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email us because at the national educational television network it's being appealed close to the geographic center of the united states somewhere between sedate and not just their misery
surrounded by some of the richest farmland in the world local farmers drop their tractors gases eighty five ton slab of concrete singing lonely one thousand exactly like it scattered throughout this nation in underneath poised for action with its nuclear tipped warhead a minuteman missile sense and some fifteen miles away buried under a simple wood frame brockhouse underground capsule contains the missiles delivery system two officers city exactly eleven feet apart can accurately dispatched to a target six thousand miles away the citizens who
teach you in navajo somewhere in the world one hundred forty million square miles of ocean for a polaris submarines each armed with sixteen nuclear missiles cruise on secret courses and work isaac and
says these institutions that sets in we'll read dictionary defines the word to turn has to turn aside or discouraged to fear and to prevent some action by fear of consequence is a strategy of deterrence has been basically simple since there was no known defense against nuclear attack so says exchanges begin but now a technological breakthrough could radically altered his balance of time and for more than a decade ways have been sought to perfect an active defense against incoming missiles the united states army now claims that the technical problems have been solved
known as the nike this anti missile system consists of a computerized radar tracking device which scans the skies at electronic speeds and which guides to their targets two nuclear armed missiles and long range intercept nike's shoes and the new instant firing spread than long thin the army's chief of research and development general austin that's unlikely x system as is now being designed well in fact reformers are studies have projected it could provide the level of effectiveness against ballistic missile attack that was described by mr mcnamara and his recent posture state no intervention is required more complete development of the system question is now melting to produce and deployed the nike x which would encircle our city's cost upwards
of twenty billion dollars and require a substantial <unk> intelligence reports allege the soviets may deploy such a system so for the us a difficult choices in the making senator henry jackson of the armed services committee would say a lot lipitor general i think no one has to say that this is a highly problematical play this is why i will not been able to come to a proper resolution in a timely way leah would certainly like to have a device that could stop actively all incoming missiles to save the civilian population of our country and if we have this kind of capability it would certainly a belly adversary look at old point we're trying to start a gentle war because you're not going to win former presidential science advisor drone wiessner
well my own judgment and they experienced to date is that all power is so great now he's given the nuclear weapons and it takes a few of these weapons to do the kind of damage that we don't want to accept that the defense has a tremendous disadvantage in will always be both and costs and ineffectiveness it's a matter of judgment and i'm giving you my personal opinion which is i think that they thought that much experience as anyone in the business of working on the massive systems and what kind of public attitudes might bring it excreted through were you weaken your own society we're preparing for the extent that many things your own society aren't done it
the national educational television network presents at issue a monthly commentary on people on vents and it is an issue and it and the conference why in nineteen fifty seven the plain states
this event marked the end of its relative safety from the possibility of nuclear attack while previously our bombers and medium range missiles were primarily intended to protect europe we know had to protect ourselves for europeans are nuclear guarantee had been believable because the united states itself was fairly immune from atomic retaliating the peak isn't it early ice indians left something to be desired they were above ground sloth firing and liquid fueled this made them vulnerable to attack they could be destroyed before ever getting off the ground strategist realized an all out nuclear war could now be won in theory at least a well timed surprise attack could not copy opponents planes and missiles before we had a chance to use them
then the threat of a second strike aimed at the city's could assure victory i'm even before president kennedy took office in nineteen sixty one he had become aware of some serious flaws in our defense posture there were two weaknesses first we were open to a possible nuclear first strike and the second or conventional straight was so inadequate that unlimited local wars our choice of response would be extremely inflexible mr herrmann the greater our variety weapons kennedy center more political choices we can make in any given situation has been under the leadership of secretary mcnamara our conventional forces were quickly rebuilt by nineteen sixty four protected against anything but a direct hit most of our missile force was
solid fueled minuteman missiles was heartened in underground silos were practically invulnerable suddenly underwater and risen enormously important changes they can make is the more relaxed about a great number of things including for example in the law and that until we get involved in there in the mine or conflict we don't have to worry so desperately about is escalating at two major ones we once did where for example six years ago that the problem was one of worrying about whether you should get started get off the ground while the getting was good for us who may not have a force well we don't have to worry about or and i think this can give a president a period of crisis like you've been crisis are like the present crisis in vietnam if you give them a good deal more latitude
choice video more panic a month that he wants to do and less fear about the consequences of what he may be doing it all wrong you will have more woe once missiles were invulnerable the incentive for surprise attack practically invented the balance of deterrence reached a new far more stable plateau but now city became prime targets for his role in the city it's comparable to what is known in westerns as the mexican standoff to gun fighters their weapons drawn know that neither one can fire without getting shot by the other barring suicidal madness neither will fire in the real world of power politics when kennedy and khrushchev
faced each other during the cuban missile crisis neither side fired the world went to the brink but the confrontation was seven directly by the two superpowers no other countries beyond workers during the crisis became anxious he had not consulted he then asked what the united states really risk the destruction of one of its own cities to guarantee the safety of an alive city would we ensured trade pittsburgh for male general de gaulle solution his own nuclear force but what if you could defend your cities against an incoming ice edm a feat not on like hitting a bullet with a bullet could have not only saved many lives but also make our nuclear guarantee more convincing to our allies more than seven years of research and
over two billion dollars have been spent by the united states on the development of an effective anti ballistic missile defense hollered work in the event of a nuclear attack in theory our cities would be surrounded by a bell and this is really important he only enemies to further confuse the defense the missiles change course in midflight know whether nike's radar makes an instant evacuation promptly much is the long range interest for high altitude
others in the seventies nose bleeds into the pacific also will sell somebody else until you hear around fifty miles up one from the city creates population must be presenting new
whether or not to produce and deploy such a system with an estimated cost over twenty billion dollars raises many complex into related questions for one word where president kennedy decided against deploying an earlier system than it suits the zoo says maine shortcoming was its inability to go an incoming ice edm from an orbiting ash care law but one of the nike x the us army's chief of research and development general austin that's the army doesn't play in a perfect defense is achievable against the massive soviet attack when you're assessed but the point is that it was a hate to have a high probability of defeating and i kick system would be severe the fact is that only would have to commit a significant fraction of his were so you know in order to penetrate than it
exports on still an it system and ickes is intercepted a ballistic missile in flight as far back as nineteen sixty two on a metal freidman from the collision is kept as a souvenir by former army chief of research and development general arthur trudeau now president of the goal of research cooperation here we're now approaching ship here to develop and for my money and time to patients and employers and i think we need it i also think there seems to be a plastic to delay production just as long as possible possibly do that this disarmament aspect is uppermost in some people's minds and possibly because they consider the things we have are sufficient onto our needs
at this time both of these can be dangerous i would rather see juice sprint or the nike access to if you want to call it that beyond station three years too early or five years during or i'd hoping nothing whatever happened to it and every five years too late at the university of california's new san diego extension of former director of the defense department's research and development office dr herbert york wonders how the nike checks would work in a real situation rather than during a test let's say at a test ground where the missiles were fired by ourselves against our own defenses i'll be the question whether we could ever have one that would work under real conditions of surprises using equipment that had never been fired in
a real situation until that last second which it had to work is really a much different question though even then even in the case of a simple often sung to say nothing of how things would work out of the defense were specifically designed for penetration dr kessler designed specifically for patricia it is our considered judgment after some years of study that there is no cheap and easy way to defeat them it exit at princeton where with fellow mathematician john von normandy pioneer in the field of cyber networks and the theory of games dr oscar morgenstern questions the dependability of the system that was shown to work every day and i think the main problem would be the great economic effort which is involved in this tremendous expense but i would minimize that because if it were really absolutely successful it then surely the country could afford to put up any such
defensive system but they aren't and the problem seems to me to be an organization that one because the oath that would only makes sense if it isn't any moment always at the possible pitch of needed performance and i cannot see how one can organize it complicated think of this kind in this town so that it was always at a moment's notice the ever to rise to rip up their moment of maximum of what is required if nothing happens for many years as we all put wouldn't be a meeting would be a problem to keep the thing at this handover pitch now dean of sciences at mit president kennedy's science advisor dr jerome wiessner was closely involved in decisions of this nature he advise the president not only on the potential performance of weapons systems but also on the possible political side effects
for instance if an anti ballistic missile system would apply would escalate the arms race with the russians responded by building an atm on their own or were they increased their muscle striking force to overwhelm our defenses the late president one since crime to photograph to dr wiessner went to jerry who makes the complex simple dr weast i recently had an arms control panel of prominent citizens one of the recommendations a three year moratorium on the nike checks system well we believe that the appointment of such a system where the united states and by the soviet union would accelerate the arms race which at the moment is relatively stable and quiet and if one you know i was working in the large scale deployment of an anti missile system that the minimum that it would do would cause the other side
and very likely on that's certainly what causes rather considerable deceleration in the purchasing and deployment of offensive weapons as well and inhibition the analyst of missile system requires were that a very substantial so provincial government of the effective sociologist amitai etzioni here at stanford university's institute for behavioral sciences questions the real nature of such a defensive system our anti missile missile slow sometimes it is a defensive ad that actually this and i'm guessing that that is sometimes difficult to understand as the gauge the distinctions between offensive and defensive and learn but in this particular case that has sown the illinois you know with elections in foreign invested in the citizens united the city's <unk>
this is a looming with no position on the defensive measure passes them on a market that passed actually the really very suspicious when the maintenance that in the uninitiated amaral condition they're asking them are considering attacking us first inning rally the citizens out in order to protect them while they sing her a very very modest inflation the the problem over massive anti missile system the other side and the preparation for office park and isn't going to remind us of the united states has consistently if you eat and then the difference in the evidence which would make them aside suspect that this is one element that the r maine all of the men had that first nuclear weapon that aside that american lawyer about a teenager michael as if you are
engaging in a big way the decision must be reached on the future status of the nineties in the coming months pressure will build for a decision opponents feel that the system is ready and further delay may be costly and dangerous this shearer secretary mcnamara while requesting the usual funds for further research and development also warned of the dangers of a potential chinese nuclear threat the joint chiefs of staff have recommended as a start building a so called light anti missile defense system one that would cost in the neighborhood of ten billion dollars such a system in their view could cope successfully with unsophisticated missile attacks the kind the chinese might be a launch in five to ten years author bomber on the department of defense
i think we in the soviet union understand that nuclear war cannot be an instrument of policy dean rusk has recently said that we have understood this we hope the soviet union and so on the one hand there seems to be somewhat the decrease of tension between moscow and washington on the other hand we find a very aggressive belligerent chinese power who has recently acquired some very modest nuclear capability and we certainly cannot in any way limit the ability of this nation to defend itself against a chinese rep and so i think that's why the indian mission becomes extremely important that on the one hand we don't wish to excavate our relations with moscow on the other hand we actually must protect yourself against the chinese they would be irresponsible
as in recent months while in his silver bells nuclear superpowers now fully understand the implications of nuclear warfare chinese leaders in their public utterances continue to minimize the importance of nuclear weapons a maoist at that china could afford to lose four hundred million people and still emerged victorious from a nuclear war we believe in the nuclear age is leading terrorists the chinese sometimes by monday's weather is a private cottage as well as a lot of the insane russia's been built on private was the same point at the various reasons as the soviet threat has tended to decrease in watery places where americans in the same way the result is
a really full scale campaign against the chinese one runway which is almost completely on shared by the volatility in terms of the estimates of their aggression out of the line here jacki is intensely and saw nevertheless it's clear that many as arab nations was probably the chinese and the indians world for viewers guarantees a more credible more reliable really the last us from chinese retaliation in other words the asians may resume raised the same problem that us credibility in danger of going as raising your living as they've been willing to risk we're actually trade last night as the tokyo such as cocoa calcutta every little protect the city's of chinese attacked weekend and was a potato here in calcutta were reliably because if the chinese firm protect the city's weakened and very quietly tried to retaliate against china without fearing chinese the generation of major us cities
is this one of the major arguments about the saliva hormone level of the video but even small scale deployment of the atm might cause a large scale political uproar that is when the defendant saying eleven cities were chosen for defense which ones would be given priority and on what basis how would the citizens of a chosen city feel those of an un chosen city should solutions be found for these problems there would still remain the question of civil defense additional fallout shelters would have to be built that would be needed to protect people from the effects of a nearby nuclear explosion in the event of an all out nuclear war the defense department estimates that an atm system combined with a shoulder problem could save over eighty million was the expenditure according to general trudeau would be fully justified the difference
in having this system is the difference between about a hundred and forty and seventy million live well if you can save seventy million live for twenty five billion ours which is threatened fifty dollars per person and it should be done i can share my life worth at least that much it's apple watch on the program requires first of all very major expenditure secondly it requires i believe the kind of excitement of a fear inducing of fear in the population they generate a willingness to have these great changes in marin general society where we live that you have to our current situation which is very much worse than it really is in the danger which is more in the greater than it is and this in itself i think helps make or more likely that the minute people are concerned about this as you recall during the kennedy administration
we begin to the conclusion that small on the shoulder preparation with less desirable in that in fact the administration would be a responsible it didn't take those quiet modest steps that would get some form of protection for the population in event of a nuclear war but even to get acceptance of that required a degree of public relations and scare mongering than one had anticipated and the consequences you recorded begun the country which was really very upsetting and very frightening and which owen president saw what was the story of the consequences were really backed away from the paintings eventually more extensive shuttle program would have to go hand in hand with an iq text and the government would have to create a climate for civil defense it would therefore have to undertake a massive education program to change such
attitudes as these i think it's ridiculous isn't it can't be taken out anything less they don't know what i'd do anything whether you're sitting in your desk next to the window or standing in the elevator shaft it would be of any great significance if the bomb were dropped in this area which generates twenty five miles i assume it was to show that within the city like new york is not much chance the person to vaudeville as an attack or something so much time running in case of an emergency yeah going to be thinking of all the way that people that i don't think you can and i think you know it was a guerilla tactic you would know what to do i'm going to fight like to blame that really feel a certain amount of protection death knowing that we
can go from fight i mean they're taking cover might be just some sort of discipline would otherwise it really would know what what would happen if it was going to be any protection from the twenty second floor here but if the public feels a sense of futility about civil offense some major private corporations have given serious thought to the problem the new york telephone company for instance built this windowless twenty one story office building in the heart of manhattan is equipped with its own generators and while certainly not blast proof nothing above ground is it would make an excellent fallout shelter other large companies like shell oil manufacturers trust and standard oil have come up with more elaborate solutions aol russell security administrator stammer in nineteen sixty three we took a study to see whether we were up to date and determined that the underground facility for emergency operating would
be more in keeping with present circumstances and after a survey we developed our facility would use iron mountain is located one hundred twenty five miles from new york city driving time two and a half hours mr russell describes standard oil facilities i grabbed gear is said that a facility should have a possibility of lull fallout affects articulate adequate chilling from any fallout affection would play that are not meet state requirements and we do not refer to listen to fallout shelter but as an emergency operation center and i'd say that it has its own independent inside power water and other facilities we would propose to follow what's referred to as a death camp in advance notice is where we would take a few people on an early warning a few more than that this morning and we would only manners and an appropriate
warning period i'm reliably informed that there was a def con notices during the cuban prices and i would say that this is a type of situation i think would cause us to take a hard look at putting at least our preliminary manning we believe that to be realistic we have to keep them stuck with the government and this is a way where informed they are going to manage their counterparts to our emergency center we have approximately ninety thousand square feet and iron man and this provides us an opportunity our capability for emergency offering users a staff of approximately sixty of our operating personnel on our management along with necessary all the staff with their families and come on the ground and to help the company carry out their coronation and worked for emergencies we think maybe we're one of the
few one of the first to include family members of those who have gone after a great deal of thought to assure ourselves of having responsive people i could do the job this provides sleeping accommodations for these people to the extent possible and family units have small bedrooms we have a few drama gloria is for those who were there alone we have a capability for free to openly keeping and inefficient state during his period we have food for two hundred people for thirty days which we believe is more than the fear of time we would need to be on the ground actually our friends and government will the office of movie fans the office of emergency planning and other agencies have indicated probably fourteen to fifteen days would be a maximum that we would have a fallout hazard severe enough to keep a sonogram communications obviously as wild once that we have the greatest need four votes to be responsive to government requirements during that period we must be able to
communicate we're continually trying to improve our communications capabilities with our far flung worldwide organization should the government ever proceed with a nike x program it would have to convince the public not private corporations the need for shelters are thinking that goes into a decision like nike texas highly complex thirty of its full implications often starts in the so called think factories third rand corporation in santa monica california was one of the first such institutions
pretty to top secret information the rand corporation was created and supported by government contracts and it's purely advisory capacity it remains independent in its thinking here economists scientists social scientists engineers study problems of national defense in a semi academic atmosphere the rand corporation is often referred to as a breeding ground for the defense department many of its top alumni became whiz kids under secretary mcnamara applying the technique of so called systems analysis two economists and a mathematician discuss the nike x project way they evaluate secretary mcnamara as recent estimate on how many laws the system might say so do we spend fifteen billion dollars under some circumstances more power these
go from one hundred and twenty two million to about sixty million books very impressive if you say that you save sixty million lives and i think that if you look at it in terms of that still sixty million and it's also that doesn't account for possible soviet response of increasing the size of their their offensive force reacting so with them so you get that oh if we spend twenty billion on the defense this year the soviets were outspent twenty billion dollars or maybe much less on the offensive weapons they may raise the more valued at sixty right back up two hundred and twenty two sounds
like utah classical injuries and we spend twenty billion dollars in response and spends twenty billion dollars to the rand corporation was spawned by the nuclear age never before had strategy involving the most frightful weapons been discussed in the context of war is which do not occur the strategic concept developed in the age of the h bomb and the mussel are is new is the buildings housing the air force academy and the right to participate the patient
years ago strategy was looked upon as generalship tricks of war about roses of the battlefield unless perhaps by the work of napoleon and debate strategy i think if we define it properly represent manipulation of national resources not in the arena of international security against lebron tens are presented against so this involves ten thousand times more complex factors than the only an evergreen government also involves dealing with the future even more than with the president that necessitates a great emphasis upon the long range planning function colonel wesley polls are as chairman of the department of political science at the academy he is currently completing a book on strategy in the nuclear age cadets here are given a course on the subject which is based on the game developed by the rand corporation
we are about to take part in this game is you know which is an integral part in your core spirit the air force academy in international relations that policy of the purpose of this game this exercise is to imitate the long range planning process as you might encounter it in the office of the secretary of defense or perhaps in the kremlin peaking or some other future capital of the world which would make this kind of military decision now the basic structure of the game is that each team is given a budget and national budget and your task is to allocate this budget among various strategic programs available to you such is manned bombers interceptor missiles strike missiles active defense as passive defenses how you you can even purchase intelligence with certain risks that it is not accurate in this game by using part your budget you may invest in research development programs with varying
probabilities of being successful now when you are so making these program decisions you should be acting in accordance with your own team strategic concept your appraisal of the ten year were fifteen year strategic posture that might be for example in terms of targeting planning for color force or for cover value what sometimes is called a city hostage is a strategy now i would appoint out i would stress that this is only a game is only a simulation and as such it is at best a very poor representation of the real world let's say of the department of defense and what we're trying to accomplish here is only an educational function it on saturday we were having our first class leading a second book you're right you would give them the information between blasting this first good intelligence information on the rick teams deployment of their weapons system i heard you had a rather good care of force
second strike strategy developed and i'd like to know i was within the limits of your twenty seven billion dollars budget for the next three years what changes you think you should make any strategy and one which already wells are based on the most recent intelligence reports we received over a team they get concerns me most is effective in place a large number was the muscles we estimate about a new system here and a much more dangerous for stability then we had at the beginning of his period would be quite well there are i see two strategies here first of all the first one is weekend only increase our missile force deployed at harvard and then of course we could set up the anti missile system
and emphasize protection policies this experience with the system it a serious one ocean land and void because our of our mission in this war is to protect our people that were hurtful we're really here to protect the people of this country and if we don't if it wasn't for bombers the missiles now that they are there and we are really endangering our vehicle we have to do something to protect let's think about that first of all we have a budget which is nearly equal are just twenty seven million users twenty five what we're going to do here is that we were anti missile system were just saturated they're just going to increase the number of vessels in their arsenal is going to lead to an arms race in the budget back close we can't possibly get anywhere from an arms race with what they have as
far as the defense of their city's trees something to protect their people injured then they have to consider when they got there but they have to consider population yes it will do this will increase the defenses they put out their seeds and just collapse to our borders and destabilize questions and if we can pay our suv and controlling increases so is that there as he didn't believe in our city and cites another population centers within this thing weighs on this threat is to publish if we do in case anti missile systems around their cities and they're going to have a huge ego exaggeration cause it really take three more missiles than we have even students at city for centuries we can more effectively barnard cb insights into it and then we can
set up this system for says the saturation they contain imagery awful because you're assuming an awful lot the whole purpose of the war would be over reduce our population or second stryker nation we were going to wait for them to strike first and we lose all the population of a target to target population as devout muslims they want we have to fight a war with what we have one reason we had to fight or anything anymore anyway we increase defense assistance meant thinking as decoys more important systems and other malaysia's to center cities and if they didn't use these methods and pressed grey numbers fallen also distort population i say we should give our studios to take away some of the population we're hearing about that groundbreaking around anyway if we if we get out before they get there will fall into the
population centers with anti missile defenses in the population centers were destroyed and here is try to destroy the air has its consequences to first of all for every one of the anti missile missile launch nuclear warheads we have to assume a certain percentage of bala is an inherent danger system a surprise invasion could say that's the problem i mean speaking just to be killed it's glorifying hitler worship is this going to affect any effectiveness of us dread worshipper and secondly the destruction of communities that were both against us uses them against your population will level of the bible's account
is a war starts that one guy gets because if mr starks you've lost the game this has been the refrain of the atomic age all decisions concerning weapons in the nuclear age are eventually made in washington in the pentagon which proposes and in the congress which appropriates and then in the white house where a final decision is made on capitol hill we asked senator henry jackson of the armed services committee what the reaction of the congress would be at the defense department to ask for funds to produce and deploy and the nikkei x system now there will be those who disapprove would not favor of a wooden bit nicer maybe a unanimous for those would be the case of say often says i don't think there's any doubt that congress will approve one of the influences that are exerted
by pressure groups that have a vested interest in a program like the nightly x a man who saw these pressures from the inside president kennedy's science advisor joe mr that pressure has come right of sources of course the military who are paid to try to try to provide the most effective possible with funds for the country come in and make their recommendations and i think rightly so there's a great deal of congressional pressure stems from a variety of sources people who are interested in having like the security economic that the congress had a view of the political people either warped or industry itself in the case of nike's lose with a great view the public pressure that in various ways trade magazines from the associations of people who
had an interest in it in the industry did something that i think that's really not very proper there was very expensive advertising campaign in the public press and magazines and newspapers advocating support pressure on the president wasn't quite that rat race and but this was the effect of the decision is american people many of the manufacturers have large areas and then they end up in magazines advocating particular system so that there's a great deal of this kind i don't think it has a great view president kennedy of anything that made him more curious if interested in precise moral issues were on it was such a tremendous the pressure on him to make the decision making more thoughtful i think about the dixie isn't that the same kinds of things are likely to happen with nike exeter are happening i don't really know i think there's a different period in the history
of the things first was suspected anything that pressure back our people be a little more careful also i don't believe the defense department now allows people in charge that kind of advertising against the fence country had been more careful with their money but i would imagine that goes one after a certain amount of that state it's probably not a bad thing that makes people conscious of the fact that there's a very important decision in the water can people in defense analysis work become too passionate about their occupation dr bjork a former director of research and development at the department of defense what happens is that people live in this world come to believe that it is you know that the whole world and in extreme form i've come to believe that the whole purpose of the united states is to maintain a deterrent that that that's the purpose of life rather than merely one aspect of
what our national life unfortunately has and that began in the most extreme situations they develop a messiah complex about about their work they use phrases like you know how when you put out a new book the budget ahead of survival how can you put a price on survival in the nuclear age many invasion thinking about the unthinkable as something more men and even callous we asked chairman john why there are many reasons why people who object to these kind of studies i were jazz at the most important is fear of self fulfilling prophecy and this could be an adamant opposition democrats will fall that if one person's hassle suspicious somebody does it react the same way the first person billed as a tabletop and bass and catalogers curtis white but actually most of the time so for the proposition is not an illegal proposition it's a magical proposition is very
primitive tribes we narrow sophisticate society we find many women were afraid to be examined the cassava for afghans many americans to buy insurance through a sign the paper they're going to do all that there is a sense that you have to use the magical part the pope at the beginning of the atomic age only a handful of men were involved in unlocking the secret of the bomb today enormous engineering and scientific talent is employed to help assure that the bomb is never used john ruple a former assistant secretary of defense science is embarrassed by war scientists most scientists didn't become scientists to invent ways to kill people or to destroy think
engineers really many times feel embarrassed or anything the idea has sunk it that one wants to be a builder and not a charity and then we've used for war all of our genius to build a genius to organize the director of mobilizing harness the resources of our whole society and i think one finds at least i had a disturbing from time to time to think that you can see are scientific minds are engineering skills are organizational genius our system organizing industry and government alternative the systematic destruction of the people if you believe in the brotherhood of land then you don't believe in destroying
people anywhere among them and the united states can any nation be completely invulnerable to nuclear attack even the strongest advocates of the nike access to agree that one hundred percent protection is not possible the questions we must as it is how much protection do we need how much can we afford will production and deployment escalate the arms race how much of a shoulder program will the american public accept only for continuing research and development but last month the senate armed services committee voted additional funds for the purchase of some nike x components would this initial commitment to a final decision on it next is drawing closer
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Episode Description
This program presents a detailed report on this country's proposed anti-missile defense system which is causing a nationwide controversy. The system's estimated cost is $30 billion and would involve a nationwide fallout shelter program. It would also risk escalation of the arms race. Included in the proposal is sophisticated new radar system that can differentiate between enemy missiles with real warheads and decoys. This episode reports on the present debate and planning involved in this defense decision. Many experts fear that this country is virtually defenseless against an enemy missile attack and estimates causalities of two out of every three Americans. Defense experts are sharply divided on the Nike-X, a defense system estimated at $20 billion, involving long- and short-range anti-missile missile, a sophisticated radar system that could differentiate between enemy missiles armed with real and decoy warheads, and a nationwide fallout shelter program. For its report on the Nike-X system, N.E.T. camera units visited missile installations around the country, the Air Force Academy, the Rand Corporation, the Hudson Institute, the University of California, M.I.T. and Princeton. Included in the program is a never-before-filmed segment of the Air Force Academy cadets "play" strategic war games. In this revolutionary teaching technique, cadets are split into teams to map strategy and "spend" defense appropriations. There is also an animated sequence, specially created for this "At Issue" program, depicting the operation of Nike-X if this country were under attack. At the Rand Corporation, experts discuss "system analysis," the balancing of cost versus lives-saved in the development of a Nike-X defense. Dr. Jerome Wiesner, former Presidential science adviser and at present the dean of science at M.I.T., discusses the possibility of the Nike-X system escalating the arms race, and U.S. Senator Henry Jackson (D- Washington), a member of the Armed Service Committee, talks about chances of Congressional approval for Nike-X appropriations. Others interviewed are Herman Kahn, director of the Hudson Institute; Dr. Herbert York, former director of research and development at the Department of Defense; Lt. Gen. Austin Betts, Chief of Army Research and Development; and Gen. Arthur Trudeau, former Chief of Army Research and Development. There is also exclusive film footage of the underground living facilities at Iron Mountain in New York State. These quarters were recently opened by three New York City-based companies for key executives and their families. Running Time: 58:2 (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
Other Description
At Issue consists of 69 half-hour and hour-long episodes produced in 1963-1966 by NET, which were originally shot on videotape in black and white and color.
A nationwide controversy may result from this country's proposed anti-missile defense system which will be explored when National Educational Television presents "At Issue: Nike-X." Many experts fear that this country is virtually defenseless against an enemy missile attack and estimates causalities of two out of every three Americans. Defense experts are sharply divided on the Nike-X, a defense system estimated at $20 billion, involving long- and short-range anti-missile missile, a sophisticated radar system that could differentiate between enemy missiles armed with real and decoy warheads, and a nationwide fallout shelter program. For its report on the Nike-X system, N.E.T. camera units visited missile installations around the country, the Air Force Academy, the Rand Corporation, the Hudson Institute, the University of California, M.I.T. and Princeton. Included in the program is a never-before-filmed segment of the Air Force Academy cadets "play" strategic war games. In this revolutionary teaching technique, cadets are split into teams to map strategy and "spend" defense appropriations. There is also an animated sequence, specially created for this "At Issue" program, depicting the operation of Nike-X if this country were under attack. At the Rand Corporation, experts discuss "system analysis," the balancing of cost versus lives-saved in the development of a Nike-X defense. Dr. Jerome Wiesner, former Presidential science adviser and at present the dean of science at M.I.T., discusses the possibility of the Nike-X system escalating the arms race, and U.S. Senator Henry Jackson (D- Washington), a member of the Armed Service Committee, talks about chances of Congressional approval for Nike-X appropriations. Others interviewed are Herman Kahn, director of the Hudson Institute; Dr. Herbert York, former director of research and development at the Department of Defense; Lt. Gen. Austin Betts, Chief of Army Research and Development; and Gen. Arthur Trudeau, former Chief of Army Research and Development. There is also exclusive film footage of the underground living facilities at Iron Mountain in New York State. These quarters were recently opened by three New York City-based companies for key executives and their families.
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Executive Producer: Perlmutter, Alvin H.
Interviewee: Jackson, Henry
Interviewee: Kahn, Herman
Interviewee: York, Herbert
Interviewee: Wiesner, Jerome
Interviewee: Trudeau, Arthur
Interviewee: Betts, Austin
Narrator: McCutchen, Dick
Producer: Stern, Andrew A.
Producing Organization: National Educational Television and Radio Center
Writer: Stern, Andrew A.
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Thirteen - New York Public Media (WNET)
Identifier: wnet_aacip_32064 (WNET Archive)
Format: Digital Betacam
Generation: Master
Duration: 00:58:26?
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1832761-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 1 inch videotape: SMPTE Type C
Generation: Master
Color: B&W
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1832761-2 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: U-matic
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: B&W
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1832761-3 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Master
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1832761-4 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1832761-5 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1832761-6 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape: Quad
Generation: Master
Color: B&W
Indiana University Libraries Moving Image Archive
Identifier: [request film based on title] (Indiana University)
Format: 16mm film
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Chicago: “At Issue; 66; Nike-X,” 1966-05-00, Thirteen WNET, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 19, 2022,
MLA: “At Issue; 66; Nike-X.” 1966-05-00. Thirteen WNET, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 19, 2022. <>.
APA: At Issue; 66; Nike-X. Boston, MA: Thirteen WNET, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from