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<v Host>When the white man first came to Cape Cod in Massachusetts, he found a wild and <v Host>beautiful land and sprawling beaches and marshlands teeming with wildlife. <v Host>There were deer and muskrat. The bald eagle and the Osprey. <v Host>The oceans offered clams and mussels, bluefish and cod. <v Host>It was a land of plenty. It was the land of the Wampanoag. <v Host 2>The Native American television project presents People of the First <v Host 2>Light: The Mashpee Wampanoags. <v Host 2>[singing and drumming] <v Host>Although much of Cape Cod today is unchanged, the quiet marshlands still
<v Host>stretch for miles and the forests still shelter the pheasant and the deer. <v Host>It is not as it was. <v Host>There are traffic jams and shopping centers, gas stations, airports <v Host>and marinas. Tourists flock to the beaches and clog the highways with their <v Host>cars and trucks. The towns are filled to overflowing each summer <v Host>and the towns themselves are changing. <v Host>Mashpee is a town like many on Cape Cod, but there is something different <v Host>about Mashpee. Something special. <v Host>It is the home of the Wampanoag Indians, a tribe whose history goes back to long <v Host>before the arrival of the Europeans. <v Host>In the years since the Wampanoags first welcomed white men to the shores of Cape Cod, <v Host>they have seen their lands taken from them by deceit and by treachery. <v Host>Their hunting and fishing grounds are now gone. <v Host>And yet, in Mashpee, the tribe has survived even to this day.
<v Host>Vernon ?Pocknet? Is a Wampanoag Indian who has lived in Mashpee all his life. <v Host>He has seen the town grow and change over the years, and often the changes <v Host>have brought destruction, destruction to the land and destruction <v Host>to the Indian way of life. <v Vernon Pocknet>I've seen a lot. I'm 43 years old and I've seen a lot in 43 years in <v Vernon Pocknet>this town. <v Vernon Pocknet>In fact, I've seen so much it hurts bad stuff, real <v Vernon Pocknet>bad stuff, such as ripping our earth mother to <v Vernon Pocknet>pieces. <v Vernon Pocknet>This is what an Indian lives on, thrives on, his Mother Earth. <v Vernon Pocknet>When you tear her to pieces, it's like tearing your mother to pieces. <v Vernon Pocknet>When you do that, you don't have no respect for anybody <v Vernon Pocknet>else. <v Vernon Pocknet>I can show you the good, bad and the evil around here. <v Vernon Pocknet>I can do it because I've seen it myself.
<v Vernon Pocknet>The food is where the land is still in its own habitat, and the birds sing free, <v Vernon Pocknet>fish swim well and the animals still run and play. <v Vernon Pocknet>What white man calls it Mother Nature is the same thing as an Indian calls it Mother <v Vernon Pocknet>Earth. The same thing. <v Vernon Pocknet>We have to work with Mother Earth to balance our life. <v Vernon Pocknet>If we appreciate her, she turns around and pays us back with letting us live, <v Vernon Pocknet>providing our food and water and warmth. <v Vernon Pocknet>When I look around me, I see all of Mother Earth's <v Vernon Pocknet>blessings, green trees, pure water, marsh <v Vernon Pocknet>land and the singing of the birds. <v Vernon Pocknet>We love our land here. <v Vernon Pocknet>This is what we were put here for. <v Vernon Pocknet>Keep it this way, not destroy it.
<v Vernon Pocknet>Our creator, the Great Spirit, this is the way he wanted the land to stay. <v Vernon Pocknet>We'll then journey down, and I'll show you what what the other people think. <v Vernon Pocknet>I can show you what man's destruction has done. <v Vernon Pocknet>I've seen the great bald eagle disappear, which is pretty <v Vernon Pocknet>common here. <v Vernon Pocknet>I've seen different fish disappear. <v Vernon Pocknet>I've seen little bird life disappear in my time. <v Vernon Pocknet>And some of our Indian provinces tells us this is going to happen anyway. <v Vernon Pocknet>But I'm seeing it. Some of those Indian prophecies say when you see the tops <v Vernon Pocknet>of those trees start to die, that's when the Creator's <v Vernon Pocknet>coming back and start all over again. <v Vernon Pocknet>When I was a child, my younger days, this is where <v Vernon Pocknet>we used to hunt and kill our deer and
<v Vernon Pocknet>trap raccoon, muskrat. <v Vernon Pocknet>This is all man made. Now, everybody thinks it's so beautiful here. <v Vernon Pocknet>It might be beautiful to them, but for me, it's disaster <v Vernon Pocknet>because it ruined a part of my way of my life. <v Vernon Pocknet>And when you do that to me, you kill my soul. <v Vernon Pocknet>Now we're going to leave this little inlet here, which was manmade. <v Vernon Pocknet>This is a natural inlet where we're coming into right now. <v Vernon Pocknet>These had natural oysters in there. There's no more here <v Vernon Pocknet>today because of a shorage <v Vernon Pocknet>of gas from the boats. <v Vernon Pocknet>Pollution. Period. <v Vernon Pocknet>When this happens, everything dies. <v Vernon Pocknet>This was always our territory, was all open to everyone, not only Indian, white <v Vernon Pocknet>man, too. He had the same privileges that we did. <v Vernon Pocknet>We all enjoyed it.
<v Vernon Pocknet>No more, There are signs up, private property, keep away, <v Vernon Pocknet>fences. Even these individual houses up here. <v Vernon Pocknet>If you notice, they have fences in between themselves, the fence themselves in. <v Vernon Pocknet>That's what they call privacy. <v Vernon Pocknet>They get Doberman pinchers, police German shepherds, <v Vernon Pocknet>and in fact, the law. The law stands by these people. <v Vernon Pocknet>They may be pretty, but to me, it's the end. <v Host>By preserving the traditions of their forefathers, the Mashpee Wampanoags have maintained <v Host>their heritage even as the town around them has changed. <v Host>If the tribe is to survive, however, these traditions must be passed from generation <v Host>to generation. For this reason, the knowledge that Vernon Pocknet has acquired, <v Host>he freely shares with the younger members of the tribe by teaching them to <v Host>gather and prepare food the Indian way.
<v Vernon Pocknet>In order to do this, I have to go collect the children around town, gather a group of <v Vernon Pocknet>kids, get them together. Pile them in a boat. <v Vernon Pocknet>Get the gear together. Bring 'em on this island here where it's peaceful. <v Vernon Pocknet>You hear the birds. You hear the wind, hear the ocean roar. <v Vernon Pocknet>There's wild berries here. There's even wild animals if you want to hunt 'em. <v Vernon Pocknet>Also plenty shellfish. <v Vernon Pocknet>There's everything there that an Indian can use. <v Vernon Pocknet>This is where I teach these children, where I was taught, where a lot of the children <v Vernon Pocknet>have been taught. Because this is one of the last places we have that is still <v Vernon Pocknet>in its own habitat. <v Vernon Pocknet>You guys know what these are don't 'ya? <v Vernon Pocknet>[children: herron] Herron. <v Vernon Pocknet>Anyway, do any of you know how to cut up a herron? [child: cut of the head] Ah <v Vernon Pocknet>huh, and the tail, right. [Child: Then you put the knife through the skin] Ok, <v Vernon Pocknet>how do you start out smoking a herron?
<v Vernon Pocknet>You got to catch him first. Right. [Children: Yeah] Then after you catch the heron, what <v Vernon Pocknet>do you do to it. <v Vernon Pocknet>Domingo knows, no. Domingo, you know what to do. [Domingo: salt it] Right, for <v Vernon Pocknet>how long? <v Vernon Pocknet>Then what happens after that? We take 'em, hang 'em up in the sun and dry them. <v Vernon Pocknet>Right. <v Vernon Pocknet>The next step is putting them in the smoke rack. <v Vernon Pocknet>All right. <v Vernon Pocknet>We have three different herbs, some have four, some Indians have- won't tell you what <v Vernon Pocknet>they got. In fact, I don't tell nobody what I do it with. <v Vernon Pocknet>Well, I'm tired of doing this now for you children. <v Vernon Pocknet>No, let me see one of you guys clean one. <v Vernon Pocknet>That ain't much good see. Some of these- [Child: I'll try] OK, can one of you try it? <v Vernon Pocknet>[Child: I can try] Watch your fingers. <v Vernon Pocknet>Now, take it that way, see. <v Vernon Pocknet>Now, can you peel that skin off? See the back fin, that's the only part of the meat
<v Vernon Pocknet>there is. See you start there. <v Vernon Pocknet>That part's no good anyway. <v Vernon Pocknet>[Child: How come I can't get the skin off?] That's no good anyway. <v Vernon Pocknet>Don't be scared of it. <v Vernon Pocknet>There you go. OK. <v Vernon Pocknet>Now we ate these herons, and now we've got to have more food. <v Vernon Pocknet>So we've got to go to the water and hunt for more food. <v Vernon Pocknet>[Child: right now?] Right now. OK. <v Vernon Pocknet>I've learned ever since I was a child from my father. <v Vernon Pocknet>He learned from his father, and it's been handed down in the tribe for <v Vernon Pocknet>years to live this way. <v Vernon Pocknet>And this is why I've got to teach these children our way <v Vernon Pocknet>of life. So we do not lose it. <v Vernon Pocknet>OK, you guys. How many you guys ever felt quahogs with <v Vernon Pocknet>your feet. [Child: Feels like a rock] It does. <v Vernon Pocknet>Have you ?inaudible name? ever done it? No. <v Vernon Pocknet>Well, we're going to do this. We're going to do this and Domingo will show you. <v Vernon Pocknet>You never done it either?
<v Vernon Pocknet>No. OK. Gonna be you first time, huh? <v Vernon Pocknet>First time for everything. <v Vernon Pocknet>We better get some too, because if we want to eat tonight, you guys want to eat tonight. <v Vernon Pocknet>We better get some quahogs. All right. Here's how we do it now. <v Vernon Pocknet>You got to learn how to do this by yourself. <v Vernon Pocknet>Feel with your feet, remember like I told you. <v Vernon Pocknet>Do you feel like a this rock or a stone down there? <v Vernon Pocknet>Might- you might feel a crab. Sometimes, you know, he'll let you know he's there. <v Vernon Pocknet>I think I got one. Hey, hey. Come over here and feel with your foot. <v Vernon Pocknet>You feel with your foot. You feel that? <v Vernon Pocknet>Does that feel? What's it feel like? <v Vernon Pocknet>You don't feel nothing. <v Vernon Pocknet>OK. OK. <v Vernon Pocknet>Let me look. Reach down. See if you can get it. <v Vernon Pocknet>[Child: I got it! I got it!] Hey, how is that? OK. Throw him to shore. <v Vernon Pocknet>There you go. Feel for some more now. <v Vernon Pocknet>We've got to get enough of supper, you know. <v Vernon Pocknet>[Child: I got one!] Oh, yeah? That's a dead shell. [Child: It's a crab!] <v Vernon Pocknet>He's OK. He's OK. He won't bother you. He'll grow up so we can eat him, too, you know.
<v Vernon Pocknet>Try over here. <v Vernon Pocknet>Where you find one, there's another one you know. <v Vernon Pocknet>Feel- you feel anything with your feet. <v Vernon Pocknet>You do. <v Vernon Pocknet>Hey. You got one!It's very important to teach these children the Indian way <v Vernon Pocknet>of life because it's hard to be an Indian you see. <v Vernon Pocknet>Everything in this day of life is just against the <v Vernon Pocknet>Indians way of life. <v Vernon Pocknet>Anything that we can do to protect our way of life. <v Vernon Pocknet>That's what we should do. [children and Vernon talking] <v Host>Many of the areas where the Mashpee Wampanoags traditionally gathered clams and <v Host>quahogs are now closed to them. They can no longer move freely along the shore as they <v Host>once did. For this reason, they have turned to other methods <v Host>to ensure that there will be enough of the traditional foods for all the members of the <v Host>tribe.
<v Bill Peters>My name is Bill Peters, and I'm a Wampanoag Indian. <v Bill Peters>I am known to my people as Little Owl. <v Bill Peters>I work on the tribal aquafarm, which is pretty much like any other farm. <v Bill Peters>We cultivate, plant and harvest, but it's all done under water. <v Bill Peters>Our crop is quahogs. <v Bill Peters>Quahog is like a clam, and quahogs come in all sizes. <v Bill Peters>There are little necks, cherry stones and the bulls, which are the largest. <v Bill Peters>Quahogs are used in stews, chowders and other dishes. <v Bill Peters>The Wampanoags have always lived near the sea and seafood, especially <v Bill Peters>quahogs have always been an important part of our diet. <v Bill Peters>It used to be that members of the tribe could just go to the sea and get quahogs. <v Bill Peters>But it's not that easy now. <v Bill Peters>A lot of people have moved into the area, and they've fenced off beaches in areas <v Bill Peters>where the quahogs grow.
<v Bill Peters>And now they're only a few areas left where we can go to get quahogs. <v Bill Peters>That's why we started the aquafarm. Quahogs grow <v Bill Peters>on the ocean bottom either in mud or sand, depending on the area. <v Bill Peters>The best bottom for growing them is light sand with a fairly swift current. <v Bill Peters>We plant quahogs when they're about the size of your fingernail, and it takes <v Bill Peters>about a year for them to grow. When they're ready to harvest, they're <v Bill Peters>about the size of your fist and weigh up to about half a pound. <v Bill Peters>From time to time throughout the year, we go down and check on how they're doing. <v Bill Peters>They're easy enough to find because their shell's color is usually lighter than the <v Bill Peters>sand around them. <v Bill Peters>Just like any crop, quahogs have to be tended, cold winters <v Bill Peters>can kill the little ones and the crabs and fish will attack them if there shell's broken. <v Bill Peters>The shell is very hard and good protection. <v Bill Peters>But sometimes crabs get them open or the shells will break <v Bill Peters>and the shell is broken. The quahog is as good as gone.
<v Bill Peters>Besides crabs, there's red tide, starfish and other problems in aqua farming. <v Bill Peters>Once the aquafarm gets going full scale, there should be plenty of seafood for the tribe <v Bill Peters>once again. Members will be able to come to the aquafarm and take what they <v Bill Peters>need. They won't have to pay anything because it's as much their food <v Bill Peters>as it is ours. It is for the whole tribe, not just for those <v Bill Peters>of us who work here. <v Bill Peters>The tribe is like a big family and every member is like a brother or a sister. <v Bill Peters>We share what we have. That's the Indian way. <v Host>The Aqua Farm is just one of many activities in which individual members <v Host>of the Wampanoag tribe work for the good of all another <v Host>and a very popular activity is the annual clambake, which takes place <v Host>each year during the Mashpee powwow.
<v Host>The powwow activities go on for several days, and on the final day, a <v Host>huge dinner is prepared for the hundreds of people who attend because of the <v Host>number of people who must be fed. <v Host>A very large cooking area must be prepared the night before <v Host>the fire pit is done and the cooking stones are laid in place. <v Host>At the day of the clambake, a huge bonfire is built on top of the stones <v Host>and it burns throughout the morning. <v Host>The stones, which are heated by the fire, must be very solid and have no air bubbles in <v Host>them, or they will explode or turn to ash and lose their heat. <v Host>Hundreds of pounds of stones are needed for a clambake the size of the Mashpee Powell <v Host>clambake, and the fire must be kept burning for several hours. <v Host>Once the stones are sufficiently heated, the real work of the clambake begins. <v Host>First all of the ashes and embers must be raked off and those <v Host>that are still burning must be extinguished. <v Host>The town fire truck is brought in to supply the water needed to hose down the entire
<v Host>cooking area. An incredible amount of heat is given off by the stones. <v Host>They serve as a huge oven, and in order for members of the tribe to work in the area, <v Host>the edge of the fire pit must be cooled with water. <v Host>After all the coals and embers have been raked off, the seaweed is brought up. <v Host>But before it is thrown on the stones, it too must be soaked with water. <v Host>Bag after bag of wet seaweed is heaped on the stones, giving off huge clouds <v Host>of steam which let everyone know that the actual cooking is about to begin. <v Host>While the seaweed is being spread on the stones, other members of the tribe begin to <v Host>unload the food and lay it out on the ground around the pit. <v Host>Clams and lobsters from the sea, corn and sweet potato from the fields. <v Host>These are the foods that are traditional to the Wampanoag. <v Host>It is at times like this that the rich bounty which the Great Spirit has provided for his <v Host>children is plain to see. <v Host>As the food is placed on the steaming seaweed, the cooking process begins immediately.
<v Host>Members of the tribe must move quickly to get all food into place before too much of the <v Host>steam and heat is lost. <v Host>The final step in the cooking process consists of covering the food with wet sheets <v Host>which hold the heat, and this, in turn, is covered with a huge sheet of plastic <v Host>to capture the steam. <v Host>Once these are in place, it's only a matter of hours and the food will be ready. <v Host>While the main course is cooking, people began to line up for the fish chowder, which <v Host>will begin the meal. The clambake is part of the Mashpee powwow, which <v Host>is an event attended by visiting tribes as well as townspeople and tourists. <v Host>And the line stretches around the powwow grounds as the chowder is scooped from steaming <v Host>cauldrons and served. <v Host>The most exciting moment of the clambake, of course, is when the covering is thrown off <v Host>and the food which has been cooking is exposed for all to see. <v Host>It is quickly loaded into baskets and carry to the tables where the plates are piled high
<v Host>and hungry. Visitors, both Indian and white alike, began to enjoy a traditional <v Host>Mashpee clambake. <v Host>For many of the tourists and visitors who attend each year, the clambake is the <v Host>high point of the powwow. <v Host>This is not the case, however, for the Wampanoags and Narragansetts, the Pequots and <v Host>Schaghticokescatter, the Mi'kmaq and the Mohegan. <v Host>Members of these and other tribes who come from throughout New England and beyond come <v Host>not for the clambake, but rather to simply spend this weekend together. <v Host>Casual visitors to Mashpee see the food stands and the jewelry for sale. <v Host>They hear the drumming and chanting and watch the dance contests. <v Host>What they do not see and cannot feel is the spirit of brotherhood <v Host>and harmony that exists for the Native Americans who are. <v Host>The powwow is a time for tribal leaders to meet and exchange greetings,
<v Host>to talk of the successes and failures of the past year. <v Host>It is a time to give and seek counsel. <v Host>The powwow is also a time for religious ceremonies. <v Host>Some of these are held in public, like the passing of the pipe and the prayers to the <v Host>Great Spirit for guidance. <v Host>Presiding over the powwow and all the ceremonies of the weekend is the medicine <v Host>man who is the spiritual leader of the tribe. <v John Peters>My name is John Peters. <v John Peters>I'm a supreme medicine man of the Wampanoag Nation. <v John Peters>My role as a medicine man takes on several different things. <v John Peters>And the first one, the most important one is the religion. <v John Peters>The religious part of being the medicine man is to be able <v John Peters>to deal with the people, talk <v John Peters>about religion with them and show 'em the way of life that the great spirit <v John Peters>or God has taught me to bring to
<v John Peters>my people and the life that God or the Great Spirit <v John Peters>would like them to live. <v John Peters>This meeting house, which at times is called the old Indian Church, <v John Peters>has a great amount of sentimental attachment to us. <v John Peters>With all of ancestors been so here, this forever will be <v John Peters>a very important part of our life. <v John Peters>[singing]Yes, we can stand together any priest or minister and myself, <v John Peters>and we can talk about the religious things, which are both the same. <v John Peters>When we are talking about Christianity? We talk about love. <v John Peters>Christianity means loving everything that God has provided. <v John Peters>The Indian religion, we're talking about the same thing. <v John Peters>That's- I mean, the main number one part of our religion is love and <v John Peters>respect and trust. <v John Peters>The Great Spirit has brought his religious part into us
<v John Peters>and told us, given us instruction, how to live <v John Peters>and how to live in balance. <v John Peters>Balance is a very important part of our whole <v John Peters>religious and social structure. <v John Peters>Try. <v John Peters>We are very close to the area where people at the believe that <v John Peters>the Earth is on mother. <v John Peters>And therefore, we're very close to Mother Earth because we know <v John Peters>that the Earth provides all food for us. <v John Peters>Provides a place that you can rest your head. <v John Peters>It provides a place which you can feel loved. <v John Peters>And you can have respect. <v John Peters>And I'm talking about respect for all living things. <v John Peters>Our religion doesn't just stop on Sunday, eight hours every day and a week.
<v John Peters>So Sunday is just another day for us because our <v John Peters>minds are in terms of the Great Spirt all the time. <v John Peters>If it wasn't for the Great Spirit we wouldn't be existing, and we're <v John Peters>very much aware of that fact. <v John Peters>And we given thanks for just the mere fact of being here, going <v John Peters>to church on Sunday for an hour. That means nothing to us. <v John Peters>And our church is not in a confined building. <v John Peters>Our church is wherever we walk and where we're at. <v John Peters>And this church, Holy Mother Earth, is our church. <v John Peters>So we're not compelled or confined to a whole building because we <v John Peters>feel that the Great Spirit provided this whole earth for us. <v John Peters>So why should we hide underneath that building? <v John Peters>We want to be out where we can see his works and see him and <v John Peters>be able to see the sun and the things that he's provided for us to be with. <v John Peters>When we do a dance similar to them praying, you know, they go
<v John Peters>and they go in the church and they sit and they sing in unison. <v John Peters>You know, and they sing a song. The song books we are praying <v John Peters>with, are thanking the Great Spirit for planting season for a <v John Peters>harvest. And each dance has a significant part in <v John Peters>the life of the people. And so when we dance, we're not dancing <v John Peters>to entertain you. We're dancing because we're praying and <v John Peters>we're not getting on our knees like you do. <v John Peters>Rather than we're dancing around in a circle. <v John Peters>And the circle is a very important part of the thing is that the circle <v John Peters>of unity is a circle. <v John Peters>That is a cycle of life. <v John Peters>And I spoke about walking in balance. <v John Peters>We dance in one direction for the good spirit and we dance to the other direction for the <v John Peters>best period. It sort of balance at all.
<v John Peters>So when you see us reverse, I say, OK, let's what we're doing, because we had to talk to <v John Peters>him, too. <v John Peters>So most everything that we talk about deals with a cycle. <v John Peters>A cycle in life with your bond, <v John Peters>you grow, your die. <v John Peters>And each bed in each animal and each bug fly <v John Peters>that you see around has a certain part in life. <v John Peters>And he may be the food for another bird or animal, or the <v John Peters>bird or the animal might be the fuel, food for the human being. <v John Peters>And the Great Spirit has provided all of us. <v John Peters>He has provided man, and he's provided things <v John Peters>for man to survive with.
<v John Peters>These are the things that we're talking about. <v John Peters>And one thing most of all I'd like to impress upon your mind <v John Peters>is these couple of words that I'm going to say. <v John Peters>Walk in balance. Balance is <v John Peters>what we need. We need to balance everything off. <v John Peters>We need the birds to be of a sufficient number. <v John Peters>We need the fish, and we need the animals that roam the earth to <v John Peters>be in a sufficient number. <v John Peters>We need the human beings to be in a sufficient number. <v John Peters>So they are all in balance. <v John Peters>So no one is starving to death. <v John Peters>This will make a better life for you and your children's children and their children. <v John Peters>And this will ensure that we'll be on this earth for a long time. <v John Peters>So keep those words in mind to be able to be in balance, walk <v John Peters>and balance and be in balance. <v John Peters>These are the things that need to be impressive on all people's minds so that we can <v John Peters>continue the cycle that the Great Spirit has provided.
<v Host>By walking in balance and living and working with nature, the Mashpee Wampanoags <v Host>have survived even to this day. <v Host>They have seen many changes and many more are yet to come. <v Host>But Mashpee will always be the land of the Wampanoag.
People Of The First Light
Episode Number
The Wampanoags Of Mashpee
Producing Organization
Masschusetts Educational Television
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WGBY (Springfield, Massachusetts)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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Episode Description
"'The Mashpee Wampanoags' is one of seven programs in the new educational television series PEOPLE OF THE FIRST LIGHT. The series is the first culturally oriented set of programs to portray the Native American peoples living in the southern New England region. It focuses on ways in which the history and tribal traditions of Indians in this area are integrated into the daily activities of Native American children and adults surviving today in [Massachusetts], Connecticut, and Rhode Island."In the town of Mashpee, on Cape Cod in Mass., there is a small community of Mashpee Wampanoag Indians. The program 'The Mashpee Wampanoags' highlights that today, the members of this indigenous tribe are living, working the land, fishing the bays, and maintaining the longstanding culture of their ancestors who had inhabited the same lands for thousands of years. PEOPLE OF THE FIRST LIGHT was funded by the U.S. Office of Education and serves the need for general understanding of the Native American in the Northeastern U.S.--the individual, the tribe, the culture."--1979 Peabody Awards entry form.
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Copyright Holder: WGBY
Executive Producer: Dan Kain
Producer: Glenn Suprenand
Producing Organization: WGBH
Producing Organization: WGBY
Producing Organization: Masschusetts Educational Television
Supervisory Producer: Joanne C. Linowes
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Identifier: AC9701146321 (WGBY Library &amp; Archives)
Format: U-matic
Generation: Dub
Duration: 00:28:53
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: 79028cyt-arch (Peabody Archive Object ID)
Format: U-matic
Duration: 00:30:00
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Chicago: “People Of The First Light; 107; The Wampanoags Of Mashpee,” 1979-04-01, WGBY, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 20, 2024,
MLA: “People Of The First Light; 107; The Wampanoags Of Mashpee.” 1979-04-01. WGBY, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 20, 2024. <>.
APA: People Of The First Light; 107; The Wampanoags Of Mashpee. Boston, MA: WGBY, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from