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there are eighty eight fb freak seth i think was cast in the trenches some of course go back and memorize the worst tours like korean forces might turn pro there's two thousand
and eight by grants from the national endowment for the humanities great ideas brought to life the wisconsin alumni research foundation and the corporation for public broadcasting native americans have one of the highest military enlistment rates in the country some might find that ironic given their historic mistreatment they serve for the same reasons other americans serve out of patriotism for economic reasons opportunity but there's another layer that's uniquely cultural my grandfather edward to know me is one of the veterans you're about to meet
he was one of twelve thousand american indians who volunteered for world war one why he wasn't even a citizen yet was willing to make the ultimate sacrifice in the stories you're about to hear we explore the deeper meaning to being audited out one who pre tax and follows the way of the warrior theft in nineteen eighteen the terrible expenses along europe's western front of the war and the gulf war has signaled a new beginning of the era of modern warfare that airplanes tanks poison gases are finding ways to die in vain america created an army of farmers and shopkeepers citizen soldiers there were other
americans fighting with the first americans american indians many of whom were not citizens men like edward did know me an ojibwe indian from wisconsin for juno me and twelve thousand other american indian soldiers in world war one was a frightening introduction to the american mainstream fashion week how does an indian boy from are remote reservation in northern wisconsin find himself here for to know me and many others the journey began in an indian boarding school they said i'm the torah and the adverbial form will make like padua that kills you you know so it made the kids wear their uniforms and i know that with them you know his father was a standout athlete
dynamite to know me they called him in nineteen sixteen just the kind of man the wisconsin national guard was looking for we heard that at least fifteen minutes these were highly regimented are our schools were students wore uniforms and march to and from last march through it from the dining hall throw the police force were something that the us government did to assimilate in people it seems to me and the government was so interested in changing again gets to make sure they were parents and grandparents that was very much on the west point almost like kind of a seamless transition
from military school to training camp then to go to the front lines in june of nineteen sixteen to know he's guardian company k of the third wisconsin infantry training here at camp douglas west of madison a year later he found himself on the mexican border with american troops chasing poncho via you know a meteor that saw a little action and to know we have ample time to document camp life with the one luxury item he had brought with him a camera the photos reveal a largely native american unit indian boys so pleased to be in uniform the monotony of camp life broken by the occasional dice game for the post production of the young men playing at war there's no hint of the hell they're about to experience a fictional crystal
meth than three when america entered world war won in april nineteen seventeen guard units from indian boarding schools played a critical role as some of the only combat ready troops in america guard units became the vanguard of the atf american expeditionary forces the wisconsin and michigan got combined to form the thirty second also known as the red arrow division for thirty seconds are some of the war's heaviest fighting and there were indian sprinkled throughout almost all of the provisions of the us army but there were five or six there was a larger number of those from the great lakes region like thirty second indian troops are employed in every every major role there are the virulent one of the general parisian lands with the atf in france unlike african american troops who served in segregated units in world war one native american soldiers were integrated into the
military and travel documents to know me is listed as a full blood ojibwe but his army in less than paper say he's white they wanted immediate integrated into our regular units and so that assimilation would be encouraged and enhanced and so during the war indians were classified as white in integrated into regular unit for many it was the first time they'd ever left their reservations at night in brest france tina maze diary offers a window into the war august fourth nineteen eighty eight cylinder own observation heavy casualties and a severe show four year high explosives and gas
pass my friend shel the shrapnel in the little village in the village where they sought here the southland's and it must appreciate back and forth on these two buildings lot easier when you went to the village and look at me he says for states to hippie very recently taken from churches
all were to repeat this constant artillery bombardment to soften up followed by an assault meanwhile there are some more practice practice that deal with water it's attracted some sleep deprived and so this contest is the red arrow suffered fourteen thousand casualties nearly sixty percent of their fighting force because of stereotypes of native soldiers were singled out that the most dangerous assignments indians were forced to or why they were especially grave
and they have certain talons they're non indians live for example they had an instinctive sense of direction they had especially keen to hearing and eyesight and the consequences of those stereotypes or were deadly for native american women and the result of that is that the casualty rate is about five times that of that at this time americans weren't the only ones who stereotyped indians generations of germans had grown up that my ring and fearing native people because of the friction of german author karl my enormously popular my wrote more than eighty books most of them about the american wild west captured german soldiers can invest they were terrified of having to fight indians there was actually some some serious consideration given in the higher echelons of the military and
getting frontline troops with planes war bonds just to work and he recently installed beer and the enemy on the home front groups like the society of american indians tried to break down the stereotypes and promote racial pride he also wanted to citizenship everyone said the center had registered for the prayer but when it came to conducting only citizen indians would be drafting the many young men didn't know they were citizens or i didn't know what their status was citizenship was tied to a lot that the nineteenth century federal policy intended to privatizing the and reservations across the country a large parcels of land to individual tribal members and open the rest to white homesteaders a still enlisted done some reservations topped
seventy percent even in communities that have fought against the united states' barely a generation earlier three in these communities warriors were revered the entrance to warrior societies require combat or right of passage denied to young men during a boarding school era they're volunteering for world war one was an opportunity not to show how american they had become the top tribal based deal really were i think so much of our culture have been changed that they didn't have your cake you can really have a full fledged an older societies to warrior societies because of the change to forcibly onto reservations and stark whiteness and in that period of transition
and so much was lost assad only opportunity ornery different orders was to do what we want and when they return to their communities and welcome them home with victory dances and traditional ceremonies it's big it's big is it their own analysis and so forth and that to me is not anything new because you know we've always done that curtain have a tradition for having that prevents incidents companies and so forth so
it's an extension through from the past a second a quarter past as they do every year the genomic line gathers at milwaukee's indian summer fast for tom to know me a korean war veteran and his brother ed who served in world war two the grand entry is especially meaningful the first dance is reserved for veterans that's what i really felt his presence of my father is of those early moments at the roulette wheel never missed the pre all there was great and salute the flag went by you know you know you don't know when you're for me a social movement i could feel that you know the credit may just be in there and they listen to the drones and all the things that have taken place through early years and make me to regrow i
think perhaps the best decision in the history of american arms the thunderbirds as they were known for national guard troops from oklahoma colorado arizona and new mexico the syrian soldiers there were no creek cultural director joyce our dear to be revered i mean the thunderbirds mean they were always revere don't swim in the river on the jury said ford here's my way from sicily italy they were the first to reach german soil and paid a terrible price thirty seven
hundred and forty four hundred missing more than eighteen thousand wounded faith the thunderbirds were one of the most highly decorated divisions of world war two accounting for scores of silver and bronze stars and three medals of honor the nation's highest battlefield award one of them went to this man lieutenant colonel ernest childers in the creek nation in eastern oklahoma he a warrior's stance dollars of fees in september nineteen forty three all of that over italy shoulders platoon was pinned down by a wall of german artillery his nephew candidates knows the story well how soldiers ordered has enlisted men to stay that's how he himself alone an out of hand grenade rolled toward the machine guns
killing two snipers along the way there's continued to crawl up the hill and singlehandedly captured another german soldier later he said he'd cross because he couldn't walk in the initial thoughts we have stepped into a shell hole and fractured his ankle amazingly childers had killed three enemy soldiers wounded one and captured another all broken for them so there's were cited for exceptional leadership and conspicuous gallantry you know a bill that will reverse a
premier risk trial after that worries over he came to visit the family and intermittent danger to small talent to get the trial and that he'd insist they're just awesome think back is to the reports that we all share to hear the dates that he had announced last night for the report is the fact that one of our own was capable of diversity as each other's and the thunderbirds were fighting in italy another greek warrior was trying to survive the fall of the philippines we start in the village who owned a machine gun in the army's thirty first official investigation of the continent's a lot of very first was in terrible shape it out of food out of ammunition to any of the sauces with malaria april their commanding officer ordered the men to surrender to the japanese
that's right to fill in and his unit or march more than sixty miles with little food or water he remembers a filipino village the japanese set fire to have burned bodies of children and elders are images that continues to haunt him with throughout the world political islam i think they thought that
in this book that we didn't have soldiers were dropping out from heat exhaustion from starvation from a variety of diseases and what's the soldier dropped out he was immediately killed by japanese car were telling was conceivably some japanese officers want to practice their sort of tension and take prisoners out of them are african americans things can survive the virus and two and a half years in japanese work out in november of nineteen forty four he and other american prisoners of war were put aboard a march outside japan became a slave labor at an underground cell think actually fearful he survived his ordeal is nothing short of miraculous two out of three american prisoners and did not choose
few americans knew who fela kuhn was by march nineteen forty five everyone knew who this man was i read hayes a pima indian from arizona became the most famous american indian morain in world war two it was because of this photograph that historians like raising money what the public wanted and of course washington because washington remembering each of them home and help sell war bonds for the sabbath world for sixty seven days native
american marines played a crucial role it would you not in the first two days of the battle using a co developed in their own language navajo marines sent and received a hundred messages relaying critical information about troop movements and military strategy every marine commander from the summer of forty two until the end of the war commanding the navajo code talkers and scrub success of battlefield victory to their service to their work in the navajo are perhaps the best known code talkers and that they were not the only trying to provide a service there were more than a dozen others and they were the first during world war one choctaw code talkers using telephones send encrypted messages in their language their success inspired the indian code talking of world war two and despite their contributions indian
soldiers still battled stereotypes nearly every native man remembers being called chief sometimes as a term of endearment sometimes not native women seem to face less discrimination during world war two and your green koger was one of the eight hundred native women on active duty coker served in the volunteer emergency services better known as the waves from her base in pearl harbor proper process paperwork for soldiers who had completed their tours of duty they were alive and they were this to me as a human being and no discrimination whatsoever and i think that that was one thing that i learned that there were people that you know did not discriminate and i think this probably see more discrimination since i've been out of service
since as he's there were women warriors on the home rogers well when i'm like alice low the daughter of world war one veteran edward to know me you know worked on the blueprints for the norton bomb sight at her tax corporations in milwaukee it was imperative that i make everything match the specifications little alterations and the blueprints from one to another and a cherry and it came out exactly right because yeah i hadn't met my husband yet but my older brother was in the air of course my brother in law was in the air force and there are people that i knew going in to serve so i thought i was doing my part lowe's job at the perfect
company paid forty five dollars a week three times what she had been making as a telephone operator twenty three south shore and this really had enjoyed their income dropped thirty two hundred dollars to twelve hundred dollars a year in the immediate post war period so a lot of the victims but also in india in these facts are like was losing their jobs and privilege to white it's more comfortable families who had relocated to cities now found themselves disconnected stranded economically and culturally so much change occurred after work to changes in the country's country boundaries leadership changes the industry and changing technology
but the changeable arch or ouch ouch ouch article mentioned vow vow for in rio the world engaging because we know the saints november nineteen fifty as night fell on ken bradshaw another nervous members of the company that the army's nineteen infantry regiment they knew the enemy was close in the us merck
and the responses that they can use to work or school holding on americans but the middle class because that we could use or heavy weapons american forces have pushed to within sixty miles of the chinese border only to be driven back they seemed unstoppable here was this nation army that was not challenging the united states and is a very devious frightening are people working for them always outnumbered bradshaw's buddy corporal mitchell red cloud member of the ho chunk nation was on the perimeter walking the rich and your number one twenty three things there's no way in the world
your voice is barrel of oil it's been to pay fees to that has been single lane red cloud was keeping the chinese that they organize every tree
three red cloud refuse to leave this post season after being wounded according to official accounts the fold itself to his feet grabbed his arm around the trees and continued to fire safety sacrificed himself so that i wouldn't pick on april twenty fifth nineteen fifty was in congress awarded red cloud the medal of honor for dauntless courage and gallon self sacrifice says a member of the thunder shirts clan of the whole
translation red clouds grew up among the warriors he was a decorated world war two marine who re enlisted in the army when the korean conflict iraq that he didn't want to tell you all branches of the service they make it off or the talk about a problem that's that's really taken pride to the limit and i wish she couldn't get him to remember red cloud and other pollinated and i'm eighteen veterans each memorial day the hopes that nation holds a flag raising ceremony in black river falls wisconsin uses a symbol houghton gelder donald blackhawks as the ceremony dates back to the end of world war and the community wanted to recognize the contributions of its fallen warriors is raising these words of love that says support still general
motors has passed away says his forces do and this memorial day the red cloud family has asked ken bradshaw to raise mitchell's flying corleone or more set over the years the legend has grown with additional honors the us military has bestowed upon read column in nineteen fifty seven the army re named the headquarters of the second infantry division in we shamu korea camp red cloud in nineteen ninety nine the us navy launched the ship there in
spirit and everything that went around the city as me and then leading up to it and just being involved and that as soon as the ship hit the water that was just so emotional and then my daughter and she says look mom took this year and the red cards to start to form right behind probable and not just all the people that came to honor him to be part of that ceremony i can't even tell you how emotional it was still today is there it's incredible the legend at mitchell red cloud lingers and memorials like this one but there's another story the ho chunk remember the story of sergeant john l rice but kinsman from the ho chunk of nebraska the winnebago like red cloud rice was a decorated world war two veterans who've realistic
during the korean conflict and like red cloud was killed in action it took nearly a year for the army to return rice's body as well evelyn was caucasian arranged for his burial at memorial park cemetery in sioux city iowa in august though i believe it was nineteen fifty one they have the the burial ceremony for sergeant rice on their third american legion post from winnebago was there it's for god that was all that there was a winnebago indian delegation there that that that the ceremony and it concludes the family leaves john grace is casket as all our offices above the open grave and as to that point that the cemetery official our remarks to the funeral director border sure a lot of indians here in the us says that this ceremony and the funeral director says while the deceased
surgeries he was of a winnebago while the cemetery director there and is astonished well wait a minute stop the burial we cannot perceive this is aw a caucasian only cemetery the local reporters you heard about this and began to publicize it and poured quickly reached to the channel back to washington and president truman than about this and arranged for the rice family and his body and he sent jerry or perhaps maybe he should've been very richly priced was buried with full military honors both senators from from iowa for president involves jurors from the press corps there the commissioner of indian affairs attended and there weren't very many high ranking
government officials and sergeant john rice memorialized in arlington was not the indian warrior most americans were used to say i supported the use of military force in cold war america being indian brought cold comfort in the nineteen fifties some mixed blood native people began disappearing into the american mainstream passing as
italians and other southern europeans to people because there are people who are an awful lot of people who are actually three possible they could almost invisible ink slip and recommend changes it become public chamber the people realized that they were prepared to people who look at this record floods the full bloods those individuals obviously use drug culture past towards some even more because of some criticism because they were not americans that was all too apparent to veteran edin only whose father served in world war one during a fishing trip to northern wisconsin the two were denied service so i want a party that's a there is this chemistry sure if that's part of the reasons i'm sorry he said that even here in chemistry
sure he passed he said i'm sorry i can't really say you can't use say and what i think you're saying you said in there and everybody look on as this is i was going to say right now i serve it must receive new research were worth one who said we can't get a beer for many times the chain vote for for each winter on the final lap condition of a reservation in northern minnesota jim northrop and his family collect sap to make maple syrup reduced to a
truce is very good for maisel <unk> of force review of the return to do regardless of whether whether we were not career mickelson continue to flow and so regardless of what was happening with me and that there were some foreign defendants of them sold in this quiet setting even after forty years' true peace alludes this vietnam combat veteran to close or intrude when northrop's vietnam war story begins in familiar territory in a government boarding school going to first boarding school i was six years old was quite a shock to my young sister but strangers was adapted to the environment and i survived so this
inner strength this week and next by the time i got to the marine corps in nineteen sixty one so do the same kind of adjusting adapting about eighty three dollars a month this is something that has topped a very early age that i was to peel or that's my role in this society to be a warrior because they heard all the stores are both chippewa fighting sioux over fourteen year the trends for the work and then finding the white and of course men don't serbian authorities after true american soldiers continue to
cds we're intelligence warrior posts and so i was just part of their graduate school or just modern to go that you know i saw some of the heaviest fighting in the isis life of a marble mouth they're going to face in that way and he heard me or greece will move uneasily as american made johnson ordered that covers abortion in history german soul food in return like that and had jammed admire that part of me was thinking like whoa that's ritsema go second so
that was happening and so i for three robbers associate justice to pay in his research historian tom home found that native american soldiers were three times more likely to see moderate to having combat the non indians he attributes this to the indian scalps syndrome a stereotype rooted in the use of native american trackers by the us military more than a hundred years and for major wars later indians were still scouting us military like his father and two brothers creek indians on your collar served in the eighty second airborne division during the vietnam war a whole or with in cambodia before the cambodian invasion we wish to go in there in chicago
or rico for abortion restrictions were issued there's any way in which we can go over some american veterans actually states in the union now if the scout something because there's a natural skepticism the point man is the soldier who wants a few steps ahead of the rest of the good looking for landmines watching for danger the whole lot is a member of the crips red states combat veterans organization with roots in an ancient warrior society of volunteers wore points because i felt that ocean water pool
and the crew combine chester has been my elders saying maybe you want to become a warrior one of the comics by other people by mark mainstream press do you promote it and perhaps even her own self respect with the same time you know you're accepting the situation of risk involved for everything psychological death because they were more likely to see the horror of war american soldiers have a high incidence of ptsd post traumatic stress disorder but the military used to call shell shock for a logjam broke as a commodity and a particular
what that's done over the years so it's really though shalt not kill didn't work here got busted that in the real world as a native israel disagree nightmare i'm going to wake up from ptsd by writing poetry sighs saw his ears hurt his heartfelt and a muffin one analyzed trail the news itself as we walked along the whole story about what's close what the one that's got your name on them worry about one addressed to whom it may concern this poem entitled walking point speaks directly to the fears that contributed to his ptsd movement something moving up their books like two of them first the
marine corps takes over pre relax am snack squeeze the shooting is over five seconds to shakespeare for the human mind and body everything that you have in your human resource and maybe even beyond that is to kill to come back from war you don't want to be killer the pay it has been very difficult but home believes native american soldiers came home with an extra layer of guilty to
participating in the us military's scorched earth tactics in vietnam was part of their trauma through some of the religious orders too some women spend a lot of time making the best bits of peace process rights political rights so that somebody had spent a lot of time to just go through the trash burners theory was that move showed it doesn't move very heavy end of american foreign policy and i mean i liked it because he wanted me to be treated many native communities purify their returning warriors the
hopi ritually was the hair of their returning veterans and give them new names at the urging of a friend rick veterans on your whole of this event this is what lots of another trial when you're sitting in their forearms are praying for everybody really needed it could have waited a thief's cleansing rituals according to home far away for the community to share the burden of the returning warrior at your bottom and they say that they started sorting these
experiences and then ideas and emotions and things like that thanks once more storage plant mothers or an elder is part of the ritual in many native communities northrop's as an elder helped him deal with what he called a survivor he'll couldn't understand the words written for me words were pressured to brush and all sorts of meat did you go through something the custard through preserve something that kind of made sense for me that kind of gave me the eighties or closure but it gave me some therapy so was seeking peace for some native american
veterans were short lived like vietnam veterans of other soldiers return to a nation divided over the plate to worse divided and many were disillusioned with poverty put your life on the line and you come back and nothing changes that somehow is not that that's incorrect that's not acceptable in the late sixties and early seventies power angry protests drew attention to poverty and despair in indian country is at the center of the movement and native american veterans are the native communities are also in many ways looked at those folks to get around the idea of what's happening in the outside world if they've been there when you look at a new policy that is one that it changes
according to have different types of catalyst for history because of the change or indeed this was an exchange that was happening on a grand scale was happening to individual warriors like the north for the younger generation to world war three river's shore up north europe's role as a confidant and mentor to the young warriors have his tribal community is party's obligation to himself as a warrior as a writer i began to realize that after about the war i didn't have as many nightmares of history almost every other night alonso start reading the paper causing the paper a book a
vivid dream of buttons much with many symptoms of ptsd so i think writing about saved my life and it's also given people who have an experience of the human side of that crazy chaotic world war the native american vietnam veterans memorial near neil spill wisconsin the high ground as it's called testifies at the complex relationship native people have with the united states and to their contributions often ignored in this understood and the us military but mostly it testifies to their own tribal traditions and the deep meaning of being a worrying the regime worse and with a little wicked
iraqis i said you can't use say and what i think you're saying that you know this we spoke to is child turkey shirt or something that's right you guys both the
palestinians want to create more information visit pbs dot org funding provided by the national endowment for the humanities great ideas brought to life wisconsin alumni research foundation and the corporation for public broadcasting and the modern world the way of the warrior is available on dvd by calling eight seven seven eight six at two to five civil
war like to the address on a screen grab or eighty eight
Way of The Warrior
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Vision Maker Media (Lincoln, Nebraska)
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Program Description
Exploring the warrior ethic among Native Americans, this documentary reveals how Native communities have traditionally viewed their warriors and why, during the 20th century, Native men and women have signed up for military service at a rate three times higher than non-Indians.?Way of the Warrior also examines the visceral nature of war and the bravery of Native American veterans who served in World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War--and came to grips with the difficult post-war personal and societal conditions.?This program honors the endurance and sacrifice of individuals such as Mitchell Red Cloud (Ho-Chunk), a Congressional Medal of Honor recipient; Ira Hayes (Pima), one of the flag raisers on Iwo Jima; Phil Coon (Creek), a Bataan Death March survivor; and John Yahola (Creek), a member of the Red Stick Warrior Society. Their stories are examined through the prism of what it means to be "ogichidaa," one who protects and follows the way of the warrior.
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Producer: Loew, Patty
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Identifier: 2013-00839 (VMM Inventory #)
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Duration: 0:56:46
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Chicago: “Way of The Warrior,” 2007-00-00, Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 9, 2023,
MLA: “Way of The Warrior.” 2007-00-00. Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 9, 2023. <>.
APA: Way of The Warrior. Boston, MA: Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from