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<v Narrator>[music plays] The first marks primitive man made on his environment were the tracks of <v Narrator>his transportation. Game trails became Indian paths. <v Narrator>They were followed in what is now Arkansas by explorers from France and Spain, <v Narrator>and later by furtraders, a strange breed of men whose desire for profit was equaled <v Narrator>by a distaste for cities and civilization. <v Narrator>They fled as the first settlers came. <v Narrator>Very often, the game trails which had become Indian paths, became primitive roads. <v Narrator>More settlers came. The road stretch further. <v Narrator>But sooner or later, inevitably, there was a problem: to cross a river.
<v Narrator>[music plays] The turn of the century, the map of America was marked with many hundreds <v Narrator>of ferry crossings. They were as common as bridges. <v Narrator>As a matter of fact, they were called floating bridges. <v Narrator>The more primitive of them were a little more than long ramps powered by poles, oars, or <v Narrator>even the river current. <v Narrator>Later, the work was done with a gasoline powered motor. <v Narrator>Time passed and what the engineers called permanent fixed crossings, or bridges, <v Narrator>were built. Scores of the old ferryboat crossings today look like <v Narrator>this one. A little used lonely country road that seems to drown <v Narrator>in the water, then almost mysteriously picks up on the other side. <v Narrator>The ferry boat that linked them is gone. <v Narrator>40 years ago, there were 60 ferry crossings in Arkansas. <v Narrator>By the 1960s, there were 20. <v Narrator>In the 1970s, only 10. <v Narrator>Today, there are 7. <v Narrator>?Peel? ferry, near the Missouri line on ?Bull Shoals? <v Narrator>Lake. <v Narrator>Two crossings on Lake ?inaudible?. <v Narrator>?inaudible? Ferry on White River.
<v Narrator>Point Ferry on Black River. <v Narrator>?inaudible? Ferry on the ?inaudible? River. <v Narrator>Spring Bank Ferry on Red River. <v Narrator>Let's have a look at these last remaining Ferry crossings before it's too late. <v Narrator>And a look at the people who make them work. <v Narrator>This is Spring Bank Ferry near the little town of Doddridge, Arkansas, on the <v Narrator>treacherous, crooked Red River. <v Narrator>Once, this was a frontier. <v Narrator>Across the river was Spain, to the south France. <v Narrator>For settlers here in 1815, the business was beavers skins, sent <v Narrator>to Baltimore, Maryland, to be made into hats. <v Narrator>But there was a problem. A clue to that problem can be seen today on the bluffs above <v Narrator>the ferry. Trees almost ready to tumble into the ?current?. <v Narrator>In the year 1870, the problem to the south of here looked like this. <v Narrator>The rampaging Red River ripped entire forests from its banks, creating an ever <v Narrator>shifting log jam which at times was 100 miles long. <v Narrator>The beavers quite literally had their work cut out for them.
<v Narrator>One early settler in a letter to President Thomas Jefferson called it the great raft. <v Narrator>According to Indian legend, it was created when the world began. <v Narrator>Spanish and French explorers wrote of it as a wondrous accident of nature. <v Narrator>Repeated attempts to remove it failed. <v Narrator>Finally, after years of work, the job was completed in 1873 by Army <v Narrator>engineers. <v Narrator>Frank Cochran, like his great great grandfather before him, is a regular passenger on <v Narrator>the ferry. <v Frank Cochran>My mother used to come across here when she was a girl that would be back in the <v Frank Cochran>1900s, before 1910. She told of coming across <v Frank Cochran>the river with her mother and sister. <v Frank Cochran>And they would pass a lake between here and Bradley. <v Frank Cochran>And there were uh alligators on one side of the road <v Frank Cochran>uh in the lake, numbers of them. <v Frank Cochran>And back on the other side, the timber was so thick that in the middle of the day <v Frank Cochran>you could hear the ?owls? ?all? hollering. <v Narrator>Spring Bank Ferry is unique in yet another way.
<v Narrator>Arkansas's only woman ferry pilot: Jan Herrington. <v Jan Herrington>[ferry whirring] ?inaudible? in the water. <v Jan Herrington>I really enjoy working outside. This is a pretty spot on the regular. Well, they put a bridge in here right <v Jan Herrington>away. It would cramp my style. <v Jan Herrington>I'd never done anything like this before. <v Jan Herrington>Uh always well, after I got out of high school, I went to college a few years <v Jan Herrington>and uh and worked mostly clerical jobs and book-keeping. <v Jan Herrington>I'm gonna have to hit this kind of hard [whirring]. Let me try this one more time. <v Narrator>Spanish explorer Hernando DeSoto passed a winter here and 1541. <v Narrator>Possibly, he, too, crossed here on the first of American ferries.
<v Narrator>The Choctaw Log ferry made ?from? <v Narrator>the Indians of ?inaudible?, still standing Hickory Logs latched together with <v Narrator>?inaudible? of buffalo hide. <v Narrator>According to plans of the Arkansas Highway Department, Spring Bank Ferry will be replaced <v Narrator>by a bridge in the 1990s. <v Narrator>90 miles eastward as the crow flies is Morro Bay ferry on the ?inaudible? <v Narrator>river. <v Man 1>Uh they are uh talking of putting a bridge here and that's something ya know we- <v Man 1>I don't know whether to look forward to or what uh, you know, what have you. <v Narrator>?inaudible? Hate to see it come? <v Man 1>Uh yeah. I really will 'cause it's the ?inaudible? <v Man 1>the tourist attraction to a lot of people, a lot of people drive all the way, get to come <v Man 1>by here just get to ride a ferry. <v Man 1>Oh I like ferries. Yes sir, I like ferries. Uh I like ferries much more than I do <v Man 1>bridges. Sure do. <v Narrator>This country is a paradise for hunters, fishermen and ?mosquitos?. <v Narrator>Once it was known for its hundreds of eagles and thousands of carrier pigeons. <v Narrator>They're gone as nearby the little town of Pigeon Hill. <v Narrator>In the early 1800s, this was among Arkansas's most heavily populated areas.
<v Narrator>Today, it's the contrary. <v Narrator>A stone's throw away is the home of Glenn Knickerbocker, who piloted Morro Bay Ferry a <v Narrator>half century ago. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>Well, that guy, he was uh fishin' down there. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>And he'd land his fish boat down there and load up his fish. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>You know a mule, horse they're scared of fish, uh uh scent. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>You know, they could smell that and they didn't know what it was. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>You could only get 'em up on the barge ?or nothin'?. And uh so <v Glenn Knickerbocker>we asked him not to land his boat there at that barge close to that park. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>He told him yeah he's gonna land it there. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>He says, ?inaudible? my truck and ?inaudible?. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>Get my fish out. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>So we've told him says now I've asked you not to do that. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>He tells 'em says I'll be back in the morning ?inaudible?.
<v Glenn Knickerbocker>So he had his gun in his truck. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>This fella coming down ?inaudible? a pistol. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>But he beat him to it. <v Glenn Knickerbocker>He shot him with that shotgun right there on the bank of that river. <v Narrator>Morro Bay Ferry will be replaced by a bridge in the 1990s. <v Narrator>Let's go north. <v Narrator>Arkansas is rich in contrast, and [audio skips] none is greater than that between the <v Narrator>?inaudible? country at Spring Bank and Morro Bay and the steep spring fed Ozark <v Narrator>wilderness here at Guion Ferry. <v Narrator>A short way up the hill from the ferry, the little town of Guion more than a century and <v Narrator>a half ago prospered from White River steamboat traffic and a brisk trade in Buffalo <v Narrator>hides. Early settlers had several problems. <v Narrator>Buffalo and bear ate their crops. <v Narrator>Indians across the river in what is now Stone County were warm. <v Narrator>But the worst problem was the White River itself. <v Narrator>Frequently it washed the ferry boats far downstream. <v Narrator>Today, Guion Ferry is one of those places in America where the pace of life slows down.
<v Narrator>The briefcase and the stomach ulcer are not part of things here. <v Narrator>Conversation trends more to the merits of coon dogs and good fishing. <v Narrator>On the average day, no more than 27 vehicles make the crossing. <v Narrator>Ferry pilot Bill Wallace. <v Bill Wallace>It's just a good job all the way around. You know, you like to work outside and you like <v Bill Wallace>to work around the river ?and?. <v Narrator>What's the smallest amount of passengers you have in one day? <v Bill Wallace>Uh sometimes durin' the wintertime we don't have very many uh real bad weather, a few <v Bill Wallace>times we haven't had any. Usually we'll have, oh, at least 7 or 8. <v Narrator>Sometime in the next decade Guion Ferry will be replaced by a bridge. <v Narrator>Farther up the White River, Old Shoals Lake near the Missouri Line. <v Narrator>You could add ferry boats to the growing list of endangered species because they're on <v Narrator>the way out. <v Narrator>Ten years from now in the 1990s, they might be things of the past. <v Narrator>As extinct as the dinosaur, as forgotten as the horse and buggy. <v Narrator>But if in the 1990s there is one ferry boat still working in the state, it will be this
<v Narrator>one here, near the little town of Peel, Arkansas. <v E.L. Harris>I don't think they'll ever be a bridge here for the expensive ?billing?, one is that it <v E.L. Harris>would be tremendous to cause of death ?of the channel? <v E.L. Harris>?inaudible? and all and no more traffic in this area at the present time. <v E.L. Harris>It would be a waste of money. <v E.L. Harris>Stormy weather, well, you've gotta be on your toes and uh, you know, it can be <v E.L. Harris>uh difficult to operate under those conditions. <v E.L. Harris>But job itself is rewarding because of communication with people. <v E.L. Harris>It's really uh uh outstanding. Job for that reason, if you like people, you like communicatin' with <v E.L. Harris>people. <v Narrator>800 miles of shoreline. <v Narrator>45,000 surface acres of cool, green, unpolluted, water. <v Narrator>This is wild country. Few farms, no factories on either side of the river. <v Narrator>This place is for people who like to fish. <v Narrator>30 miles downstream and a ?beeline?, Lake Norfork.
<v Narrator>2 ferry crossings. <v Narrator> <v J.T. Sisk>One oh one. One oh one. You boys got a lot of traffic today. <v J.T. Sisk>[muffled speaking on radio] You know, they had to bridge it [muffled speaking on radio]. You can't. [muffled speaking on radio] In <v J.T. Sisk>the summertime you ?inaudible? <v J.T. Sisk>keep up with the traffic. <v J.T. Sisk>And people have to wait you know 2 or 3 hours. <v Narrator>Here it's a different story. Agriculture, industry, tourism, real estate, business is <v Narrator>booming. Here at Henderson on Lake Norfork, three ferryboats work simultaneously. <v Narrator>They're the biggest, the fastest, the best, and the busiest in the state. <v Narrator>They work 24 hours around the clock nonstop. <v Narrator>And like the lake they cross, these ferry boats themselves are tourist attractions. <v Narrator>People come here from over America to fish for trout, swim in these cool, clear waters
<v Narrator>and to ride the ferry. <v Narrator>But the new bridges are practically finished at a cost of over 30 million dollars. <v Don Alley>There's been a- quite a tourist attraction, they've ferried many, many people across <v Don Alley>Norfork Lake. But uh the amount of traffic we have any more, lots <v Don Alley>of times people have to wait a couple uh hours to get across on the other side of the <v Don Alley>lake. <v Vada Sheid>Uh I've enjoyed the ferries. It's been a great thing for tourists. It's been a great <v Vada Sheid>tourist attraction. <v Vada Sheid>But the time has come, with the economy as it is, that the bridges just had <v Vada Sheid>to be. This is just something that we had to have. <v Vada Sheid>And I'm I'm real grateful that I've had the opportunity to be a part of what <v Vada Sheid>I think this will do for my area that I represent in the state legislature. <v Sherrill Curtis>The theory is really nice for tourism, and I <v Sherrill Curtis>do- you know it is nice to ride because you do meet a lot of people and everything, but
<v Sherrill Curtis>as far as being sorry when the ferry leaves, and I have a lot of employees and a lot of <v Sherrill Curtis>relatives that are employees on the ferry. <v Sherrill Curtis>But as far as being sorry whn the ferry is gone I guess no, I won't be truthfully, <v Sherrill Curtis>because uh like I said, I'll just make things so much handier for me whenever the bridge <v Sherrill Curtis>does go in. <v J.T. Barr>[motor running] I like when a ?inaudible? taxpayer ?inaudible? <v J.T. Barr>they will cut out those areas because people love the ferry, they like to ride it. <v Narrator>Over the state, these boats are sometimes called <v Narrator>ships of the Arkansas Navy because of a tough biannual inspection by the United <v Narrator>States Coast Guard. Here at Lake Norfork, today is the day. <v Officer H.P. Huffman>Yes. I'm Chief Warrant Officer Huffman. <v Officer H.P. Huffman>Uh I'm with the uh Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in St. Louis, Missouri. <v Officer H.P. Huffman>And uh we are required to inspect the passenger carrying ferries <v Officer H.P. Huffman>uh annually. And uh this uh inspection entails <v Officer H.P. Huffman>uh checking for their safety equipment, such as their life saving devices, <v Officer H.P. Huffman>uh their firefighting equipment, uh the de-watering equipment for the vessels,
<v Officer H.P. Huffman>and also at the same time for the navigational regulations, uh which <v Officer H.P. Huffman>would be the navigational lights uh and also their generator sets, <v Officer H.P. Huffman>uh machinery and such. <v Officer H.P. Huffman>Uh we also, uh in this particular case on Norfork Lake, we inspect <v Officer H.P. Huffman>the towboat uh the vessel that provides the transportation uh <v Officer H.P. Huffman>or the very barge, and uh we issue <v Officer H.P. Huffman>a safety compliance inspection for their navigational equipment <v Officer H.P. Huffman>and their life saving devices and also for their uh <v Officer H.P. Huffman>marine environmental protection devices. <v Narrator>The way things are going now, the Coast Guard will have to go back to guarding coasts. <v Narrator>In a few months, ferry boats on Lake Norfork will be gone. <v Narrator>Point Ferry on Black River near Newport, Arkansas. <v Narrator>One can see the Ozark foothills in the distance, but it's another world here. <v Narrator>Flat country, rich farms, forest covered by kudzu vines.
<v Narrator>Ferry pilot Ellis Landers. <v Ellis Landers>Well there's about <v Ellis Landers>5 things you really need to know on this ferry. When it's open, when it's closed, <v Ellis Landers>there's river rising, there's river falling, and there's fish bitin'. <v Ellis Landers>The main things that you're asked over here. <v Ellis Landers>Well it's an awful tiring, hard on your feet, workin' on this hot steel. <v Ellis Landers>It's about 10 degrees hotter here than it is anywhere else. <v Ellis Landers>You walk on it all day long. <v Ellis Landers>Most of the time in the summer it's over 100 degrees. <v Narrator>You won't be sad when the when the ferry's gone, you ?inaudible?. <v Ellis Landers>I'd like to see the bridge today. <v Ellis Landers>A lot of people like the ferry though. <v Narrator>Why? <v Ellis Landers>I guess cause there's so few of 'em. Lot of people say they'd <v Ellis Landers>be sad to see it go, but I won't. <v Narrator>Ferry boats have several enemies: high water, low water, <v Narrator>floating logs, sandbars and bridges.
<v Narrator>Among these enemies, bridges are the only mortal, deadly enemy. <v Narrator>?inaudible? Ferrys' days are numbered. In view, the bridge is on its way. <v Narrator>The stories and myths of ferryboats go back to the dawn of history. <v Narrator>The ancient Greeks believed that the dead took their last trip on a ferry and a coin <v Narrator>was placed under the tongue to the dead to pay the very ?fine?. <v Narrator>In America, for some reason, ferry crossings were known as magnets for bootleggers and <v Narrator>bandits, con men and thieves. Why? <v John Hume>The movements of the population westward in this country, of course, pushed ahead of it <v John Hume>a type of person before the agricultural settlers came in that had <v John Hume>a tendency to violence. <v John Hume>Well, these people congregated. <v John Hume>They were idlers in many instances, and they drifted to <v John Hume>the ferry crossings, which really were the population always <v John Hume>converged because that's where they had either ship on the river or got across the river <v John Hume>if they were moving somewhere else.
<v John Hume>So they had time on their hands. <v John Hume>They- it was an era, of uh horse back transportation <v John Hume>for individuals. They liked to race their horses and they usually fic- <v John Hume>picked a sandy bar or something that would make a good quarter mile track or <v John Hume>something to race ?inaudible? <v John Hume>their racing. They had taverns for their drinking places ?inaudible? <v John Hume>and because of the character of the people that had <v John Hume>no e- established home ?were? <v John Hume>in these urbanized <v John Hume>areas in a relative sense. <v John Hume>And uh for that reason, they became places of ill repute, <v John Hume>attracted uh women that had uh had to make a living <v John Hume>and they had no other way of making a living except as entertainers in these taverns. <v John Hume>?inaudible?. <v John Hume>Camp followers, in a sense.
<v John Hume>Well, the swindlers that hung around water crossings were the same people that <v John Hume>uh used to be found in the big metropolitan railroad stations. <v John Hume>The ignorant that came along, the naive and the innocent traveler, <v John Hume>these people, good, substantial people were moving on to build new homes in <v John Hume>the West, were not exposed to the metropolitan <v John Hume>um con um man. <v John Hume>They had no experience with them. <v John Hume>So they preyed on them. They knew these people usually carried gold 'cause <v John Hume>that they had sold out in their places back east. <v John Hume>They had to have gold to buy supplies along the way. <v John Hume>There was no paper currency that was universal in use then. <v John Hume>And west of the Mississippi until, oh, <v John Hume>after it was well built up in Arkansas, there was very little paper money of any kind <v John Hume>unless except those that had commerce with New Orleans or St. Louis,
<v John Hume>uh which would mean larger storekeepers in the areas <v John Hume>built up around the ferry crossing or the larger landowners <v John Hume>in the plantation country. <v John Hume>So they would [sighs] they operated in any way they could. <v John Hume>They- these people waiting to cross the ferry would <v John Hume>camp in their wagons or carry a wagon sheet or a tent and would camp <v John Hume>in the wagon or sleep in the wagon and set up a cook tent beside it. <v John Hume>There were families, usually with children there, and they were preyed on <v John Hume>by these con people. So- <v Narrator>As for the bad reputations of ferry crossings, none was worse than that of Toad Suck <v Narrator>Ferry here on the Arkansas River near Conway. <v Narrator>Here is its last trip, 12 years ago. <v Narrator>One could no more talk of ferry crossings in Arkansas without mentioning Toad Suck Ferry <v Narrator>than one could talk of San Francisco without mentioning cable cars. <v Narrator>Toad Suck. <v Narrator>One of the strangest place names on the map of America.
<v Narrator>One of its former ferry pilots, Ty Marshall, tells one of the stories of how it got its <v Narrator>name. <v Ty Marshall> [inaudible] <v Narrator>Toad Suck Ferry left its name on the bridge, the dam and the loch, which now stands where <v Narrator>it crossed. For miles around, this is called Toad Suck Country. <v Narrator>It is remembered every summer by a celebration called Toad Suck Days. <v Narrator>Poems have been written about this place. <v Narrator>Songs, the celebrated Toad Suck Symphony took its name from it. <v Narrator>[music plays] [singing]
<v Narrator>Among those who revere the memory of Toad Suck Ferry and none is more fervent than Harold <v Narrator>Stane, one of its former pilots. <v Narrator>Harold is a Baptist minister, musician and composer of the Toad Suck Ferry Blues. <v Narrator>Reverend Stane has dreams about the old days on the ferry. <v Harold Stane>Well, I loved the fairy. Uh it it was something that's grown on me from day <v Harold Stane>to day we had- we'd grown in bad storms or whatever, you know, that would be safe for <v Harold Stane>the public, which was just about all the time. <v Harold Stane>And uh it just growed on me and I felt like maybe, you know, that it was just, <v Harold Stane>so to speak, earthly talk. <v Harold Stane>Just living, almost breathing. <v Harold Stane>I'd hate to leave it, really. <v Harold Stane>Well, I did dream about it, I guess, three or four years after it was gone. <v Harold Stane>Practically not every night, but, you know, several times. <v Harold Stane>I'd say nearly average once a week, at least. <v Harold Stane>And uh and some of them were in bad times. <v Harold Stane>Some of 'em was beautiful times. I ?inaudible? down the swamps, down the streets of <v Harold Stane>Conway and Little Rock and red lights and everywhere else.
<v Harold Stane>Course it was 60 foot long plus ?inaudible?. <v Harold Stane>That was impossible. But uh uh it really <v Harold Stane>was. And they were just I just dreamed about, you know, I wanna see it again. <v Harold Stane>And some of the swamp, you know, was pretty rough time ?inaudible? <v Harold Stane>with hard water and stuff like that. <v Harold Stane>I've I've run it now, cyclone, you know, and <v Harold Stane>then smooth waters. And it's really sweet. <v Harold Stane>Uh seem like good people, you know, that would cross and I got to wait for the Lord ?lot? <v Harold Stane>on the ferry. <v Harold Stane>Uh people will listen 'cause you got 10 sometimes 30 minutes according to how <v Harold Stane>how swift the water is, you know, to get across some time it took a long time. <v Harold Stane>Some time it didn't. But people will listen and they're willing to listen and everything <v Harold Stane>you say to 'em. I got a chance. <v Harold Stane>I got my chance. And I ?inaudible? lot of people to the Lord on the ferry. <v Harold Stane>And then I got to help ?poor? people as they'd cross and I had one
<v Harold Stane>?deck? hand workin' on the ?inaudible? that gave his lunch to hungry people as they'd <v Harold Stane>cross. You know, if there was ?inaudible? <v Harold Stane>and so on. We'd give a lot of money away just to help people and people's <v Harold Stane>good to us too. In summertime that's hottest place, I guess, in the world. <v Harold Stane>It don't seem like it would be, but it is. <v Harold Stane>Uh that all the steel around. <v Harold Stane>An' an' lot of the workers that would cross to come it would always bring us back Cokes <v Harold Stane>and and cold Cokes and things like that. <v Harold Stane>So we were blessed, I guess, a lot more than we even blessed someone else and <v Harold Stane>[singing]. <v Narrator>Early <v Narrator>retirement rather than rapid advancement seems to be the lot to ferry pilots these days.
<v Narrator>But what about the ferry boats themselves? <v Narrator>What happens to them? <v Narrator>This is a salvage depot of the Arkansas Highway Department. <v Narrator>Some call it a junkyard. It is crammed with the burnt out machines of a technological <v Narrator>age. Among them, a ferry boat. <v Narrator>Or maybe the ferry ends like this one, a rusting derelict, stuck on a sandbar in <v Narrator>the Black River. As dead as the once busy little town of ?inaudible? <v Narrator>Arkansas, which flourished and died on the shore here. <v Narrator>Ferry boats have no cemetaries. <v Narrator>In the not too distant future, it's safe to say that you'll be able to drive your car <v Narrator>anywhere you wish in America without having to slow down for a ferry crossing. <v Narrator>And it's safe to say also that children will be asking a question. <v Narrator>What is a ferry boat? You'll answer. <v Narrator>Then they'll ask another question. Did you ever ride on one? <v Narrator>If you wanna say yes to that question and you've never ridden a ferry, well don't <v Narrator>wait too long to try it because soon
To Cross A River: A Ferry Tale
Producing Organization
Arkansas Educational TV Network
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Arkansas Educational TV Network (Conway, Arkansas)
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia (Athens, Georgia)
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Program Description
"An examination of the endangered species of American transportation - the ferry boat. At the turn of the century many hundreds of ferry crossings marked the map of the United States. Most of them today have been replaced by bridges. This documentary takes a look at the remaining seven ferry crossings in the state of Arkansas, their history, and their doubtful future. "Conway, Arkansas, native William Cole, former CBS News correspondent covering Europe and the Middle East, wrote, produced and narrated the documentary."--1982 Peabody Awards entry form.
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Director: Parker, Dave
Narrator: Cole, William
Producer: Cole, William
Producing Organization: Arkansas Educational TV Network
Writer: Cole, William
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Arkansas Educational TV Network (AETN)
Identifier: 4782 (Arkansas Educational Television Network (AETN) Production Video Library (PVL))
Format: Betacam: SP
Generation: Master
Duration: 00:30:00?
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: 82105dct-arch (Peabody Object Identifier)
Format: U-matic

Identifier: 82105dct (UGA)
Format: 3/4 inch videotape: U-matic
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Chicago: “To Cross A River: A Ferry Tale,” 1982-00-00, Arkansas Educational TV Network, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 26, 2022,
MLA: “To Cross A River: A Ferry Tale.” 1982-00-00. Arkansas Educational TV Network, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 26, 2022. <>.
APA: To Cross A River: A Ferry Tale. Boston, MA: Arkansas Educational TV Network, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from