thumbnail of This Constitution; No. 5; The Rise and Fall of Prohibition
Hide -
<v Narrator 1>[intro theme] This Constitution, funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment <v Narrator 1>for the Humanities, is a presentation of the International University Consortium <v Narrator 1>and project 87. [music plays] <v Woman 1>If the republic is to be saved, the liquor traffic must be destroyed. <v Man 1>America must open its eyes and recognize that human conduct <v Man 1>cannot be changed by a legal enactment.
<v Man 2>Prohibition is a business. <v Man 2>All I do is supply public demand. <v Man 2>[gun shots] <v Narrator 2>This is the story of the Prohibition Amendment; the only amendment to our Constitution <v Narrator 2>ever to have been repealed. Prohibition only lasted 13 years, <v Narrator 2>but its story began 200 years ago. <v Narrator 2>After the revolution, America went on a drinking spree. <v Narrator 2>The per capita consumption of absolute alcohol went from two gallons a year to 5 <v Narrator 2>or even 10. <v Narrator 2>By 1820, a very healthy temperance movement had been born. <v Narrator 2>After the Civil War, it moved into the national political arena. <v Narrator 2>The Prohibition Party not only fought for a constitutional <v Narrator 2>amendment to control liquor, it also endorsed amendments to give women's suffrage
<v Narrator 2>and elect senators by popular vote. <v Narrator 2>Women were recruited into politics for the first time. <v Narrator 2>They marched on the polls and then with axes in hand on the saloons. <v Narrator 2>Which, according to Carrie Nation, had no rights anyone was bound to respect. <v Narrator 2>The women's crusade became the Women's Christian Temperance Union and initiated <v Narrator 2>a powerful educational campaign in the schools. <v Narrator 2>They saw to it that every child learn the new scientific evidence that alcohol, far <v Narrator 2>from being medicinal, was a deadly physical and moral poison. <v Narrator 2>By the time the Prohibition Amendment came before Congress in 1917, <v Narrator 2>a whole generation of Americans had been taught the evils of alcohol.
<v Woman 2>It has been proven that the habitual use of alcohol disintegrates moral character. <v Woman 2>It clouds the reason and enfeebles, the will. <v Woman 2>It arouses the appetites and inflames the passions. <v Narrator 2>In the end, the Prohibition Party alone could not pass their amendments, but <v Narrator 2>they brought temperance and suffrage into the mainstream of American politics. <v Narrator 2>All three of the party's amendments would be added to the Constitution as America endured <v Narrator 2>the social upheaval of the early 20th century. <v Narrator 2>The framers of our Constitution knew that the document they were creating would need to <v Narrator 2>be changed in order to endure. <v Narrator 2>So they created an amending power to correct potential structural flaws and <v Narrator 2>to settle issues that they could not settle in 1787.
<v Narrator 2>They wanted an amending power which could operate both as a pressure valve for dissidents <v Narrator 2>and as a way to legitimize the changes being made, both in the eyes of the law <v Narrator 2>and in the eyes of the people. <v Narrator 2>So the framers created a cooperative system of the federal and state governments <v Narrator 2>in which amendments are easy to initiate but hard to pass. <v Narrator 2>Since 1789, out of 5000 resolutions, 32 <v Narrator 2>have been sent to the states and only 26 have been ratified. <v Narrator 2>The process is inherently political, with Congress controlling the initiative. <v Narrator 2>An amendment must be passed by a two thirds majority in both houses and then <v Narrator 2>be ratified by three quarters of the states, either through the legislatures or by state <v Narrator 2>conventions. The states can petition Congress to call a general convention <v Narrator 2>to propose amendments. But a petition of this sort has always resulted in Congress <v Narrator 2>taking action rather than allowing the states this as yet undefined power. <v Narrator 2>As the framers anticipated, after the Bill of Rights, most of the changes in the
<v Narrator 2>Constitution have been procedural. <v Narrator 2>However, two sets of amendments, those after the Civil War and those called <v Narrator 2>the progressive amendments, were clearly responding to great social change. <v Narrator 2>Prohibition was one of these. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] The story of how it passed and why it failed can tell us much about the <v Narrator 2>enduring values embedded in our Constitution. <v Narrator 2>Prohibition is unique among the amendments in that it was a sumptuary law, <v Narrator 2>an attempt to regulate individual behavior for moral reasons. <v Narrator 2>Sumptuary laws were common in the colonial period and later in the states, but <v Narrator 2>had never been tried as a constitutional amendment. <v Narrator 2>But prohibition was going to change society. <v Narrator 2>It was a great experiment in centralized moral reform, which had begun in the States <v Narrator 2>and pulled the national government along with it. <v Narrator 2>But in order to master the political process and pass the amendment, what began <v Narrator 2>as a moral crusade of fervent women and preachers, ended as a disciplined
<v Narrator 2>and pragmatic political pressure group. <v Narrator 2>80 years of temperance work required national political focus with the founding <v Narrator 2>of the Anti Saloon League in 1895. <v Man 3>God has confided to this organization the task of offering a plan <v Man 3>of union for all enemies of the saloon. <v Man 3>He ?has set? his seal of approval on our efforts. <v Narrator 2>Like the abolitionists before them, the prohibitionists organized at the grassroots level <v Narrator 2>through the churches. [singing] Members pledging temperance and 25 cents a month to the <v Narrator 2>cause. <v Narrator 2>But the league organizers were professionals. <v Narrator 2>They also exacted another pledge from the membership: to vote dry, no matter what <v Narrator 2>the affiliation or the qualifications of the candidates.
<v Man 4>[singing] On Election Day, women and children were placed along the sidewalks to the <v Man 4>polling place. When a voter came along, he was immediately surrounded. <v Man 4>They clutched at his coat and they implored him, Mister, for God's sake, <v Man 4>don't vote for whiskey. <v Narrator 2>Politically skilled though they were, the anti saloon league's rapid success was <v Narrator 2>partially good timing. <v Narrator 2>America was changing. [cars honking] Growing <v Narrator 2>industrialization and the great immigration which began in the 1880s, swelled <v Narrator 2>the populations of the cities. <v Narrator 2>The urban immigrant and factory worker became the subject of politics, articles and <v Narrator 2>movies. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] The white protestant middle class of rural America in the small towns felt <v Narrator 2>threatened by this change in world. <v Narrator 2>Temperance became a symbolic way of asserting their dominance over this alien population.
<v Man 5>Our nation can be saved only by turning the pure stream <v Man 5>of country sentiment and township morals to flush out <v Man 5>the putrid cesspool of the cities. <v Narrator 2>It was said that alcohol made thrifty, industrious citizens into ?inaudible?. <v Narrator 2>It diverted money from paying bills and destroyed the family. <v Narrator 2>Scientific studies showed that alcohol was the cause behind misbegotten children, <v Narrator 2>prostitutes and habitual criminals. <v Narrator 2>The league focused all these attitudes on a tangible and easily identified target. <v Narrator 2>The saloon, which not only encouraged drinking, but was used by <v Narrator 2>the urban political boss to control the immigrant vote as well. <v Narrator 2>The blatant political corruption associated with the saloon was legendary,
<v Narrator 2>but there was another side to the story. <v Narrator 2>The boss was often the only access that the immigrant had to the power structure. <v Narrator 2>He was the source of jobs and a sense of belonging. <v Narrator 2>The saloon itself was a haven from the life of the mills and factories, from the squalid, <v Narrator 2>crowded tenements. <v Narrator 2>It was in the saloon that the working men held their christening parties, their weddings. <v Narrator 2>They were the first labor exchanges and union halls. <v Narrator 2>They had names such as Poor Man's Retreat and the Italian Headquarters. <v Narrator 2>Finally, it was the immigrants themselves who resisted reform. <v Narrator 2>They had their own values and cultural traditions and social drinking was one of them. <v Narrator 2>[music changes] But the reformers were undeterred. <v Narrator 2>The belief in the power of redemption permeated novels, plays, and movies.
<v Narrator 2>The new social gospel held that the problem drinker, whether native American or <v Narrator 2>foreigner, was not morally lapsed, merely a victim of his environment. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] Take away the saloon and the victim would see the light. <v Narrator 2>And everywhere that alcohol had been driven out, the news was good. <v Narrator 2>Money was saved. Crime was down. <v Narrator 2>Society was better. <v Narrator 2>Captains of industry and labor unions now joined the crusade, for drinking was <v Narrator 2>too dangerous in modern factories. <v Narrator 2>The notion that the federal government should play a part in this great reform was a <v Narrator 2>progressive one. <v Narrator 2>And the progressives were coming to power. <v Narrator 2>Their belief that the government should actively promote the welfare of the people gained <v Narrator 2>strength with the changing composition of the Congress.
<v Narrator 2>Despite the growth of the cities. Several new and sparsely populated Western states <v Narrator 2>enabled the rural interests to dominate Congress and the state legislatures. <v Narrator 2>One of these interests was temperance. <v Narrator 2>The Anti Saloon League used this rural block to great advantage as their policy <v Narrator 2>of nonpartisan voting, judging a candidate only on his wet or dry vote, began <v Narrator 2>to be felt at the polls. <v Man 6>It is better to have a drunkard who will vote right than a saint who will vote wrong. <v Man 7>The graves of many state legislators and members of Congress <v Man 7>can be seen along the line of our march. <v Man 7>And there are other graves waiting. <v Narrator 2>In 1907, Oklahoma joined Maine, Kansas, and North Dakota <v Narrator 2>and wrote prohibition into its constitution. <v Narrator 2>The same year, Georgia outlawed the sale and manufacture of liquor. <v Narrator 2>Mississippi and Tennessee soon followed. By <v Narrator 2>1913, 31 states had some kind of liquor legislation.
<v Narrator 2>That same year, 10 years of lobbying paid off in the Webb-Kenyon Act, a federal <v Narrator 2>law which prohibited bringing liquor into a dry state for commercial purposes. <v Narrator 2>Given their remarkable success in the states, why did the league push for a <v Narrator 2>constitutional amendment? <v Narrator 2>Pragmatically, they wanted a national measure to make enforcement among the states <v Narrator 2>effective. But changing the Constitution had also become symbolic. <v Narrator 2>Prohibitionists wanted the imprimatur of the Constitution on their moral code. <v Narrator 2>They wanted their ideals endorsed nationally and their opponents were so confident that <v Narrator 2>the Constitution could not be amended in such a way that they didn't organize until it <v Narrator 2>was too late. <v Narrator 2>The first attempt to pass an amendment was the Hobson Resolution in 1914. <v Narrator 2>It passed, but not by a two thirds majority. <v Narrator 2>Encouraged, the league threw itself into the 1916 elections and returned
<v Narrator 2>a dry Congress. <v Narrator 2>President Wilson opposed the amendment and neither party endorsed it. <v Narrator 2>But war hysteria was sweeping the country, and the league made the most of the fear. <v Man 8>We have German enemies across the water. <v Man 8>We have German enemies in this country too. <v Man 8>The most treacherous, the most menacing us are Schlitz, <v Man 8>Blatz's, and Miller. <v Narrator 2>Further, the war provided a rationale for nationwide rationing. <v Narrator 2>The breweries wasted food and fuel for <v Narrator 2>the war effort. <v Narrator 2>When the new Congress reassembled, the Wets tried vainly to forestall a vote, but <v Narrator 2>to no avail. By December 1917, both houses <v Narrator 2>had passed the Prohibition Amendment by the required two thirds majority. <v Narrator 2>The drys in Congress stipulated that the amendment be sent to the state legislatures to <v Narrator 2>be ratified because they were dominated by the rural vote.
<v Narrator 2>13 months later, on January 19th, Nebraska became the 36th <v Narrator 2>state to ratify the 18th Amendment, and it became part of the Constitution. <v Narrator 2>The 18th Amendment made no mention of personal consumption, but it had always <v Narrator 2>been the intention of the league to pass a mild amendment and use Congress's ability <v Narrator 2>to pass appropriate legislation to enforce their goal: that <v Narrator 2>the use of intoxicating liquor as a beverage be prevented. <v Narrator 2>The league's chief lobbyist, Wayne Wheeler, wrote a bill which culled the best <v Narrator 2>enforcement measures from the state constitutions and submitted it through Congressman <v Narrator 2>Andrew Volstead. It was bone dry. <v Narrator 2>Most Americans were surprised. <v Narrator 2>They had assumed that liquor meant distilled spirits. <v Narrator 2>The Volstead Act outlawed beer and wine as well. <v Narrator 2>Some politicians vigorously objected. <v Man 9>We have indolently allowed a well-organized and enormously financed
<v Man 9>body, composed of zealots, fanatics and bigots <v Man 9>to insert a draconian statute in our great charter of liberties. <v Narrator 2>On January 16th, 1920, funerals were held all over the country <v Narrator 2>for John Barleycorn. <v Narrator 2>Billy Sunday preached in Norfolk, Virginia. <v Billy Sunday>Goodbye, John Barleycorn. <v Billy Sunday>You were God's worst enemy. <v Billy Sunday>You were Hell's best friend. <v Billy Sunday>But the rain of tears is over. <v Billy Sunday>The slums will soon be a memory. <v Billy Sunday>We will turn our prisons into factories, our jails <v Billy Sunday>into corn cribs. <v Billy Sunday>Men will walk upright now. <v Billy Sunday>Women will smile and children will laugh. <v Billy Sunday>Hell will be forever for ?rent?.
<v Narrator 2>The promise of prohibition was about to be tested. <v Narrator 2>Would it reform society? <v Narrator 2>Would regulating one aspect of individual behavior give rise to all the benefits its <v Narrator 2>advocates claimed? The drys assumed that victory was theirs, for it had been written <v Narrator 2>into the supreme law of the land. <v Narrator 2>3 months after prohibition took effect, half a million dollars in government confiscated <v Narrator 2>liquor was stolen from its warehouses. <v Narrator 2>Within 6 months, two prohibition agents had been indicted for corruption. <v Narrator 2>And the federal courts in Chicago alone had 600 liquor cases pending. <v Narrator 2>The problem was, it was not illegal to drink liquor just to sell it. <v Narrator 2>And what had been effective on a local level proved unenforceable on a national one. <v Narrator 2>The drys had counted on a respect for the Constitution to enforce the law. <v Narrator 2>In small towns where social pressure had an effect, prohibition seemed to work.
<v Narrator 2>But in the socially diverse cities, it simply fell apart. <v Narrator 2>Arthur Hadley wrote- <v Arthur Hadley>[bar sounds] [drinks being filled] Conscience and public opinion enforce laws. <v Arthur Hadley>The police suppress the exemptions. <v Arthur Hadley>?If? any considerable number of citizens who are habitually law abiding think that a <v Arthur Hadley>particular statute is bad enough to make it worth their while to block its enforcement, <v Arthur Hadley>they can do so. <v Narrator 2>Prohibition had been made law by legitimate procedure, but it did not have legitimacy <v Narrator 2>in the eyes of the people. And the disobedience it engendered stirred its opponents <v Narrator 2>almost more than the restriction of personal liberty. <v Narrator 2>The wets went to court. <v Narrator 2>In 1920, Elihu Root argued before the Supreme Court that the 18th <v Narrator 2>Amendment not only usurped the police powers of the states, it was inappropriate in <v Narrator 2>the Constitution, being a piece of sumptuary legislation rather than a procedural <v Narrator 2>measure or a delegation of powers. <v Narrator 2>It's an arguable point. <v Narrator 2>The Constitution is an expression of our fundamental values, our objectives and purposes
<v Narrator 2>as a nation. But for the most part, these values are expressed implicitly <v Narrator 2>through procedures rather than stated explicitly. <v Narrator 2>At least four other amendments have had implied social agendas. <v Narrator 2>The post civil war wins for blacks. <v Narrator 2>The 19th for women. <v Narrator 2>But they operate through the granting of a right or the limiting of government power. <v Narrator 2>The 18th Amendment attempted to achieve its goal by regulating individual behavior. <v Narrator 2>[machine whirring] Root argued that giving Congress the right to regulate liquor was <v Narrator 2>constitutional, directly prohibiting its sale was not. <v Narrator 2>The court would not put itself above the amending power, however, and upheld the <v Narrator 2>amendment. But it became increasingly split when enforcement led to search <v Narrator 2>and seizure without a warrant. Wiretapping and double jeopardy. <v Narrator 2>In one case, Justice Brandeis wrote in dissent- <v Louis Brandeis>If a government becomes a law breaker, <v Louis Brandeis>it breeds contempt for the law. <v Louis Brandeis>It invites every man to become a law unto himself.
<v Louis Brandeis>It invites anarchy. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] It did indeed seem that the world was turned upside down. <v Narrator 2>World War One and the automobile had swept away the remains of Victorian society. <v Narrator 2>In the world portrayed by Hollywood, heroes and heroines had hip flasks and went to <v Narrator 2>the speakeasies. The news was full of organized crime and futile attempts <v Narrator 2>of federal agents to patrol 12,000 miles of American borders. <v Narrator 2>Even respectable people had bootleggers. <v Narrator 2>Americans began to turn against prohibition. <v Narrator 2>[bands playing] [people yelling] Ordinary citizens marched. <v Narrator 2>Wealthy businessmen organized. <v Narrator 2>The voluntary committee of lawyers became an effective lobbying group. <v Narrator 2>By the end of the decade, even women had organized for repeal. <v Woman 3>Our children are growing up with a lack of respect for the Constitution. <v Woman 4>Prohibition has made us a nation of hypocrites. <v Woman 5>The enforcement system is demoralized.
<v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>When the 18th Amendment was passed, I ernestly hoped with <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>a host of advocates of temperature, that it would be generally supported by <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>public opinion. That this has not been the result, <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>but rather that drinking generally has increased. <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>That the speakeasy has replaced the saloon not only unit <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>for unit, but probably two fold, if not three fold. <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>That a vast army of lawbreakers has been <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>recruited and financed on a colossal scale, that <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>many of our best citizens peaked at what they regarded as an infringement <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>of their private right have openly and unabashed disregarded <v John D. Rockefeller, Jr.>the 18th Amendment. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] But prohibition was now part of the Constitution, and it was generally <v Narrator 2>assumed that repeal was impossible. <v Narrator 2>The rural vote still dominated both the statehouses and Congress.
<v Narrator 2>The urban labor vote, however, was increasing in political importance. <v Narrator 2>The 1928 presidential race between Al Smith and Herbert Hoover pitted <v Narrator 2>a wet candidate against a drive for the first time in major party politics. <v Narrator 2>And the contest between the urban Irish immigrant son and the rural Protestant farm boy <v Narrator 2>revived all the nativism of the temperance campaign 30 years earlier. <v Narrator 2>Al Smith lost, but with more Democratic votes than had ever been cast before. <v Narrator 2>Sons and daughters of the immigrants had joined forces with the conservative upper class. <v Narrator 2>By the time FDR arrived four years later with the nomination nearly in his pocket, <v Narrator 2>he had to accept a repeal plank in his platform or risk the nomination. <v FDR>[cheering] Your candidate, ?inaudible?. <v FDR>I am confident that the United States of America <v FDR>?inaudible?.
<v Narrator 2>By 1931, the responsibility the drys had taken for the boom turned <v Narrator 2>into blame for the crash. <v Narrator 2>The social coalition which had passed the amendment had long before disintegrated. <v Narrator 2>The day after the Roosevelt landslide, the voluntary committee of lawyers went to work <v Narrator 2>on a plan for submitting repeal to the states by the convention alternative provided in <v Narrator 2>Article Five. <v Narrator 2>In February 1933, a lame duck Congress voted on the 21st <v Narrator 2>Amendment. And within a month, the states had begun to act. <v Narrator 2>On December 5th, 1933, Utah became the 36th state to ratify <v Narrator 2>a repeal and prohibition was no longer the law of the land. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] <v Al Smith>It would be very difficult, if not impossible, to estimate the benefits that will come
<v Al Smith>to this country from the lessons thought to the coming generation <v Al Smith>to make it their business to see that no such matter ?inaudible? <v Al Smith>is ever again made the subject of federal constitutional <v Al Smith>law. <v Narrator 2>[music plays] Prohibition was intended to solve a real social problem. <v Narrator 2>It did curtail our drinking habits. <v Narrator 2>It would be 1970 before we returned to pre prohibition levels again. <v Narrator 2>And many states still use their local option to control liquor. <v Narrator 2>But prohibition never achieved its prime objective of lifting America to a higher <v Narrator 2>and better life. Indeed, the price we paid for its failure in terms of organized <v Narrator 2>crime and respect for the Constitution, was high. <v Narrator 2>Its legacy has been to make us deeply suspicious of amendments with an avowed moral <v Narrator 2>purpose. <v Narrator 2>But it has not made us shy of using the amending power.
<v Narrator 2>We've amended the Constitution five times since 1933, and there are more campaigns <v Narrator 2>to come. <v Narrator 2>For the politics of the amending process is one way we as a people hammer out what <v Narrator 2>values are enduring enough to be made part of our Constitution. <v Narrator 2>In many ways, it's the promise of change in Article Five that gives the Constitution <v Narrator 2>its enduring life. <v Narrator 2>It's important to remember that it took nearly 100 years to pass prohibition, but <v Narrator 2>only 13 to repeal it. <v Narrator 2>In the words of Jefferson- <v Thomas Jefferson>I am certainly not an advocate of frequent or untried <v Thomas Jefferson>changes in laws and constitutions, but laws and <v Thomas Jefferson>institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human <v Thomas Jefferson>mind. We might as well require a man still to wear <v Thomas Jefferson>the coat that fitted him as a boy, as civilized society <v Thomas Jefferson>to remain ever under the regimen of their ancestors.
This Constitution
Episode Number
No. 5
The Rise and Fall of Prohibition
Producing Organization
Maryland Center for Public Broadcasting
Contributing Organization
Film and Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, Missouri)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip-151-v97zk5674n).
Episode Description
Episode #105: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition [on container]
Series Description
"The intent of the series was to focus on the Constitution as the embodiment of American values, ideas and institutions. Each program was selected to illustrate the historical roots and contemporary significance of a basic principle of the Constitution and constitutional government. The Constitution was created as an enduring document written for the needs of the past, present and future. In a similar way, the goal of the shows was to explore issues that are not simply debates of yesterday and today, but most likely of tomorrow, too. "Individual program descriptions: "THE FEDERAL CITY "The design of the city of Washington is an expression of the design of our constitutional government. Through an examination of the original design and developments in the urban plan and architectural style of Washington, this program explores the development of constitutional government and its symbolic reflection in the federal city. "SOUTH CAROLINA AND THE UNITED STATES "The concept of federalism is central to the principles of constitutional government. Yet this concept, like so many of the founding principles, has evolved over time. Nineteenth-century Charleston was defined by the laws, class and culture of South Carolina. The twentieth-century city is defined to a considerable extent by the programs and resources of the federal government. Using Charleston as a case study, this program examines the changing concept of federalism and its impact on local government. "THE RISE AND FALL OF PROHIBITION "The Temperance movement achieved its goal with the enactment of Prohibition in the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution. But its repeal marked the political end of this social reform movement. This program examines the difficulty in achieving social reform through constitutional amendment."--1987 Peabody Awards entry form.
Broadcast Date
Asset type
Media type
Moving Image
Embed Code
Copy and paste this HTML to include AAPB content on your blog or webpage.
: Miles, William
Producing Organization: Maryland Center for Public Broadcasting
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Film & Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis
Identifier: cpb-aacip-cc367c17426 (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Generation: Copy: Access
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: cpb-aacip-9c009673815 (Filename)
Format: U-matic
Duration: 00:27:50
Film & Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis
Identifier: cpb-aacip-b6f03960689 (Filename)
Format: VHS
If you have a copy of this asset and would like us to add it to our catalog, please contact us.
Chicago: “This Constitution; No. 5; The Rise and Fall of Prohibition,” 1987-09-01, Film and Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “This Constitution; No. 5; The Rise and Fall of Prohibition.” 1987-09-01. Film and Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: This Constitution; No. 5; The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. Boston, MA: Film and Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from