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well sahr following program is wrong and at the national educational television network is and they should be yours show anymore and again
non so shaken as we are so long would get fined we're time for friday peace to pant no more the thirsty entrance of the sotto dalton lives with her own children's blood or like and you'd see that night no more shall cut his master in nineteen forty five when it formed in san francisco an international organization designed to save succeeding generations from a skirt or war twenty years later the united nations has gone from fifty one to one hundred and fifteen countries and has been active in any peacekeeping operations but as we look ahead to the next twenty years the role is still asking can we grant the un the power to keep the nation from lifting up sword against nation
reading i'm done done this television series is part of a program being conducted around the country by the foreign policy association in cooperation with local organizations it is aimed at helping you make decisions on crucial united states' policies the charter of the united nations says that the basic purpose of the organization as the key thing and this its twentieth year it seems appropriate to ask whether the yuan is capable of keeping the peace this is especially pregnant in light of the abrupt adjournment of the general assembly in february because of a dispute about peacekeeping machinery in order to answer the question of
un peacekeeping ability we're going to begin with a look backwards at the past twenty years later tonight alex kazan psyche current president of the general assembly will be a special guest on this program here now is our commentator an analyst former assistant secretary of state law professor of government at columbia university roger hill pretty prayers for peace then no world wars but there have been war as there were four million casualties in the current conflict all far from peaceful three years of fighting over you and flying against north korean red chinese aggression there's been a war in the middle east and africa in vietnam what marks a difference between these wars and past ones is that the un has been involved with many of them in song un troops have entered the country is in others un mediators have come between the focus many people feel this has made the crucial difference
that the world is now much more peaceful place because of the united nations justin so about shape it's hard to draw some nations judging by the headlines these days are making an attempt one song though looking both backwards and ahead say step should be taken to make new and more powerful others say this isn't necessarily others say it cannot be done and still others say it must not be done almost from the beginning in nineteen forty five united states and the soviet union as well as minor parties have asked the un to consider this specific proposals for disarmament as a major goal of un peacekeeping effort then in nineteen sixty one president kennedy suggested the un study not only disarm i want a system of worldwide mark and wall and personally we might continue to
agreement on for the measure to curb the nuclear armed raid by controlling the transfer of nuclear weapons many of what's the un and data day operation who have heard the differences between united states and the soviet assignment plans we're seeing the arguments that led up to even the partial test ban treaty of nineteen sixty three we'll not wonder that the idea of worldwide disarmament and law enforcement has been met with cries of ridiculous your utopia aware of this the united states delegation came up with a series of steps which it considered practical suggestions to get us from here to utopia among these was an expanded military step for the un and the earmarking of standby of national armies for the un's us other un members have suggested similar steps but the reality is that the un
is still far from agreement on any one of these major changes an example when the latest session of the general assembly opened in december of nineteen sixty four it faced a group of beverly fighting nation's current over the problem of financing peacekeeping operations before the new president alex grey zone psyche could take office before the session could even opened secretary general had to find a temporary solution to the fight one which would avoid a major crisis he meant was several delegations trying to avoid a major confrontation in the general assembly finally he succeeded i may mention that there is an understanding of the fact that a huge part of and those that can be difficult all without objection we're not be raised by the end of the day for
crises like this often makes not only major changes but the very functioning of the un seemed difficult if not impossible why then the nation's price for such there really debated changes and if they needed white has some of those same nations seem to make them so difficult to achieve the answers lie somewhere in these past twenty years the charter gave to the security council major responsibility for ensuring the peace and general assembly could only recommend that the security council could take direct steps and so in some cases it did in nineteen forty eight through a un commission it secured a ceasefire in place near where indians and pakistanis were in conflict in nineteen forty nine it sent a commission to end an easier to end hostilities there a nineteen forty nine to through mediators combine about them ralph bunche an armistice was
secured in palestine then in nineteen fifty the security council was called upon contact with greater force and that carried by un commission it is generally agreed that had the soviet delegation not been absent from the council that day in june nineteen fifty the korean war would have been fought by the united states alone but the florida delegation was absent they had walked out six months earlier over the controversial issue of seating red china consequently there was no soviet veto on the proposal to send you and troops into korea un charter had specified setting up stand by un forces within each country but lack of agreement between nations on how to do this and let the un without any armed forces of its all so it was the first human long intervention was fought with troops and funds supplied by the seventeen participating
countries and with the mandate obtained during the absence of the soviet not against them assad will soon return to the un the subsequent behavior had the united states delegation worry we feared that a soviet the talk might make future peacekeeping actions difficult if not impossible and the united states' prodding the general assembly passed the uniting for peace resolution this resolution provided that in the event of a threat to the peace the assembly could be called into session on twenty four hours notice by any seven members of the security council if action in the council was blocked by a veto nineteen fifty six huge it nationalizes the suez canal france and england in an effort to protect their interests affected so does israel britain and france walked resolutions in the un security council which called for withdrawing their troops uniting for peace resolution is you used the general assembly directs the secretary general to organize a un
emergency forced to enforce the cease fire troops from canada brazil yugoslavia and other countries some six thousand men secure that cease fire today they continue to patrol a sense of the border between egypt and israel uniting for peace resolution seemed to have solved the problem of the security council that my body did not start to solve the problem of financing peacekeeping operations member nations were willing to provide their troops but not to pay for the peace missions in an attempt to solve this problem the general assembly voted to assess all un missions for the suez peace action including the assessments as part of the regular you expenses this pope has been the source of much friction many countries including france and the soviet union refused to pay for the sioux as operation they considered it illegal instigated as it was by the general assembly and not the security council as the charter
directs in nineteen sixty another key section this time sets in motion in accordance with the charter into the congo the security council says twenty thousand troops eventually won independence of the country from becoming a slaughterhouse and the cold war about you and stayed for years preventing major budget but not without again raising much debate over the way the operations carried out for all the operation was set in motion by the security council assessments for it were made by the assembly and again many nations refuse to pay since the congo there have been other peacekeeping missions in nineteen sixty three and observation team went to yemen to help stop armed conflict in that country in nineteen sixty four un troops went to cyprus to secure a cease fire but not all trouble spots have been met with successful un peacekeeping effort under a nineteen fifty six
algeria in nineteen fifty seven point things and then in nineteen sixty two the cuban missile crisis while this heated debate went on inside the un us warships formed a blockade in the caribbean that threatened to draw human into a nuclear war combat veteran but neither are you ever before late breaking medium an intermediate range missile and fight in true yes or no don't like the translation yes or no can i am not in an american court
and upright not we do on what he can offer you know record in it is generally agreed that the united nations played only a minor role in the cuban confrontation fear of war not un intervention was the determining factor in the removal of the missiles it is also generally agree that even the successful un peace missions ahead there are moments in the sewers the congo and cypress know prominent political solutions have been found by the un and when the un convoy of course withdrew in nineteen sixty four because of a lack of money bloody civil war immediately began again the driver provides for standby national troops for you when you lose but
only denmark norway and sweden have provided such troops but the suez in congo actions were almost undermined our nations withdrew part of their troops or a peace force that must recruit supply and finance on a car just that land bases there's greater numerous problems and potential failures it is because of this mixed record of success and failure that some nations have argued for stronger peacekeeping machinery some such steps have already been taken uniting for peace resolution of nineteen fifty has been followed by the world court ruling that peacekeeping finances can be considered as a part of a regular you and assessments but many nations do not regard the world court's ruling as binding and many argue about uniting for peace resolution is illegal so the nation sometimes seemed to extend peacekeeping par with one hand and hold it back with the other no clear example of this can be found in a new role played by the secretary general
because major peacekeeping operations have often come into being outside of provisions made of the charter clear instructions on how to proceed have been lacking and so often enough this monumental task has been left to the secretary general so it was at the same event a dog came into existence it was doug heller showed who made all the arrangements for the peacekeeping forces in suez and cromwell his successor was on carried on with the condor operation and since then on father's taken many behind the scenes initiatives in attempts to bring about a peaceful solution of one problem for another especially noteworthy was the financial crisis when he went ghost the moscow and the paris in an effort to settle a matter this new role of the secretary general unforeseen by the trucker has many times smooth over rough spots in you and procedures but it also poses problems it was precisely because of memory
skills activities on behalf of the congolese the section of the soviets' attacked him for showing partisan behavior and called for the leadership of the united nations here is the problem by default the general assembly gives new responsibility to the secretary general but many nations disagree about his actions in these areas and some even feel they are not permissible under the charter on the other hand try her vision that this time seems unlikely yet how many times can one lone man without proper instruction do all it is necessary and how much can one man do in carrying out ill defined un orders before you may be looked upon by one side or the other as less than impartial for twenty years the un has provided a forum in which every nation wrong or feeling wrong has been able to chastise its forms for a host of smaller nations some of the newborn this right this appearance in front of the
world cannot be likely passed over in december of nineteen sixty four thirteen african nations took turns lashing the united states and belgium for their action in the congo rescue mission later adley stevenson answered their charges right or wrong as we are they may be the use of such a farm is a strong force in gaming world opinion on one side or the other what is it and not everyone continue as it has almost to find new and stronger peacekeeping machinery when the general assembly adjourned in february the un was fighting over the right of the assembly to assess nations to pay for peacekeeping operations but there was a fight behind that fight basically the nation's were dispiriting over the right of the general assembly to acquire how far that some of the major nations would like to see reserve for use by their security council or the course of action is determined by a small number of nations and the
major powers have permanent representation a struggle for power has been evident behind most of the successes and failures of the un peacekeeping efforts in fact in many cases the un has been able to act only if one of the major powers supporters actions and at least three other it doesn't challenge them certainly lee the un cannot intervene in a matter that involves a direct confrontation with one of the great powers as for example in the cuban missile crisis there russia and the united states faced each other at the brink of war but they're the un was a little more than a bystander wringing its hands yet you know when the great powers agree on a peacekeeping mission the eventual outcome of the mission may not be to their liking and they may be unhappy about saying future missions watch this is the heart of the problem countries have to risk giving up something when
they agree to un peacekeeping operations and if the letter is to require greater peacekeeping power each nation will have to give up a little more of its right to determine its own course of action many great powers are unwilling to give up that right especially to the general assembly where they have no veto and where the course of action will be determined by an ever growing number of small countries so the question becomes how much power our individual nations willing to turn over to the un and how much power should they turned over to the us to help tackle this question i have been joined here by the current president of the general assembly is excellent say alex his own second string bass or it's good to have you here let me ask you're not only president of the un general assembly but also the chief delegate from gone on as a delegate joe from of smaller power now a world power
or can you sympathize with this feeling of some of the great powers about turning over more power to the general assembly it did not think that is a question of can live a pop art tig notaro was the guinness someday unskilled council have certain rights and passed them use the term given them by the judge that does and has the pop up houses that they wanted to buy the diversity on the byzantine that are cannot be taken away if you wanted to go with it was it was a turtle on the hand the question part of initiation of peacekeeping operation was in besieged on batter chatter for the significance of the uneasy the kind of peacekeeping operation which we know now it's not the kind of peacekeeping operation and besieged by the hondas off the
opposition in and for the five years was trained well uniting for peace resolution is seeing more cargo or a huge knot of abuse was mission was among hawk a tent wende that though isn't this could do with a korean situation has good cause of action clauses agree to that and therefore they were as usual was passed and empty the family was like that but i don't think that there's this image in a park with his huge i said i am and therefore what we have to do is just talk about us and within the top pesto question in my own mind of the day doesn't mean the entire membership of us personally as a collective responsibility or what keeps his deliberations so when does it get on so there's little doubt that an assembly has a right in the middle of winter two acts were and if they don't act by a committee recommended was hit on the title in an article in the moment
recommend action to be taken by this could cause was never have to take the actions actions ridiculous because what even here mr investor i think there's a more general problem but my own view is that i think some of the health enthusiast for the un i count myself certainly as a friend of you and i think some of those who want to push the un more and more towards being a world government or something like it we tend to try to work to try to solve every major international problem by getting us into a pair of those who suggest today that the un they'll be brought into the vietnam situation for example it seems to that they may be pushing the un in over its debt i think that the soviet union really got a little burn in the congo crisis when the un intervened and i wonder if it isn't dangerous for the un to call upon it to take to bigger
role in some of the confrontations in the cold war have you aren't sure how the head of a sort of doctrine of preventive diplomacy which wasn't that obama showed that no that isn't the way to continue before the situation is riveted by the quote caldwell considerations because of the numbers version is beyond me and redemption and of course that the good possibly be when companies abuse were and so much of the actions to begin by the win would depend upon that this cocoon capacity of applause you see under the title the money for the five the good cause was opposed to because you find the term leverage detector seven you for that time the department will again and it was i was at a school that was a problem pretty us elections but then the woman given as crews have jurisdiction over peacekeeping decimated says a the damage of low wage
workers end with i'm keeping the peace now a new problem as tom harkin michigan auction and if you measure the mission how to pay for it and is it the simple and i'm seeing on the lead interview that i was an action as being heated in such peacekeeping operations led the corps was on it is the lesson about the split also would possess its membership it in the oven and in his more pop would like to sit by and allow a small group of members was good cause or to tell them what to play professors the heads of the slide article seventeen is an important well there is a little more general a question here to it it the congo is now over the question of payment is something that has to be solved but i think some of those who try to think further into the future about the future the un ponder this question the un went into the congo with the agreement of all the great powers but then the question of stability became terribly
important and this brought about you know the great constitutional crisis of the un i remember khrushchev pounding his shoe on that faisal the tri colored greens all of the challenges today camera show them the power of these are very general came about in this way i think this is one of the you know of the great questions for the fall future of the un you think was true massacre that there is any prospect of more power being given of the un i'm rather than being you and the gilmore pardoned the titanic in the middle of a term is widely nuisance to provide to go to what if you want to change you in china then you want to tackle the terror attacks have to be amended to take account of the problems and the issues which are of the president it would be the world today has changed politically says the nevada five so that
if there are is to be anything done in this major direction it will require a major trauma division of course the chinese have brought another four years and so the discussion goes on then the united nations be given more power to carry out its peacekeeping function what problems lie ahead for the world organization we hope you will take part in the debate on these issues as is don goddard really it is
so next week on the diseases and that the united states policy in vietnam these i teach or r r r r r who's been at the national educational television network it
Great Decisions 1965
Episode Number
The UN at Twenty
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WNDT (Television station : Newark, N.J.)
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Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)
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The series of eight half-hour episodes, featuring distinguished foreign policy experts and observers, consists of topics corresponding to those chosen by the Foreign policy Associations annual nationwide discussion program. The issues to be examined are Red China, Germany, Trade, South Africa, Eastern Europe, the United Nations, Vietnam, and the population problem. Roger Hilsman, former Assistant Secretary of State, who is now professor of government at Columbia University, moderates Great Decision 1965. Don Goddard, noted broadcasting reporter, is the narrator. Great Decisions 1965 is being produced for National Educational Television by WNDT, New York Citys educational television station. The 8 episodes that comprise this series were originally recorded on videotape. (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
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Host: Hilsman, Roger
Producer: Lukas, Christopher
Producer: Krosney, Herbert
Producing Organization: WNDT (Television station : Newark, N.J.)
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Library of Congress
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Format: 1 inch videotape: SMPTE Type C
Generation: Master
Color: B&W
Duration: 0:28:48
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Identifier: 2080241-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape
Generation: Master
Color: B&W
Duration: 0:28:48
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2080241-3 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: U-matic
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: B&W
Duration: 0:28:48
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2080241-5 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: Color
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2080241-4 (MAVIS Item ID)
Generation: Master
Color: Color
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Chicago: “Great Decisions 1965; 6; The UN at Twenty,” 1965-00-00, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 10, 2023,
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APA: Great Decisions 1965; 6; The UN at Twenty. Boston, MA: Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from