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let's do it without the country and i have to pretend i'm entitled to any thoughts and arguments of my colleagues on the committee i'm entitled to the time remaining to me to study the heavens and when our boat i do not there's that everyone agree with my vote all our hope that before they disagree that they would recognize my role and their responsibility to know the facts
would it compliance with all sincerity and conviction because the evidence that this verdict and it is the wrong word because i would not true edith is that exercise deprive the senate of the united states of trying to a proper case and let us not only committed fall into the trap of saying we are determining the guilt or innocence of the present we are determining whether or not the american people are entitled to a trial and an open forum which you have not had
these pants nine ten eleven weeks only spent six months since the lead us not to use seventeen nasa the final don't perform our function to determine whether or not there is clear and convincing evidence unimpeachable conduct up on with the president of the united states shelby called on to have the opportunity ought to explain his kind of consistent with requirements of milford into consistent with that most important of all functions which all americans look in and say that the laws be faithfully executed and in that respect we're faced in the future with a very very serious problem on that perhaps a president that perhaps commit to escape
accountability with policy may choose to deal behind closed door on to deal with to a true true close longtime alter ego trusted somebody says we must examine options to preserve our freedom president as this committee is composed of americans who interested in national security who have proposed that are ready to provide a mechanism for the screening of the evidence consistent with national security that evidence taken in the office of the people of the united states at six hundred pennsylvania avenue at the
expense of the taxpayers and stopping foreign but i'll do that and one of them i think a gentleman reaching a mr butler report does is a general debate not to exceed fifteen let me express first mr chairman do you and other members of the committee barrett got i've come to have for all our listeners that are most this place which stands for sala i share a great pride in the man with the membership of this committee with few exceptions has conducted itself in the deliberations a lot to express the parcel appreciation for the staff for the monumental task which they perform with such diligence over these months i regret the advice that they will all the farm open so that we may respond
or recognizing return i think we should at least that's fun for me they will recess until it was funny the committee recess prickly dancer quorum call on the house floor and the members return republican caldwell butler started again to get what proved to be the most surprising speech of the day one it's been the pain is it's
b they love in order i recognize the gentleman from virginia most about the general state of thing it with him and i had already expressed a high regard for the committee and my appreciation i also want to say that i regret the unfortunate with understanding which development we must abandon the minority members are indebted to heal for a real great experience and tell the bank when this investigation for his hard work and fine presentation us and particularly about a fine work of a fellow accountants and garrison who have minority council restored much balance to the final week about presentation
on professionally keeping a secret even to this moment if you don't like what the world would like to express what's more the private eye sharon the significant accomplishments of the administration of richard nixon i worked with him in every national campaign in which you have taken part in india there are those who suggest that i would not be here today were not for our joint effort in nineteen seventy two michael clemente is only over here i'm not unmindful of the loyalty i'll all healed and i mentioned that the chairman so that you may be aware of how this case was proceeding is for me that that must have been to every other member of that committee and one more thing i have a word for my colleagues on the site now and to my republican friends who may be listening and for my colleague from indiana who is concerned about the effect of people will have known the republican party for years we republicans have campaigned against corruption and misconduct in the
administration of the government stay out of the party and lead in the part political interference in nineteen fifty two so many of them with a bit of a dead white house and out of the white house and somehow or other we have found the circumstances to bring that if you will for the american people in every succeeding national campaign what watergate if archie those things happen in the republican administration while we had a republican in the white house and every single person and i picked a debate has one way or the other all related to the republican party we cannot involve health of the luxury of patronizing towards giving them a fundamental right the things have happened in our mouth it is our responsibility to do what we can to carry out is we got a democrat who must demonstrate that we are capable of enforcing that standard we would set for them i agree with the sentiment often expressed again yesterday that the congress the united states unique number is indeed being tested with a small but the american people may also really inquire of the republican party do you really mean what you have there
the gentleman from california lithuanian village very able opening remarks this morning reminds us once more that we must measure the conduct of the plaza the united states against the standards imposed by well and which is them that the correct i would like to share with you promote some observations on hair would record these bands impeachment trial in the senate is the process by which we determine whether or not the president of the united states as men get up to the standard of conduct with the american people are legally entitled to expect that you know kind of what the american people are reasonably and file expect that the president of the united states is spelled out in part in our constitution and in far enough that and we are particularly grateful for our colleague from your confrontation or that position on the duties imposed upon the president the i think the constitution it is not just the also the standard of conduct with the american people really entitled it back of their president is established in part i think that that is one reason why i'm so concerned by what has been revealed left our
investigation it will be remembered that only a few hours ago the gentleman from ohio with the maine and argue that we could not in the book although couple of conduct in previous administration that frightening implications for the pitch of our country if we do not reach the president of the united states because we will buy this was the established as a matter of record a span of time but for the president the united states which will be brought on a matter of public record if we play with each we have been going left unpunished a course of time not only inconsistent with the reasonable expectations of the american people we will have been dulled or left unpunished a presidential course of conduct that interfere with a drug that their profits which is wonderful and we work and don't let go unpunished abuse of power without justification and we will have said to the american people because the dog and consequential and unimportant with the conclusion that a lot of them have remaining mr chairman alan down to
respond to at least some of the earlier commentary on the air with for the moment i have two observations which must have been what this financial mess with it the people united states are entitled to assume that their president is telling that you know the pattern of misrepresentation and have proven to make a margin from our investigation reveal the presidential office and again based on the premise that the group itself is negotiable and so they've agreed to define the nominee for the attorney general of the united state the president told them an unmistakable turned that he was not to appeal that the anti gay so before the family and i think that if it fits with a given that any effort by the president to influence in this regard and the president and i do this apart completely and i think it's been gaining confidence in the way the record is replete with official presidential of representational not involved and representation of investigative reporter evan bayh of indiana thank you know that the references that the report which we're not consider the case of daniel schorr and a moment of euphoria
on air force one presidential aide called on the fbi to investigate this administration critic one revelation presidential aide fabricated and pregnant for the show's been investigated for possible federal court nothing that before the group that we also hear that throughout the extent the transcript and made available on a payment presidential conversation in effect there is no real evidence of regret for what has occurred or remorse or resolution to change and precious little reference to all concerned for constitutional responsibility or reflection upon the basic obligation of the opposite that right enjoy a pow or appears to have corrupt it is a friend kept in american history but i cannot condone what i have heard i cannot give you the act cannot and will not stand still or rather this not to forget that there are not many areas of our investigation which clearly revealed only at some point you do not only
themselves without a lot of people but i'm sad that presidential misrepresentations with reference to the colonial war is excusable its usual all the congressional and security government involvement in the decision making itself empowerment of fun but after the president can act without an administrative discharge which is now topic turkey about the congress itself while the manipulation of the decision to waive know my support by the president's advisers in order to reaffirm the parade of the federal contribution is reprehensible and boring on that it felt that the president's direct involvement has nowhere than the average they've been invited wanda george would be but i'm seriously concerned about the manipulations have to be to get the vice presidential pick it will revelations that the weather the degree of presidential involvement makes him guilty of unimpeachable fact that i did not want what i don't want to associate myself with a remarkably down from illinois with railsback another and particularly painful manner in which he has reviewed the president response to the information which came to
him in his official capacity and his participation in the containment box to cover up and leave after the twenty first of march nineteen thirty three it has plenty of quality of corruption of obstruction of justice we cannot go unnoticed likewise i am concerned about the pattern of presidential abuse of the bow you realize that it and the manipulation of the federal bureau investigation the central intelligence agency the internal revenue service and indeed the existence of the white house farmers are fighting in advocating for the people or the misuse of power is the very essence of carrot but the evidence is clear and direct and convincing to me that the president of the united states and don't encourage the use of the internal revenue service taxpayer ordered as a means of a rafting the president's political enemies and so if you will the frightening implications of that void mr cannon while i was there about final judgment i would be less than candid about that not now think that the president the nation it's a
poor articles uncovering my view as to the charges of obstruction of justice and abuse now but there will be no joy in it for me i recognize the gentleman from maryland mr schott danes or a general debate only on for a period not to exceed fifteen thank you mr chairman we are gathered here to perform a very solemn constitutional responsibility and that to apply to this document the constitution of the united states for the facts that were placed before us in the course of war in part of this document is probably the world's that's right an exposition of free government
is the document under which this country and its people have prospered from the founding of this republic this is the documents which guarantees that each america is right to protest a play in the making of public decisions and his right to determine his own best and it is guarded the freedoms and the liberties of the american people for almost two hundred years and it is precious precious but every man woman and child let us look at what it there's only one o that set out in the constitution explicitly for any officer of our government and that's the oath which the president of the united states is required to pay and it provides in the constitution before the president enters on the execution of his
office the show taken all the reformation solemnly swear that he will they only execute the office of president of the united states and will to the best of his ability preserve boat packed and the band the constitution of the united states and it goes on further in another section dealing with the executive power which is bested by the constitution in the president of the united states he goes on to say that the presidential take care that the laws be faithfully executed this duty to take care as affirmative so is the duty faithfully execute the office of president must carry out the obligations of his office diligently and goodbye yeah the responsibility for the overall conduct of the executive branch which the constitution places in him will all
and you have a duty to preserve and protect and defend the constitution a duty not to abuse his powers or to transgress their limits not violate the rights of the citizens of this country given to them by the bill of rights and not and irrigation howard bess that elsewhere by this fundamental parking lot of applause for a moment and look at some of the activity that were considered and let us think of the president as he relates to the other institutions of our government and to the people the president clearly has a responsibility to the courts in the criminal justice system responsibility to see that the beauty is carried out in that area what have we here between april
fifteenth of april thirtieth the president met seven times with henry peterson talked with him on the telephone twenty times in a two week period peterson was acting in effect as the attorney general of the united states with respect to the watergate investigation and was in contact with prosecutors that we're pursuing that matter in a series of conversations peterson told the president all the information which he was discovered on april sixteen peterson and the president met someone thirty nine at three twenty five pm and he told the president of john ehrlich months of the allegations against john ehrlichman with respect to destroying about it this was a conversation in which the president said to mr peterson you're talking only for me and yet according to the white house logs two minutes after henry peterson
left the president sought a three twenty seven on that day the president met with john ehrlichman and told him what henry peterson had related to the present john ehrlichman subsequently left that meeting and began to call other members of the white house staff in order to establish his alibi with respect to the allegations that were being made against and this continued throughout eight throughout the last two weeks about a month and then on the one event of april john aisle robert hall from a prime suspect check out kate in order to listen to listen to them on the twenty four he listened to them on again on the twenty six that was never reported for henry peterson was investigating this case what a turn for the
treatment of a congress in this matter with respect to supplying for us the evidence that is essential for us to carry or our inquiry the gentleman from new jersey last night refer to certain portions of the transcript and they were referred again the day by the gentleman from california the important thing to remember is that that portion of that conversation which is clearly still relevant with two members of this committee have felt that necessary to refer to it in this debate at that portion of that conversation was not was not contained in the edited transcripts sent to us by the white house and we know that portion because it is one other conversations for which we have a plain and has developed from that come from not pay but that was omitted from
our work on the last day the president's counsel made his argument before this committee he offered to the committee in the course of his summation it too and i have page transcript from a conversation between the president and a jar of alderman on the morning of march twenty second a conversation which lasted from nine eleven and thirty five am one hour and twenty four minutes and the committee was sent a two and a half page transcript following of course after an assertion by the president at an earlier time that the committee has the full story of watergate in so far as it relates to presidential knowledge and presidential actions production of additional conversations with merely prolonging inquiry without
yielding significant additional evidence let's turn then some of the president's own state because underlying all the constitutional relationships that we might talk about underlying the president's role as the head of the executive branch of the government ministers the fbi and the cia and the irs and the department of justice underline his relationship to the congress underlying his relationship to the courts and the judicial system it's the necessity for standard of honesty and for truth and for integrity our system of government simply cannot and will not work those standards are not honor the first time of free government cannot function if your elected representatives
here with you and the suction and the sea and with false statements because if you're dealt with and that is the impossible is possible for the citizenry to make an informed judgment with respect to the responsibilities of self govern let's take one example on april fourteen providence made it to the nation sunday evening address as a result all march twenty one i personally assume the responsibility for coordinating intensive new inquiries into the matter i personally ordered those conducting the investigations to get all the facts and to report them directly to me right here in this office
i again ordered all persons and the government where the real action committee should cooperate fully with the fbi and prosecutors and the grand jury on may one and on march twenty second the day after dean native suppose that revelations to the president the president talked with the attorney general richard kleindienst he did not report for him the information he had received a complicity in the cover up before nineteen fifty are working with senator baker up at the finance select committee the babysitting starting unlike like in about ten minutes on march twenty third the president spoke with acting fbi director gray and told him that he knew the beating that gray was faking during his confirmation hearings he did not help re of the information that he and i have already alluded to the period in april when the president did not
reveal and the peterson ben in charge of the investigation what was happening how does that square with an order that all persons and the government should cooperate fully with the fbi the prosecutors and the grand jury there are many other instances which there is evidence to support both direct and circumstantial the president's direct involvement beyond that i am careful what needs to be given for the superintendent's the theory of james madison which was expressed by one of my colleagues yesterday evening you must ask yourself whether a chief executive of this lane who surrounds himself at the highest levels with men who flagrantly abuse are constitutional processes should be called to account for their actions what kinds of government is
it the person at the head is to walk away claiming that he knows not seasonal years now while those closest to an o that have been referred to at the alter egos tricky about finally mr chairman i wanna refer for a moment the argument that's been advanced by mr st clair and his closing argument that have been advanced began here today by some members of the committee and that's the argument that the proof of the pudding is in the ed in other words if you attempt to corrupt and if you went there were two in florence it improperly but do not succeed but do not succeed so that in the end the agency
does the right thing then you ought not to be called to account for those efforts to subvert a committee of proper constitutional function that if you stop to think about it is a clear instance of sacrificing means burp and the distinguishing characteristic of our system that distinguishes it from totalitarian systems is that we do not sacrifice means for the us and it is not only the end result that is important but the process by which we get there it is the democratic process that guarantees us our freedoms the percussive piano decision that controls how powers to be exercise that is what distinguishes this governmental system crumbles that are not
free and do not provide for their citizens a measure of self government because the officials and the institutions did not undo wrong was not that far those who fought and make them do real and i want publicly i want publicly at this time but i missed your four and mr walters the commissioners of internal revenue because they would not ban to the pressure that was brought to bear on them to use the tax system in a discriminatory manner against the citizens of this country to use it against baltimore polls in political debate i wanna by former attorney general richardson and deputy attorney general ruckelshaus because they know that they have made a commitment as to how the special prosecutor would function and they had
undertaken but he would not be discharged except for a roast impropriety and they both recognize that that has not occurred and i wanna thank you for standing by that commitment to the united states senate and to the american people i want to find mr cox semester dworsky repairs ahead the crew that no american stands above the law americans are governed by this constitution and that the liberties and the freedoms of each of us is dependent on inherent to the constitution and i wanna thank the thousands of man and women in the federal service who knew what it meant to do right and sparked further and thereby for the american people we are here
to make this constitution a vital document for all of our people and an and the abuse of power huge truck and the justice that has gone on for the detriment of constitutional government that kind of moment that was the chairman now recognizes within the government remain with all of the proper photo that they've always worked very i've not only a few years ago when i was elected to do and served in this capacity of the people may have no idea that i'd be called upon the best judgment the president's request but responsibility from which i cannot really whatever the ultimate
impact might be on my own life that my family i remember last evening today have express the anxiety with which he approached authors actually an anxiety that apprehensions i know that the flower of alabama the development also that matter we take some consolation and all of that throughout the ages men and women have always approached the impeachment process the same apprehension and sense of all talk about how good a job of status and the they were the first to political rating from lord chancellor some back in sixty nine you won you remark that the impeachment process like elia thought ought to be kept in a temple not using medications question that we have to decide whether this committee should recommend that the house of that sword be taken on the temple and into the senate in order to protect and
preserve the integrity of the competition that selection of the president it occupies a very unique position within our political system the one act within our country dissipates a little mining all the states for years the symbol of a national unity government so the judgment of the people to be reversed the jury will be undone if that symbol is to be replaced the action of the elected representatives of people substantial a non trivial offenses for by factional fights a month we've got a great deal of debate and you'll hear more devoted to the question of the construction be given the phrase my crimes and those demands and the jets had the phrase is limited to violations of statutory crimes about some provocation i can accept because the purpose of the constitutional provision
was to prevent the chief executive from engaging in a gross abuse about tremendous power investment office to protect people against the subversion of the rule of law and the fundamental liberties matter how financing for house level the supercommittee one caller recently his book pointed out that if the president of the time they were to refuse to appoint a member of the catholic faith in the government position the real violation of the law but surely there will be a violation of the constitution with us of the show it's an exaggerated example perhaps but i think it makes rather clear that the impeachment process involves determination as to those acts which strikes at the very core of our constitutional and political system must be just as within this framework that i have conducted myself and then to search out in a very dispassionate objective nonpartisan fashion for the last six seven
months a number of people wrote and the overly those months calls letters asking that the place the burden on file based on what the nevada newspapers and what they had watched on television but the american system of justice and there's much more than an basic and fundamental fairness to the president the search for truth that long and painful i had not been prepared to quit the president of this country from the ordeal of the trial with the allegations leveled against the president were established by clear and convincing evidence to my satisfaction we've had more than fifty allegations leveled against the president in an examination investigations reflection on my part i found an event recently without any factual support others have been very seriously imagine the port city bombing of cambodia the incumbent upon appropriated by congress expenditure tax dollars for the personal benefit for the california but in each of the cases very effective giving all
consideration for all the factors involved i concluded that would not support you there are two major allegation which i am concerned with the articulate it much more eloquently than i can today mr railsback flowers a man justice and he used an abuse of governmental agencies to rats and intimidate private citizens were expressing their political preferences and views but i'm not like an aggressive just for a moment if you have heard in you will continue to hear a great deal about the evidence that circumstantial in many instances and not direct first let me say the conspiracies and not born in the sunlight of direct observation there had been dark recesses of midwesterners and code words and terrible things he'll probably a
common experience and secondly i want to point out that circumstantial evidence is just as valid evidence in the light of the law and that of logic as his direct evidence in fact sometimes i think it's much stronger and the best example that i can give you is the fact that there are thirty eight members on this committee that orwell feel competent people what's that here day after day listening to tapes listening to witnesses if they walk out of the stores and we have a press that thirty eight different versions of what the expletive the president use we talk to get to being on march twenty one nineteen thirty three nathan and direct evidence that its imperfections on the other hand only give you an example of a strong circumstantial evidence that if you were this late night they're outside you woke up with fresh snow on the ground and certainly you know so let us not labor there's
apprehension because some of the evidence available to us is circumstantial that there was inadequate and also like to address myself to some remarks made it this morning partly held up for you which totally have a statement i don't think the other half of the state where they believe that but aside from that i think the point he was making is quite accurate and that is the next week right oh that's the members of this committee notwithstanding the fact that we're under the limit and constraints of time not to engage in this thing not to pick and choose well and has little support a particular position we talk about one of the cia was being used to improper purpose is i think than what the president didn't know that at that time consider private comedy a contract with the eye or had a cia contact and his behalf
on june twenty nineteen seventy two just a few days after the break and then a phone conversation with mr mitchell reiss former attorney general about his own vacation that evening he indicated that the financials that if we apologized he was deeply sorry that he failed to keep better control of his employees and the ugly so that june twenty we know the responsibility to separate and now my employees also consider that on june twenty nineteen seventy two a very long conversation between the old and the watergate with guns during which an atm happen in a conversation about but some inexplicable perhaps even sinister force the factors that we take into account we consider what the motive of watching the president may have added mining compact cia let me take it one step further on this particular point i heard september fifteen nineteen seventy two trends report from today in syndicated again i'm not
describing any malevolent know the evil intent here because we are in a very strict time of control but the impression was given that all the president said on september fifteen was yeah yeah i look at age ten and i read instead i want the most of the most comprehensive notes on although they're trying to do it and they didn't have to do it at the time they didn't have to do it and they're going to change and they're going to get it right so i hope that in the future hours of debate remaining to come to the final decision that we will not point of contact with the sandman is quite correct we must consider the totality of circumstances all the evidence all the day all the implications of all that they thought i don't have time to go through and review all of the
articles in the allegations of the importance to me i indicated i share the concern of the area use of power typically as well as the cover up aspect but the aspect of all the irs is a concern to me because the american people are unquestionably the most generous in the world and sharing the fruits of their labor work hard pay taxes or perhaps not always enthusiastically but certainly with the hope and the belief that are taxed also used for legitimate purposes and programs the most serious and dangerous threat to honor society and liberties occurs when those positions of power undertaker turned into instruments of government into agents of engines and retribution against private citizens who engage in the exercise their constitutionally protected freedoms it would have confidence in the concept of evenhanded treatment under the law and we cannot condone this type of conduct great many thoughts after my
mind in the past six seven months i've wondered so many times myself last night in preparing one month at you reading to the federalist papers i thought how in the world we ever get the federalist papers and the transcripts mr pollack i think that was a mistake the very soul of america agree with that principle that we are committed to liberty equality and justice the sanctity of the right of privacy and dignity of the individual in question is whether those principles and placed in serious jeopardy but if it's not a happy occasion for me or for any of us here were not that are failing weaknesses so i'm not entirely free to cast of the expression been used so i will not pass any judgment on the president but even though we're not without blemishes are human frailties that does not prevent us from the employer's possibilities to pass judgment on the conduct of all the comedians and faced with a terrible
responsibility of assessing the conduct of president that i voted for the league to be the best man to lead this country who have made significant and lasting contributions toward securing peace this country throughout the world but a president who in the process by at our acquiescence allow the rule of law and the constitution just live on the roots of the defense department's interviews i've been very impressed with the letters that i've received thousands of letters that i receive my constituents all over the country people who are outside it's all right now holding up banners saying support the president and i've asked myself this question how many men have fallen victim to this plea of loyalty to the president the findings colson all indicted judge early on in the market was admitted to this committee calls not but rather elegantly for this
point he said and i'm quoting i have come to know one truth of the last known as watergate is that in our free society lights of any one individual or threaten the liberties of all of us of what is done on to anyone anyone and everyone as one and i think in the active treatment a poignantly be look up at the judges that you're on i am sorry i lost my moral compass my ambition obscured my judgment now i must look into the eyes of my wife fingerpaint the eyes of my children see their confusion neither like a land fee their content but he said america will survive or john mccain is and what it might happen to agree with that principle the jam in the future of america is not dependent on the success or survival of any one man in public office if we believe the president in the office of the president saw one of the president's doing i think no one man should be able
to bind up our destiny after graduation or success mccain thought of unfettered made that every other president of the argument to that every other president has engaged final thing is to some degree of the answer i think is that democracy that's solid rock system may be eroded away by the theory and its survival will determine whether degree to which we will tolerate those final levels of versions of that overt slowly and look you knew what was right a lot of the constitution are and they must be more than a pious wish more than a sanctimonious recently what we should prefer will insist on because we all the public office and more recently passed legislation for the benefit of the people of this country when the keepers of the flame symbol of this nation's ideals and we did a great disservice when we allowed a claim to be diminished
without snuffed out what the unfortunate things about this entire process is that there's some would have you believe but the white house has been under and fair number to get us all of this congress is to the press i don't think the family grave with melancholy of those that are self inflicted and i say that because i'm thinking of the doctrines of executive privilege national security thank you they've been dealt a serious blow for evermore because you will always have a problem about half the location the almost like a central person who evoke those doctors in the future as to whether people really believe it now just one final point on they champ then seven patients receiving care in this country are very good for the country are part of the
constitution the proposition that i cannot accept think would tear the country apart would be to turn our backs on the fact that in my opinion the foreign workers started unraveling the fabric of this country jenna i'll take this opportunity to say what would have been the service committee and you really hit the table michigan's department bin laden and a great honor and dedication of all above all in the earth they're making every one of us to allow authority to the inspector recognize the gentleman from california but this is the general area fifteen drop a long inquiry which we have conducted the question most often asked of me
by the public and by the media have been just what is an impeachable offense i submit that they're probably can be no one answer which is suitable for all occasions and for all kinds of the minimum standard of conduct which must be required of also author of the united states what did you find in the context of the event and of the time and with the controversy every the failure to meet that standard of conduct is in my judgment impeachable can i'm convinced however that impeccable conduct need not be criminal and it need not be a crime it need not be an embattled fat it is enough to support impeachment of the condor complained of the conduct which is grossly incompatible with the office mail and which is subversive about office and of our constitutional system of government with respect to a president of the united states it is clear in my mind that conduct which constitute a substantial breach of his old the waters is unthinkable every president at
solemn oath to support and defend the constitution of united states and the constitution a ball that won him an affirmative duty to take care that the laws be faithfully executed surely no one can argue that a substantial breach of the president's all of office is not an impeachable on it's been argued here that there is no question that within the totality of the event in which we have been inquiring many wrong menil offenses have been committed there's no doubt about that but there is also the idea that there is no evidence that president richard nixon had anything to do a total pensions and that there is no evidence to connect him directly to vote i do not accept that statement i do not accept the premise that direct evidence of the vote and circumstantial evidence if necessary to prove that connection life admit that indicates the richard nixon there is ample direct evidence to prove the connection and this case the fact we hear most about animal referred to the watergate was a
burglary and a long coverage would fall as a pattern of conduct be cured by concealment containment the fighting of evidence by perjury felber nation of perjury and acquiescence and perjury by both holding responsible for a cover up activists clearly constitute violations of several criminal law including obstruction of justice was just happens to be a criminal offense a felony under the laws of the united states and we must bear in mind that the cover up was not limited to the event directly or going out of the watergate burglary a leading personality to the nixon administration had planned and executed a long series of secret extra legal and illegal activities over a period of time the missing as far back in nineteen sixty nine but it's been kind of a richard nixon did not know about them did not acquiesce in them have nothing to do with them and it's free of blame and responsibility let's look at the facts when the arrest of the watergate office on the night of june seventeen nineteen seventy two it
quickly developed that some of them are employees of the committee to reelect president known as free and i think that until recently that employees at the white house your local art from a currency thirty two hundred dollars annual consecutively number of one hundred dollar bills and that mine after effect agree and the circumstances which clearly indicated a money laundering operation in mexico and florida the white house can report concerned that the investigation of the watergate watergate burglary must stop with the fiber of themselves were arrested in the premises and with tom and libby the former white house staffers were soon connected with the burglary and were indicted meanwhile german write that none of the house committee on banking and currency have recognized that the money laundering activities might constitute a violation of our laws and he announced his plan for an investigation he probably gave no effective plan
unusual if the witnesses would be proposed and the pain they included a number of white house and crp leaders including john michel martin flow being la roux hemant van another white house was concerned they were worried at the proposed investigation might reveal the fact that nature and the extent of it over actions and a resolve to impede and prevent a pacman committee investigation if at all possible but how it'll have to be done on friday evening september fifteen nineteen seventy two jun being came back from the court he went to the president's office in the white house and he met there with president richard m nixon and his chief of staff robert alda being reported that the watergate felon have been invited it appeared that the grand jury had voted for an investigation had been contained and stopped short of the white house after mutual
congratulations on a favorable state of affairs here from a conversation about michael perley of her committee friendship starting on page eleven forget his of mr dean karlan and the president of the united states and let's also remember that alexander butterfield the keeper of the sort of a lot of the oval office testified that president nixon knew everything going on in the white house you're the master of all went on there and everybody also for of an alter ego mr dean yeah we've done this over the grand jury mr dean what happens here and give bank encourage the committee we got to either will be fixed that were not carefully not encouraging at all i don't know but we got a plan whereby rob blatt and more powerful for the five men who were or actually killed seven there were indicted that they are going to walk into that every member and say if you come as hearings you're going to jeopardize the civil rights to leave individuals in the worst way they'll ever get a fair trial and the like and try to talk to members on that level the
president won out after the request to beaver by the committee huckabee they planned out what they're going to do that i think you if you do commit these hearings they planned to publicly come up and say what you're doing to the right of the individual something about a president as a matter of fact they could even make a motion in court to get the thing that meant the that's another thing we're going to do is present because of these hearings in or the reagan and jump into action against the appearance is alderman well going the other way the dismissal of the indictment president how about trying to get the criminal cases charges dismissed on the grounds that they're well you know with the right stuff the fifth vote for a club a truckload of the time that the future of the pentagon has to be clear at this point in the proceedings the committee hearing room was cleared because of a
bomb threat caller id said obama didn't plan it in a television camera or searchable electronic equipment produced nothing it was the second time in two days that the committee had been forced to evacuated search the premises looking for a bomb with no bombing found anthrax videotape coverage of the house judiciary committee's impeachment debate will continue shorter races pbs for public broadcasting service in lean year it sounds familiar death feel that involves revisiting the reality of evading ok they have been down the line chris i'm martha let
it the great american dream that he will make you feel good that they are there and then came the ice cream it's both fb it's been the peak to put off by this bill meaning winning international film
festival judges by nicholas ray and stan vanderbeek the pope the the pope our judiciary
committee's impeachment very congenial and picking up the debate again democrat george daniels and is detailing white house effort to keep the house banking committee from investigating a nineteen seventy two money found on the watergate burglars that had been laundered in mexico and they will be in order and at the time of the recess the gentleman from california added ten minutes remaining out of those fifteen minutes and i recognize him for the ten minutes for purposes of general today if the primaries that mr chairman i was commenting on the conversation between president nixon mr allah minister jean and work with the test indicated that he suggested that the criminal cases against the watergate burglars might be able to be dismissed on the grounds mr reich who were plentiful right wiley everything went on to face the war right well that were working again we got somebody approaching the aclu are these guys
and have them go up a bigger temperature just because we don't want stands up there front of the cameras with patton in asking all of questions if it's going to be a whole thing over and over and over again one suggestion was that family is all that and probably if anybody could property department of family might be able to now i don't know that a good idea or not i don't think i don't know if he can jerry ford was not really taking an active interest in this matter that's developing for stanton both the gerry ford and tried every family planning and the problem we've got what about for you think so actually doing with ackman probably can't be set up their ottoman unintelligible present connelly being if anybody can do it the bourbon happen again but if ford can get get the minority member together on that one is going to be a lot more than they got a very weak man in with lunch or thinly actors or iphone an actor re think he was a great president that's what i understand but if the women i think somebody jerry could talk him
put it down jerusha talk with know and it just briefly and tell him i thought it was time to start behaving unintelligible not let him be the chairman of the committee now that's what you want to being that would be very helpful to get our minority finally together on the thing and i want to point out that the chairman right now i think it's permissible in for the president talking about imminent been an ipad put it bound character doctor with all embraced him tell him i thought looked kind of bad baby this is the instruction is running this show is directing the show is running right through the war continuing on this transcript of september fifteenth president will appoint it they opt to raise alibaba these hearings are jeopardizing b i don't know that the outcome for calling on a member of the committee will do much good it may be our at our thinking that we really ought to wonder by from the public arena will be published by the right parliament good the wright brothers public relations team that
that's all it is particularly a pack and pull the strings all that's the last format that it looked like to be a problem or you just have the least control their weight and right now many more than a block but the fact that senator kennedy may start an investigation of his own and then binge that we just take one of the time you deal with that they thought president and you really can't just sit there and were yourself been no rather than a bottle of time thinking the worst may happen but it may not for you just write a budget up that well you can and hope for the best and a preteen well it was present and remember that basically the damn thing if just one of the important thing and were trying to cut our law being well certainly that's right and certain it had no effect on you that's the ultimate know it really it really haven't president unintelligible oliver no i haven't yet have been kept away from the white house almost completely and from the president probably the only time in the white house it kind of all indian and now a portfolio that's falling apart the two
former white house people low level indicted one console wonder that the councils that have hurt not very much of a tylenol president well are named an oregon man and farther along on page fifteen the president says well again we've got to be playing awfully well i don't know now you and you will follow through with who will be over there who eminence or with ford or how they're going to operate down the big island well maybe mitchell law who could be a good match although it for that knowledge mean i don't really think that would be good for the no the united drive in in virginia bean i think more akin to afford without ability good don't have the same impact or forty that one directly involved moriarty reported on exactly what it is allman on topical relevant all i maybe ehrlichman to talk to him and understand the law and the wreckage of the knob alabama get the hell of american alderman is that a good idea negative president at sixteen i think maybe that's the thing to do
or their fears like i'm getting another thing you know it comes from the top on to me yet that that when he got to know the right person and if the unintelligible and were not going to i can't talk to myself and then he's got to get at this and screw this thing up why we get like being well if we let that flight up there with the action committee will be just you know the tragedy led an affiliate there are other on at the bottom of that they did prove that right just tell him melinda tell tale teller like when they get browning and forty and then they can all work out something but they ought to get off the wrath of the bush no you have to let that would have a free ride here now because your life of epic that have to do with a conversation and you'll walk into the white house and what the plot was to cover up the investigation authority to one hundred are consecutive number built of refining the watergate burglars
rule mr dean sat in this chair last week i asked him all right referring to that testimony were you referring to the discussion of the wandering off on the next people in florida yesterday that with one of the top of the platform committee that's correct and we had no idea what you have no idea what they would unravel forgotten that correct <unk> they got into power and the like and that their investigators are we would have another investigation we did not and it with a piano worthy of the loan with money inside the thirteen that's right the question whose plan was the atmosphere rock latin betancourt contact ending their funding given to me by mr o'brien i believe they've been talking to rob gutmann i'd never had contact with raw plant but when ali came through brian parkinson question that you know where they didn't talk about how women erlichman be united not at all or very little i didn't report and what i reported back in the present according to the record of earth and you know they've put their plan of emblematic and i can state that the reporters' committee will show that mr barton acknowledges that he would have
to do that to the climate in the caribbean all right as far the plan implemented i had testified they'd pay a detail as to have a plan to block attachment hearing from ever convening work or three republicans would not abandon certain democrats would not vote or take a walk in the like westin and that was that prof cappelli living near the gerry ford prevail upon a minority members or because they are not vote at the ravine after a another purpose for that in turn would put it quite as on the investigation by the activity of that time it again this comparative very much at that time later on mr chairman you recall that you put up this line of questioning and you read referred back to the theft morning and after three chairman of notre dame what are your concerns mr dionne well i don't think they were mine alone because i had conversation the conversation of your family and confrontations industry standard congressman richard mitchell an understatement eloquent there what muslims look like a very great threat if they got that was one problem that
people in my goal and the second recipient if they could get their investigator that i didn't feel we were very concerned with what they might stumble into it with another investigation that we were just confirmed would get out of control and could possibly unravel what would be tied into what i little ball with the chairman you'll recall that later on we have mr bittman before we asked him what's your throat yet he approached the main event yes i was asked to do so what in effect i said no thanks i won't know however the records of the patent committee in the us house and congress show that the day every three letter from the raw plant have been epic military of their reasons why the oval office mr chairman those conversations that which i just referred to replace in the white house and the president's own off the oval office the absolute center of the executive power
in the united states that with richard nixon our president is your president and mine conferring with his chief of staff and his uncle there they were in the old olaf flopping planning and conspiring together the cover up and contain evidence of violations of our law to obstruct our system of justice and to impede a congressional committee in the discharging of lawful duty and they're planning to follow the buyout hold of overt acts their efforts were successful apartment committee was prevented from conducting its investigation and that after chairman of on september fifteen nineteen seventy to more than six months before march twenty one nineteen seventy three that date on what the president's day he learned for the first time about the cover up operation i think that mr chairman that this is enough direct an undisputed evidence to support a conviction of conspiracy and a criminal court and the next
directly to prime the quick have a clear breach of the vault of our active duty to take care of the laws are faithfully executed i have another instance richard chairman of direct proof that the president was personally involved and its cover up operation and that the document that you'll recall mr chairman of before obama met with the president on june twenty three of them read the report from being that he had a meeting with acting fbi director ray ray unfolding that the fbi theory the water dating for the open carry it with a political crp operation and the theory that it was a cia operation real people being of the thirty two one hundred dollar bill that would relate directly by the parliament to the present president mandela passed on the instructions that the cia should there's usually that the fbi should not investigated mexico because it might interfere with the cia mr chairman i'm sorry my
pocket so quickly but i respectfully submit that rather than relying entirely upon circumstantial evidence we have direct evidence coming out of the mouth of the credit of the united states you know only one blown but he directed these cover up operations i recognize the gentleman from mississippi man's lot general debate here over a period i think the fifteen a business through them also time consuming and exhausting task and i really wonder if any of us here really can appreciate what this moment in history could mean for the future of our country and what various what's gone away i would've been somewhat disgusted with the committee proceedings such as what we spend on our earlier this week trying to decide not whether or not about television cameras but whether or not that like for the television cameras i must admit an all cannon is that it has been repaired i must take this opportunity to thank the chairman for his consideration of the thick remember
several of the comments that you made your opening statement last night an ally preferred approach make no mistake about it this is the point turning point whatever we decide our judgment is not concerned with an individual but with a system of constitutional government i believe that recording for almost two hundred years every generation of americans has taken care to preserve our system and the integrity of our institutions against the particular pressures and emergencies do with every time this subject that wanting for the founding fathers clearly did not mean that a president might be impeached for mistakes even serious mistakes these boats out like a direct so much thinking to the person to go back and put our present situation in the proper perspective we are now in the
final stages of review of song fifteen months of the most intensive investigation of the president of the united states perhaps of any man the senate select committee a watergate committee spent some eighteen months and over two million dollars in its investigation the grand jury is in washington dc's penn or two hundred and twenty five thousand dollars and their proceedings since june of nineteen seventy two the special prosecutors have been of their past and may nineteen seventy three acosta war two point eight million dollars and after the three committees that of some one hundred and working since january a call to work one what one seven million dollars there are reams of papers thousands of pages volumes of the two grand jury evidence of the congressional committee investigation papers transcripts paints walls and remember if your weight in pounds it is overwhelming when a man with a plan to get any
man overall this without some evidence of a questionable statement under pressure i was frustrated or even without revealing some mistakes i submit no and there was a similar counterbalancing presentation of the other side of the story was the whole picture of real property within the senate watergate committee know within the grand jury or even in this committee this committee this was non partisan and i must you are credited you or where presentation of the court's very recently and that's understandable but except for last minute shift in our council the argument against impeachment the car on the other side of the story would not have been presented yes the president's counsel things like where what properly allowed to sit and his presentation of evidence and eventually to dissipate on a limited basis is that the only target all at president until the live presentation of years
i really was the president's counsel not the committee's council not much else there was not a spare structure for about presentation and mike and perhaps i hear the white male an interesting side effect and i get into the figures that last night at seven thirty we receive the gold articles of impeachment the night the debate began quite often we'd been placed with being hit at the last minute what we reject the volatile but regardless of that were no credible or articles i tried to maintain refrain position because i think it's incumbent on every member to listen and keep his mouth shut until he hadn't up to make his decision but i was also be fine and walk with the lord like any man should be presumed innocent until it was clear and
convincing evidence to the contrary you cannot compete proposal because you don't like his philosophy or on the basis of innuendo or contradicted evidence and mopping and i'm thinking of the case a part of that will be to put together and we're not going to impeach me john dean or john mitchell owner cooter are any of these others we are faced with impeaching the president a liar and what's the role directly to the president the president had several aides that served the young and this country poor legal processes are now being paid for every bit of evidence implicating the president there is evidence to the time for what i think what is at stake here is the president's and this is what were the o and my part of the country we do worry about these institutions we do still hold institutions that made this country great beer and pork
we have to consider the best interests of this country now and in the long run we cannot allow political considerations or circumstantial evidence to be the basis for it thinking the first president of the united states and over a hundred years and i might add in so many ways the best present in a period of time i think this is the classic example here a how all of this committee and i was so deep in the forest that we've lost sight of the bar when i lived here previously three and i think we've got to look beyond that let's take a look at a couple of specifics there's not one out of evidence that the president had the prior knowledge whatsoever of the watergate break in and i won't get into hoarding have a positive i get to do that only one point one and then somebody that something to the country and that's the point of some of contradicting at the president himself and the transcript of
march thirty referred to the watergate break in like bishop the president did not participate in watergate cover up through he did not legally fraught all possibly involved immediately to the wolves would you without knowing all the facts at business and you're going to wait for all learning and being on march twenty first real seriousness of what was happening they started taking a series of actions to find out really what the truth the whole story the president on march twenty second said that one could not command by mail money that it would go all day you've got to be to prepare report point of what had really gone all he never got that report the attorney general what about the report directly to the president and members of the white house were instructed to go to the grand jury and to tell the truth i think it is important to get the look of what eventually happened i think that you must consider the fact that the president waged executive privilege or his closest aides
including a council that's what really happened with a goal no no with regard to words i care act of breakin prof goldstein goldstein testified before that committee that he was convinced that the president did not know in advance of breaking i'll make no comment on the part of the article that deals with contempt of congress charged with god i think it's so littered with the virtual khan what is really the genesis of all that's what was the beginning of the whole thing now not sign the other things one in court and i had my difficult moment particularly the conversation a march twenty one without set aside about myself and that the president now at the beginning really wet with the bombing of cambodia an impound lot and look at that bongo campbell you led to the eventual end of a long war this country's history with one of the important reach an impound president of abandoned pounding run since
thomas jefferson and kennedy and johnson bowl percentage was impounded more than president nixon i think it's interesting that and now a recent article in the washington post all the second nineteen seventy one it kidnapped that under the kennedy administration through assistant attorney general court martial that with a plan goals to keep the mississippi law mostly think of the mississippi remember that and what was involved with the incumbent upon some some three dozen projects the fourth visit to comply with certain justice department agreed to go to create a compound it's invalid anyway you look at other areas then it's at different or so that many of those here to talk about the youth of america and although i don't much older to live a month a defense bill the youngest member of this committee and i'd been confirmed what impact watergate all young people in
america but i think maybe in the final analysis they see all that more clearly than we do and i really think the young people at apple talk a lot and dedicated himself to making this system better by working within the system and a lot of what we finally do in congress the presidency will be treated more careful about future presidents so i think we must take care to say that we don't do irreparable damage the longest single existing form of government in the history of maine my question and a foul mouth will be this as strongly as i disapprove of the policies of president kennedy and johnson would act have voted to impeach them based on the evidence before this committee chair i recognized a gentlemen from all i almost their cycling and purposes the general debate only prepared not to exceed
fifteen minutes chairman likely appreciate your permitting the dollar i had to be on the floor of the house in connection with the debate on very important strip mining bill which i worked on for many months and and i have to make priorities chairman i'm also at the age where i have to admit that i got to wear glasses and i'm not the youngest member on this committee by any means as we approach a decision that's well remind ourselves of those who founded our country two hundred years ago four saw the possibility of that very situation that confronts is today in a provision for a apart impeach the president has expressed regret and by the constitution of the united states if our was given to the congress by the founding fathers for one purpose to protect the republic against possible abuse of the powers of the presidency by a person who had been elected to serve that office for a fixed term of four years
other countries including great country of a difference then the chief executive can be turned out of office at the will of the legislature having rejected that system and favorable carpool chief executive elected for a fixture the authors of our constitution adopted the impeachment process as the necessary and only constitutional procedure for removal of a president prior to the end of his term if the founding fathers were concerned with the abuse of power by chief executive in a small fledgling country how much more would they be concerned today when the president presides over an executive branch with employees numbering in the millions as responsible for annually collecting and spending hundreds of billions of dollars and holds the power of life and death over people of this country and indeed the entire world the authors of the constitution was the refrain from specify precise actions which would justify impeachment except to
indicate that they were high crime and high misdemeanors such as treason and bribery clearly the founding fathers were saying that impeachable conduct conduct that strikes at the very existence of the constitutional system or the integrity of the government itself the nature of their concern becomes even more apparent when we consider the oath which the constitution requires the president to play before entering on the execution of his office an oath to preserve protect and defend the constitution of the united states each of us of course as members of congress have taken a similar of the week us may honestly draw different conclusions from the evidence before us i'm sure that we are united in our desire to carry out that sacred commitment we're not only charged with protecting the constitution what in this proceeding we are interpreted in applying the constitution are regard or lack of regard for richard nixon of the person our agreement or disagree with a public policy
our affiliation with the political party or the opposition party should have no bearing on our decision we're going to consider not what laws are public policy he has proposed circle but whether he has faithfully executed the laws that exist the president's counsel most thankless suggested that we ask ourselves what we would note we've been issued to president nixon i agree i think we should ask ourselves that question the president's all of the vases not a mandate for perfection but a requirement that you preserve protect and defend the constitution to the best of his ability we cannot forget that we're all fallible human beings we must approach with a charitable added to the problems of any person's bears the awesome responsibility of the presidency but why we should adopt an attitude of charity and humility the standard which we must follow in weighing the evidence before us must be an objective standard not a subject of standing
in my view most chairman the fundamental test in an impeachment proceeding it's whether the person occupying the office of the president as solo violin or ignored the limits of the law and the constitution or even so delicate discharging of responsibility they're under that the continuum in office would be undermined the presidency and that's the constitution each member of this committee is a lawyer i'm sure that each of us believe that our society cannot endure without a system of law that is generally accepted and believed in by the people nothing to do more to undermine respect for the law and disregard for the law by recent polling i often its members of a different background my own twenty five user experience of the lawyer included work and numbers anti trust law investigation trial many of which involved allegations of conspiracy on the part of the defendants in some cases my clients were quoted in others scientists say they were convicted or pleaded
guilty in many cases the convictions were based on evidence that was almost entirely circumstantial i know of corporate executives who pled guilty and in some cases not in jail when there was only a small fraction of the evidence of their complicity that is a force in this case you know if we reviewed miss proceedings overwhelming we have statement after statement of president nixon longworth falsifying and calling anyone directing a whole spectrum of misdeeds by a trusted aide ranging from violations of the constitution and corruptions of the internal revenue service the pattern of conduct revealed by the act of president nixon and his associates it's unmistakable president nixon was obsessed with the preservation and extension of his own personal power in the name of protecting his associates in himself president nixon was willing to use the powers of government to destroy anything which he considered an actual airport cancelled threat
to its power to this and he directed a violation of the constitutional rights of americans to be directed to cover up of crimes committed by the fellowship and he kept it as it crosses a man whom he knew had committed crimes against the very government they were protesting to serve and which he was sworn to protect this is the one pattern of conduct that is consistent with the entire body of evidence it is awful spelled out of president nixon's own words let's look at a few of them are revealed in the transcript of the tape recordings on conversation and on june thirtieth nineteen seventy two thirteen days after watergate the average of john dean john mitchell john ehrlichman and others to block the fbi investigation of higher ups in the watergate break in appeared to exceed succeed for the time being president nixon and robert tallman and without having john mitchell resigned as chairman of the committee relied president mr holman stated to the president well the longer you wait the more risky jar bring you
run the rest the more stuff valid or invalid surfacing on the watergate paper type of thing the president yes that's the other thing if something does come out but we will we hope nothing will it may not but there's always the risk parliament as of now there's no problem here as of any moment in the future they're the least the potential problem president well i caught a lot that iconic that they were going to do an iconic that that's my view generally speaking the president's expression cut our losses man according to john dean's testimony before this committee limiting the exposure presidential associate with the lowest possible level the factor undisputed that john dean and others during the first three months after watergate working constantly cover up the fact and to limit the fbi investigation so as not to involve iraq's at the end of those three month being met with president nixon on september fifteen
years what president nixon said of him at the time the way you channel that i think there may have been very skillful because you putting your fingers in the dikes every time that leagues have sprung here and from there the cover up continue and succeeded until after the election one of the poets that i want a tangled web we weave when first we practiced of history by march twenty one nineteen seventy three months are being felt compelled by events to reveal to the president that the tangled web being another credit presidential aides had woven was starting to come apart here was the president's comment on that i think it is likely to consider the various options and then once once you decide on the planned job and you have the right plan let me say i have no doubt about the right plan before the election you handled it just right you can change it and that's what we've been doing
if you didn't know now after the election we've got to have another plan because we can have for four years we can't have the thing you're going to be no way we can do it the next day march twenty second that the nixon met with mr d mr holman and matthew machuga discuss the situation on the line by being asked to be involved fb
1974 Nixon Impeachment Hearings
Reel 3
Producing Organization
National Public Affairs Center for Television
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Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)
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Episode Description
Debate of the House Committee on the Judiciary, chaired by Peter Rodino, Jr., on the articles of impeachment against President Richard Nixon. Includes approval of the third article charging contempt of Congress and rejection of two other articles which dealt with income taxes and the bombing of Cambodia. This is day 7 of the Nixon impeachment hearings.
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Politics and Government
Nixon, Richard M.; Watergate Affair, 1972-1974
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Producing Organization: National Public Affairs Center for Television
Producing Organization: WETA-TV
Reporter: Lehrer, James
Reporter: Duke, Paul
Speaker: Rodino, Peter W.
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Library of Congress
Identifier: 2402928-1-2 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape
Generation: Preservation
Color: Color
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Chicago: “1974 Nixon Impeachment Hearings; 1974-07-25; Reel 3,” 1974-07-25, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 22, 2024,
MLA: “1974 Nixon Impeachment Hearings; 1974-07-25; Reel 3.” 1974-07-25. Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 22, 2024. <>.
APA: 1974 Nixon Impeachment Hearings; 1974-07-25; Reel 3. Boston, MA: Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from