v Rev. David Bloom>in terms of the need for shelter. <v Rick Gilbert>You have church organizations that have come forth with money that haven't been there <v Rick Gilbert>before. You have the corporate sector of this community through Project Transition <v Rick Gilbert>that donated money and tried to deal with some of the emergency needs. <v Rick Gilbert>You have United Way, who has the most success, most
<v Rick Gilbert>United Way's around the country in terms of raising money. <v Rick Gilbert>We're probably servicing 10 at maximum, 20 percent of the need. <v speaker>A lot of preservatives in hot dogs. <v speaker>wash 'em off, peel 'em, whatever. <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>Homelessness in the United States has quietly taken on crisis proportions. <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>We know. From an accumulation of reports and from simple observation <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>that never since the Great Depression have there been so many people without <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>homes in distress. <v narrator>A year after the first congressional hearings on homelessness, the same committee met <v narrator>once again, this time in the basement of a shelter in Washington, D.C.. <v narrator>The speakers were well-known politician and they agreed. <v narrator>Homelessness had become a national crisis and the federal government was in large part,
<v narrator>responsible. <v Hon. Marion Barry>Just last year, in our own city, we spent a great deal of money for emergency <v Hon. Marion Barry>assistance in the form of food, shelter, or shelter-related expenses. <v Hon. Marion Barry>Mr. Chairman, this represents a seventy seven percent <v Hon. Marion Barry>increase over the previous year. <v Hon. Harold Washington>In Chicago right now there are at least 12000 people who are without any place to live <v Hon. Harold Washington>in. They exist like untouchables in Calcutta, sleeping in streets <v Hon. Harold Washington>and alleys and in abandoned automobiles. <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>The federal government should be, I believe, a larger part of the solution to the <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>problem of homelessness, just as it has been responsible in part <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>for creating the conditions that led to it. <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>The country's worst economic slump since the 1930s fell hardest <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>on those already on the margins of our society, especially the poor, <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>the young, the minorities, 40 percent of the nearly 12 million <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>households living below poverty level and nineteen eighty one received no
<v Hon. Mario Cuomo>welfare, no food stamps, no public housing, <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>no Medicaid, no school lunches. <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>Those are facts. <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>The number of those in need who were not served has risen steadily since first computed <v Hon. Mario Cuomo>by the Census Bureau in 1979. <v Margaret Heckler>The problem with the homeless is not a new problem. <v Margaret Heckler>It is correlated to the problem of alcohol or drug dependency. <v Margaret Heckler>And they there have been a number of alcoholics who will become homeless throughout the <v Margaret Heckler>years, maybe centuries. <v Margaret Heckler>They are still there. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>There are people out there, certainly who are unemployed, who are homeless. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>These are the people that can be addressed very quickly and with the upturn in the <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>economy will be affected in a positive way. <v Margaret Heckler>I see the mentally handicapped as the latest group of the homeless. <v Margaret Heckler>But the problem is as old as time. <v Margaret Heckler>And with this new dimension complicating it, it's <v Margaret Heckler>it's a serious problem. But it always has been. <v Rick Gilbert>Mental health systems were cut. Alcohol and drug programs were cut,
<v Rick Gilbert>job training programs, programs working with the youth, whatever. <v Rick Gilbert>So now we have not only the people that we typically see looking for emergency shelter <v Rick Gilbert>in a new poor that's coming along that no longer have jobs. <v Rick Gilbert>But now we have this real complex population that is not being dealt with in any kind of <v Rick Gilbert>a program and they end up on the street and also asking for emergency assistance. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>We've looked into two cutbacks. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>The cutbacks have been cut from the top, from people who <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>fall within the poverty line, the highest level. <v Dr. Harvey Vieth>So I don't feel that that that's the biggest issue either. <v Hon. Charles Royer>The president and his advisers are way out of touch with the outcomes of their economic <v Hon. Charles Royer>policy. They look at numbers. <v Hon. Charles Royer>They talk to economists. They talk to the Wall Street banker who say atta boy. <v Hon. Charles Royer>You're getting that old interest rate down and the CPI is down. <v Hon. Charles Royer>And that is the measure of American health and welfare for mayors
<v Hon. Charles Royer>and for people who work in cities. <v Hon. Charles Royer>The measure is, are people slogging through the cold <v Hon. Charles Royer>because the shelters are overflowing? <v narrator>The Seattle City Council voted in favor of the mayor's request for five hundred thousand <v narrator>dollars for emergency services. <v narrator>Shelter directors were relieved. <v narrator>They would have the same level of funding for at least one more year. <v Ken Cole>But I think that we're likely to see more cuts in social program spending. <v Ken Cole>And I think it could be disastrous. <v Ken Cole>Even though the economy may be rebounding. <v Ken Cole>On the surface, those social problems will not go away. <v Hon. Harold Washington>For the long term we need more federal dollars, obviously, for our city's largest
<v Hon. Harold Washington>smo. Jobs are needed. <v Hon. Harold Washington>More job training programs should be available and funding of the existing <v Hon. Harold Washington>programs should be increased. <v Hon. Harold Washington>New low and moderate income housing programs and loan guarantees for housing <v Hon. Harold Washington>rehabilitation. More social service programs. <v Hon. Harold Washington>New state and federal programs to shelter and protect the mentally ill. <v interviewer>What is Congress going to do for the homeless in the coming year? <v Mike Lowry>Realistically, right now it's trying to duck its responsibilities. <v Mike Lowry>We have a very uphill fight to pass a 60 million <v Mike Lowry>dollar appropriation which has already been authorized, which would only keep us even <v Mike Lowry>with the inadequate amount appropriated last year. <v Mike Lowry>So the best we're gonna do is to hold the line. <v interviewer>So what's the future over the next few years for homeless people in our cities? <v Mike Lowry>Until we change the philosophy in this country, it is very bleak. <v Mike Lowry>We must change the philosophy and realize that-.
<v narrator>On New Year's Eve, a handful of people gathered for a silent memorial to the 38 <v narrator>homeless people who died in the city of Seattle last year. <v narrator>They stood for an hour in front of the federal building, but no one seemed to notice. <v narrator>But the time being. Things will go on pretty much as they have been. <v narrator>The massive effort and expense required to eliminate homelessness seems unlikely. <v narrator>As a society, we must decide our priorities. <v narrator>How far are we willing to go to solve this problem? <v narrator>Who will take responsibility? And who will pay the cost?
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KCTS (Television station : Seattle, Wash.)
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KCTS 9 (Seattle, Washington)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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"Never--since the Great Depression--have so many Americans been homeless. Some claim that there are over two million homeless nationwide. Emergency shelters are [turning] people away in record numbers for lack of space. Many are left to fend for themselves on the streets and in alleys. "SHELTER delves into who these people are, why are they homeless and what is being done about them. The documentary takes a first hand look at the problem on the local level in Seattle, Washington through a series of interviews and portraits of the homeless victims. The production then turns to often dramatic debate over what should [and] can be done to relieve the situation, starting with Seattle Mayor, Charles Royer and moving to several key members of the Reagan Administration: Margaret Heckler, Secretary of Health and Human Services; Philip Abrams, Undersecretary for Housing and Urban Development; and Dr. Harvey Vieth, Director of the Federal Task Force on Homelessness."--1984 Peabody Awards entry form.
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Producing Organization: KCTS (Television station : Seattle, Wash.)
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The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
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Chicago: “Shelter,” 1984, KCTS 9, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “Shelter.” 1984. KCTS 9, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: Shelter. Boston, MA: KCTS 9, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from