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desch says the postal code talkers of course is a huge honor for the trial thought were your first trial about we understand that and with the tribes that user line with a woman was a huge secret they intervened at a time when the war was not one at school and they came up with a code in the field probably revive meaning men were mad about it until you show up to vote of environments shorten the war not what she was possibly portugal the patina once the regional power
yet me me we actually were asked to use our language and the people were proud to be a really huge bears saved countless lives that allowed many other crops or two to help out the same way he approaches of the japanese are germans never broke any of the trojan war no work so you're crotch are people there the government had sworn him to secrecy about what they eat their memo of nineteen nineteen in the cheerio that tells about the koh talking it was declared classified and they can't get to their death and that is one reason theres
something information about the violence what type of course because they honored honored what they began to stipulate for them to do la grandfather was two guys we are here and we called him and he was very secretive about what he did in the code talking in the tops of service time that way sacred it will let people now that said you know we were talking about a short period of time that we're also talking about a very vital point in the war you know we were in trouble the messages that were being transmitting were being intercepted and then the counts robbie unbroken from what i understand it ignited the difference in the length of time it took to conclude the war as well as i possibly than the outcome of the war in world war one from united states was working really didn't want to get into the united states enters the war an april nineteen seventy the plan and the germans was to conquer france very
rapidly that didn't happen the war quickly evolved into a stalemate and you ended up with a trench warfare the very narrow strip of land can see newly founded with artillery support with clear lines of communication the battlefield effectiveness is exponentially out the choctaw were using their own native tongue and then putting a code into that you can imagine the desperation in the higher ranks of the german army to find out that not only do we have these millions of americans coming over fighting us but now they have a code that we can lawyers or oil he's loving people they had the land that was very firm and that europeans song the
resources that they would need the most open at her land for settlement we've had a series of treaties that began making and in fact first one win since nineteen eighty six release of hopewell that was the treaty's was choked are in the united states where they were going to be protecting us through the years but in eighteen hundred you know they begin to make treaties were they were taken some of our lands in mississippi assigned to follow for eighteen thirty one thirty two and thirty three louisiana mississippi alabama georgia florida we you can see all of the words in that area when andrew jackson become president he signed the indian removal act that took place in three phases over news i'm going to treat they just you know i didn't understand it was time to move because it was
a fourth movie they had to run and hide in the swamps and the coastline areas were the government soldiers could not find them there was about close to twenty thousand tacos at that time about twelve thousand so removed and about twenty five hundred chickens died along the way these shelters and they shared things and that the land belonged to the ramadi goal use auto da fizz in at the prayer him so clearly there were war won the head chopped all on their mood of the trailer appears actually many many missionaries moved with chopped of very religious people of christianity took place of the choctaw religion went back in about eighteen
twenty before they even came to this part of the country want or money orders of the tribe that we had a concept of won't be in debt to live on beyond our skies and that he would watch used to run through the hole and this glass and so they would look up toward the sun because the language barrier when they pointed to their son their missionaries taught that they were saying that they worship the sun so when he wrote about us they said it was some worshippers when the christian missionaries came in and talking about christianity and it was so much like those tied to just read an execution in indian churches the indians would get there they bring their books the
young actually oh your mood but what mark jesus' him and nobody that's god's word jesus is the live where harsh you mean we rushed at all believe god we're just trust him unique to rushdie and so that's what brought him through appeals through they train to do the porn lord and his wall by a rape victim to him and make him more grounded that way so they the new point guard and this is what many of the shop dog did do or want one does the volume of my great great grandfather we learned a lot of stuff you know just by listening because they had a porch flying and he was in a porsche lying in saying that he and the other top tell him the choctaw nation had just lost their self government went out that i was only way i mean that was
something that you know we were supposed to have our own government for every know as long as the river ran and then that was also taken away everything that i've heard it's out of the honor of the choctaw people that if a person was to appear for quitting or execution of an issue and that there was no need for a jailed by amina pointed it we came into oklahoma we start building churches and farms and schools and stuff like to have most of your government's bills such as jones academy we talk academy my mother attended we talk candidly of some seventy years ago and was not allowed severely punished in the speaking foreign language this was a big period of assimilation really want to get rid of anytime there was a story of tradition speak your language
but in order for five years old and i went to a boarding school we were commissioned to make our language unless it languished now the family could not support the children and also they put him in school to learn good at it and then the white man's ways my father was jammed edwards senior and he was one of the original photo that they recruited i come from aboard his ruin an all important that was on different tribes were you know they were discouraged from barking there was something so much part of me something that was much sovereignty could be taken away but i was a child i could not understand it and my parents couldn't explain climate predicted an
understanding you know i knew the internet when you take away the communication skills are people that you know we can be in a minute something's wrong because the detective michael mann it wasn't on until just recently that they were allowed to speak their native language in oklahoma had to go through they finally the state school superintendent allowed choctaw back into the curriculum and that's only been in the last several years i didn't speak until about nine years ago my grandmother that had the wooden shelter well you know what fianna fil boarding schools say this kid's got there they started putting them through like a military regiment on a daily basis they had uniforms to where they showed up information that
have been made is very much like being in the military and living on base joint academy traders to march to go through all the drills that conservatives so i think this is what they used to do with armstrong in either going to end when it went and get your take mr brace or service probably then the history of your family being in law enforcement labs had something today with puppets having this thing on i am that and the fact that he was attending insistent on china can and then there were others they are enlisted about the same time the checkout code talkers in my family there were two of them james ian edwards was my mother's brother watching him mature bob was my father's first because they
were students at armstrong the cabinet and i believe there were fourteen of them who volunteered and signed up for service at a time when there was suspicion i think on that part of the government about a lot of native american tribes certainly having known about the native american prowess on the battlefield they would've been ideal candidates for for the army through history you'll see the indian people since nineteen hundred least in all wars have volunteered for the sherpas higher than any other group of people in the united states what their reach was recruiting for volunteers internet brian kennedy and that he was trying to bring in people from the community of business people or
anyone who would volunteer walters involvement in a political area it also attended the choctaw legislature that he was well known and i'm sure that he was considered as one of the leaders in the community and was looked up to by the younger boys and he and his brothers then within the ones that would have gone and recruited the young boys in the area i'm sure they were all very anxious to serve you know it was it was something as a warrior they would want to do we have to keep in mind too that we were not citizens of the united states at this time they were not citizens until nineteen twenty four and they went in to this war with our whole heart and so many that are still represents a smoking piece by hedge and one and it really rich he's
aiming at you it's the first time the nicest really have to do a national draft and they really don't know what to do and so they're grabbing people from really has been in classes they said the united states enters the war an april nineteen seventy and again we're not really ready to go once we got to mobilize enormous it takes a good six months to mobilize the army so you're getting the majority of troops in there in the fall of ninety seven thank you i am
honestly do was my great uncle and otis was we'll talk in dark at that time in america there was a lot of suspicion and if he wasn't at the normal and status quo in you automatically lose suspected in checkout he went and joined the reserves to calgary because he wanted everyone to know that he was a hundred percent american and he said he went in with a clear conscience because he knew the record set straight but he knew where he was going because he wanted to think his country my mother elizabeth davenport page be handed the tune code talkers join george parker brothers i think that basically they were very no to their country they felt it was the add to serve and and do their part the low is
like to protect that rowan people our own nation and there wouldn't say that they are afraid that what do the macro but they're not afraid he was recruited he was trying to figure out and even rowdy rowdy on we were warning issued and a breakthrough it is military here they come up the half and gotten a number a motel room farewell to the guthrie show and he to work we've got to work if the few that they're warned that all of that i'm going to take you if you come back through all your comeback rhode island all
went to the war were you're part of the citizenship had been granted some tribes that was our tribe by tribe basis it wasn't a boy gets approval you are here you know he was quiet you know he just said he had to go do what he needed it for his country he never wanted to talk about it he never wanted any glory for use one name you know he says he barely had to do to keep the spring he's been in the unit that the charcoal coat workers belong to they were all part of the thirty six division of most of them in the most you know we're in them and that's where the chopper clip but when he joined they went to texas in from texas they went on to new york
and by train in you think there are so many trains that within our intern the nighttime they would sleep on their duffel bags my grandfather is that really a hero to me back in those days when they knew nothing else but oklahoma to go across this seeds to fight in a war any soldiers of what it meant to me some of them were under age it was reported that someone violates was sixteen years old that course age didn't matter and they needed soldiers in nineteen fourteen franz ferdinand heir to the throne of austria hungary was assassinated by a serb terrorists in the bosnian town of sarajevo austria hungary declared war on serbia two sides quickly formed the allies in the central towers russia mobilized its army coming to the aid of serbia and provoking a german declaration of war france bound
by treaty with russia have mobilized as well france has been the most damaged population the most damage country from world where you have to consider that seventeen and twenty seven that makes one point five million french young french that some villages completely doesn't hear it from the map because they were so badly destroyed that it was too expensive and that there was no sense in trying to rebuild the nest in some areas off of the part of france where in congo because some public support tactics didn't involve with the technology so to speak so there was a common use of what they call over the top in which case it would take you know hundreds of men mr tim
russert flatly on the opposite side there were having fun now that will automatically fire hundreds of rounds at a time and so again the tactics were charts a type of thing out in the open and they mowed them down by governments and that the battle of the somme i think there were something like sixty thousand casualties before now for france they lost as many people as many mahen in that war as the united states would lose and other wars for the entire point century he said in his diary they had to train under the blue devils which was the top notch trainers for the american troops that came over and that was the most hardest training that anyone could ever went through they had to march through snow
no shoes and no food there was just really terrible he said that any benefits written there's not be the justice and the pain and the anguish and that they went through over there in their training going through training from nineteen fourteen june nineteen sixty threes has been about all that was on the french and british and rachel does work i mean you pose where parties and there was a real difficult time in nineteen seventy eight that side lost russia because russia became communist and so at that time we had just france and britain fighting against the germans and the austrians all this was confined into the german frontline trenches and the allied front line trying to switch
at the most was maybe a mile apart and then men were dying inside of a trench which is a four foot wide seven foot deep basically eating rations that have to be delivered from somewhere else he said he'd turned on many people that that could have his own people that were gay i'm loving the filth that you have to go through them or rats were huge problem in the trenches because they're feeding on only on the dead but they'll eat anything they can get their hands on so there was a lot of carnage and brutality and these traditions it's hauling wounded off of the battlefield to an aid station your chances
of survival weren't really that good well the one story dark you have this older than usual he said those set around i guess it was all bright and then one would want to decide the export of that the democrats and they went down that was until i'm going to the old up wish they'd never been abandoned lace maker known as trite and as a tenant order except me and saying well why won't that meant that mannequin german soldiers the proposed law doesn't want to do that he says may not turn out what mike was a boy you with an exhibit that that i look like the website
is that we feared them but you know i mean around nineteen fifties have started using poison gas which is barry vaporous and you'd need a mask fine but then when they came out with mustard gas as a vest and wally desiccate gas university in uniform causing terrible blisters the mustard gas is one of the characteristics of that war because they were able to put the gas inside shells and actually fired shells into your physician the gas heavier than air so we'll settle into trenches gas mask was a standard issue after about nineteen fifty it was a long run on your chest so that immediately of the sound of the gas along or apple you'd simply mr rufus inside it has a little
piece keep you from breathing in any gas from your nose and then this is the mouthpiece there and that would be inserted in your mouth and clamped on for dear life if you don't get your mask on time and you have a gas the corner of boston new furniture esophagus and basically stretcher or long line in you mark borman and blogger he was cast three times he was shot two times and when they were gassed they took him to this place called the gas stations and that's with a statin the whole time blindly give them blind comes from that's where you would see soldiers that had been blinded very gas attacks and they would march them back to the rear area where they can get medical assistance another way to leave it was to have them that hand on show us soldier in front of you there are accounts of soldiers being killed by bone fragments of the
soldiers that were before if you say you can imagine you're charging across a field in a shell land some distance away from you but it lands on a pile of corpses the corpses them disintegrate sending their bones out as projectiles and these projectiles these bone fragment kill your own friends just mobile home of the sky like the choctaw sergeant york says even though he was a boy technically that he was not a boy this was a hardened warrior veteran a whole unit of germans and they were taking a break eating lunch inside the cemetery that was walled and the resulting one way in and one way out of the cemetery and he slipped up and placed himself at the entrance to the cemetery as the germans would try to come out to attack him he would go on and they also rendered in mass to this one man and he can bring them back so
very serious about what he was doing very good he went and captured sixteen prisoners he went behind them machine guns and grabbed a rifle that was on the ground and he said he gave out a big war who and when he did then again although he is his wife and that he must have that end and know when that hurt or injured what is important to remember from the french point of view is that the relationship between the french and the indian americans have always been extremely strong if you consider the history of the french presidents in cubic and canada you won't find memories of fights between the french and the native there were no fights there were just corporation in and french
american industry what's so powerful that we had new weapons so that really changed the board budget cuts in a shot so kotok adds that intervenes at a time when the fight over the war was not the sounds completely insane and the battle of the gun was a real german push and the french and the british side where extremely weak and they were this man who couldn't move and communications is critical for both your own troops and for the enemy but unless you can provide the enemy obviously you're going to be more you can provide for your own troops even better and so every possible device was being used to learn what your enemy was doing airplanes can't resist was one of the first times that they were using aerial photography determine troop movements that network of spies they had balloons
believe it or not they put some poor guy up in a balloon to observe the troops moving throughout the trenches and one of the most successful ways that the germans have learned to find out what the allies were doing was of an interceptor telephone communications the telephone originally had a single wire with the earth being used as the other wire and the germans could simply papa conductor into the earth and listen and the germans just obliterated this hilltop with artillery fire and so they had a pretty good idea that you know they know what we're saying now the united states came out with telephones that have to live with closed circuit if you will every time you would adapt a countermeasure the germans would adapt and countered that if you don't have a secure communications facility and a defeat for yourself or stalemate then the question arose were ruined developments
the deadliest warner who served with lianne la from the bay beginning i was with him on the battlefield then he heard the sad checked our ways and they and i guess you could call them boys because they were big i am talking in their language called therefore forward show boat in these big joke boss rudely invisible do one had to chuckle chuckle and i guess that idea came well maybe that the arguments don't know chopped up econ i came up with the idea of taking these different saunders of placing them with a core staff so different companies different regimens battalion the division so when they would issue orders they would write down an english handed to the choctaw he would translate in the choctaw in indianola telephone call another job bought a guarneri and would write batman an election in the orders the sixth ever in the original picture seemed believe
many christians there could hackers what we know is that the battle was one of the most heart and horrible but all of them they say now which of those two men the phone lines during operation to clear german forces from they allied side of the main river and they hadn't salient that was built around a hilltop called forced form on this hilltop was a farmhouse artillery emplacements numerous machine gun placements german push was very strong and the need for secure massachusetts and secure communications sees as absolutely crucial and again i think that the german intelligence managed to clear those messages but they work quite well informed of the moves of french and you're having a hard time trying to cross the river
hurry up in that new system that was implemented by chuck the court has been extremely crucial parts of the crucial for the fate of this very well all of the orders for viewers combined assault germans had no idea it was coming the offensive to replace the germans were pushed across the river and it was really something that was unattainable for the germans at that point because of the strong stance that right you embroider they were masters at their decoding and this is chocolate languages languages that they could not be called and they deliberately knew that they had been suckered by that time shirley was a major remaining since many of the army terms had not counted port in the choctaw cotton field artillery became
began which shaq and shutdown would mean and then who's to knock and b is cheaper mass shooting gunmen machine getting a group was a squat make through a company and twice the group wasn't that and these are just part of the head cold that they hit st are hurriedly sit with identifying a word that was done and then they would they would go use that as a bass in the winter in an listed and agreed on the words they would use an interesting messages regiment tried i don't really first battalion one grain corn country be tough on second battalion to grind corn it and he took a young three grain corn it may he took enough there are words in native languages that one word as a whole concept and so i guess
simple fine choctaw to me that means for the military terms well mccain you couldn't shoot it so a husky only three tribes where they took that language and send it to a code and those were in the choctaw us in world war one and the comanches and navajos in your work there's another little mr patel had mentioned to my mother that i sometimes literally in an english word like pork and beans and add to the confusion one of them germans that they had captured was a soldier had been listening in on the telephone lines trying to intercept communications and he thought it was some new kind of allied technology that made you sound like you were speaking underwater
and in general we got him on radio when they told them when they do you know we would take don't try that relate that are chopped up apartment at the home unit where you know nobody is stranded at trial would keep him more than maybe when i'm ok if your mortgage loan they make it through the whole time away but for a country which technically was not theirs although they didn't record that way they were new novel is called talk with their runners or required them to do what little information we have about his actual kung talking now that he was in the hospital because he has a there's a lightning ridge somewhere of him coming out of the hospital to actually be put on the right yet and completely recover to start says tuckman radium only problem my grandfather was a coach parker i try to tell in buying of ivan watson
talk about him i'm proud of him are trying to leverage our heritage itself helped in the world it is clear that even mean the smallest part in the bigger picture of defeating the germans and shortening the war contributed to saving american lives is but the central towers war effort were collapsing so the allies took advantage in advanced in italy the balkans and the middle east with its army exhausted and depleted and in retreat germany asked for armistice on november eleventh nineteen eighteen the last shot was fired having only shortened the war and this is where from nine months to a year to live in jordan admits to you need to know they say
they went on a lot longer and in the end you know the united states is only in world war one on the boots on the ground for a year and a half we had never seen anything like the casualty numbers again it was on foreign soil i'm know maybe iowa and june our spirit was would never get involved in foreign wars and yet here we lost so many men in such a short period of time it was really a very negative psychological impact giordano they halted that that went through or the whole thing that whole thing that
they agree on that with an equal and they went into the ministry and love and became leaders in new teachers bubble of teachers and preachers and he you know he said that's what got him through the war was god's bigger most intimate times he would be hungary and he said he was struck right in and he would get to where he could go and you know further in and do what he had to do for his country i think their spirituality gave them courage to do things that normally in a normal situations in or even in extraordinary situations could ever think of doing as i was told that he was cast and you know had some lung injuries after that and couldn't work as far as farming goes any month lease this land citi had difficulty breathing and my aunt mentioned is that it made life difficult for him probably in finding a job because i think times were hard and it was harder for them to find work or he
can outlast today because it's a danger to sound he end had been in that they're in contact with poison gas and that affected his life after he came home and he was not as strong as he should be in there and eventually a conflicted to him losing his life this is time on juries dengue which issued a report was an award one veteran serving in combat duty with famous their sixth division composed of oklahoma and take his boys of indian descent he was one of her group which transmit information in the choctaw language from the frontlines back to interpret and headquarters in a parisian crime against the enemy you know a lot of our memories are kind of shaded by the fact that he was blind and he i was in my physical say by the
time you know we remember him the big three is we are only half remember there were two we have the famous navajo code talkers we also have the committee code talkers the us army code units and both of those were formed from the knowledge or the history of it officers remember about the choctaw code talkers so these meehan are the very fathers of the code talkers everybody knows about the things that you saw in germany during the nineteen twenties and thirties could very well have happened in england france and the united states citrus groves inflation and increasing totalitarianism and they may know why that we are correct
finally i had something to be proud of me we don't look to her parents and stephen example where the margins that how we don't know what to read the talk does not only live on the two years they lived in as far as the code talkers go in and where we're one the one of the first units and all indian unit to go over to friends and i think they deserve the recognition the top us have always been known as a quiet people and second solitary people left the highly reliable home lots of money and so we're seeing like you know they say to me personally play good much as war scooter the ad because it sure no remember our nation had never mobilized this minivan for this far away
everything was new production was new transportation new shipping with no communications women politicians and so you can imagine the demobilization process was also how do you do you mobilize this morning and what do you do with them how do you make sure they get their benefits if they're wounded many had been gravely wounded what do you do with them there was really no safety net for the veterans and you can imagine being let's say from a rural that was not really included into larger united states society trying to garner york just merritt your pensions these guys they'd probably extremely difficult you know he's it was just hard you know coming back and having to live with what he is saying over there and not been able to get the help from the government that he needed to deal with taking care of his family was just laugh in general because he was having a lot of ice packs through
the government were working is they were so in control and mow the game over and shot in this and he said he couldn't breathe he was down like to the ground if i may though you know i'm not if i should know and that's it you know it is not eternal right before the bad knees arms it was water really want when i'm saying make any delays are the women entered the debate if wait wait is it has some fight the delay in recognizing the choctaw code talkers again i would describe to number one the fact that they kept it to themselves they kept it secret as they were asked to my understanding is that it was actually relatively small man that did the service i don't necessarily know that it was a intentional will to
deprive in recognition i think it's probably one of the senators who just was lost your very own restrained former reporter for and francis remember partly for years i would go go or done for him i think a year and the weight we french honore i work for a new friends and allies is to a reward them with a metal and we have two kinds of metal which are some important for us is delusional don't know who was greeted by napoleon and the midget nobile imus amendment it's a different government decides to award the shuttle mission with the sugar you did ultimately it was a very strong sign oh its it couldn't be more important the ceremony was held in open sea on the steps of the state capitol
your update americans are very well thought of we've been there we have good business over in europe today and where we go wrong actually are the weather spiders noble warriors and women over and i think they want to just say i thank you for something that was done was not able to be done before because of the secrecy so if you look at historically not so well known for their service the point on a war ended shortly thereafter mean you have to put the pieces together say now they show it had an impact and john wells was signaling that all about the leaders like tuscaloosa and his first encounter is so but first people saw was a great celebration for us your on oahu whole lot is maybe
oh new a point that was written that otis leader of it was that there was a clone of him that more and i make a chap are down and now a desolate and forlorn he didn't know a word of ours nor either were french so they're reset of the kenai each smiling in the trains i like to him a moment he created from ear to ear jarrett and us a souvenir he can only cigarette cheap cigar and then the fireworks started invested for an hour i showed him next monkeys and then he showed me here's a funny little french cheese with her all going to freeze annette and bitty chiles he say's and the tears began to fall will work on red than we knew though
we hardly spoke at all soon after we were carted each to follow his own star and have never seen each other but that's way of war since the war were closed and i often wondered if god spared him long enough to see a man police scandal is live are yeah lage the gas or oil and here your husband was an original code talker and she said no he was not and he was what i already informed been married over fifty years and the fact is she had never even told her and so we got home for the interview she asked him about that he said oh yes i was a photo i want it she said you never told me he said i was told and i asked my name and we're not to speak that was rubbing it they've done their service to the country and the humility that goes
along with that they don't they don't wear it and didn't talk about a lot with the truth inside summer families recognize that the fans told stories the homeless of indian people was that when you go and you do something significantly did not write about yourself let others do that breaking forty damn not talking about what they have been an important religious mantra it's up to us what were doing right here to tell their story to those near will think they're willing this is what strikes me is in iowa events and the people who are willing to children and far from home they were you know they will view of pages like the odd nature of the things that people of good to know they were in kind of friendly people make sure bob walter beach tobias frazier an old johnson otis
leader joseph davenport charged davenport carolyn wilson is the stamp allotment mightiest you know i've got to leon you know and have to just at that moment hands at a school of game show at its cool if you tried it the name marie of that generation alive but as to why although you say was wiped out only other than what we were told you ok uncle jim thank you know wooden there any days me and then
me james a greasy simon and the delays joseph fil a humvee or albert really old benjamin hampton he made heavy nelson robert taylor paschal its belly but there are several others who also have not approach the choctaw nation to be sacked the economy you may iran that it was paid fyi
me me oh no on manly lower key for sally fb they just it was revived to order a copy of choctaw code talkers call it seven seven eight six eight two to five zero or visit vision maker dot org offer made by native american public telecommunications fb there are
This record is featured in “Vision Maker Media Documentaries.”
Title
Choctaw Code Talkers
Contributing Organization
Vision Maker Media (Lincoln, Nebraska)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/508-x639z91993
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Description
In 1918, not yet citizens if the U.S., Choctaw members of the US American Expeditionary Forces were asked to use their Native language as a powerful tool against the German Forces in WWI, setting a precedent for code talking.
Broadcast
2010-00-00
Asset type
Program
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
0:55:34
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Credits
Producer: Hurd, Gale Anne
Producer: Beesley, Bradley
Producer: Brannum, Julianna
Producer: Payne, James
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Vision Maker Media
Identifier: 2013-00116 (VMM Inventory #)
Format: Digital Betacam
Duration: 0:55:34
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Citations
Chicago: “Choctaw Code Talkers,” 2010-00-00, Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 27, 2019, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_508-x639z91993.
MLA: “Choctaw Code Talkers.” 2010-00-00. Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 27, 2019. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_508-x639z91993>.
APA: Choctaw Code Talkers. Boston, MA: Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_508-x639z91993