National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Fourth General Session: "Financial Resources" (Reel 1)
Well I can talk to you about some rather exciting areas which you may or may not be familiar with and to chair this panel. I should like to introduce this time doctor Dr. John Bice from who is assistant to the secretary of H.W. for educational television John. I think there are many of you who as this program moves forward will want to make notes and statutory citations and the like. I would suggest that insofar as possible we move forward into the areas in which there are tables and that this will also make it possible for the panel to operate a
little more intimately. So a large auditorium I think we'll have much more effective program if we can come down front. Well thank you very much. We were hopeful when we decided to. Place the title on this section untapped financial resources for educational broadcasting that it would encourage a good turnout. But in addition to its evocative strength and they title is very
faithful to the topic that we plan to follow here today. As President Harley emphasize. When is a draft. Television and Radio can assist greatly in making more effective. Many of the programs which are directed at the health welfare economic and community needs of our nation. There have been some outstanding pioneering efforts by a number of the TV operators and a half dozen stations and state commissions are moving into the area of programming for Community Services. But the magnitude of the effort has not equaled either the need to be served nor the existing opportunities for service. It's been good to note the very favorable attitude and aggressive leadership given by people like
Bill Harley and Harold Wicker and Scottie Fletcher Harold Hill. OK. Leadership in support of the proposition that the services rendered by educational television and radio should be broadened and be directed to the needs not only of those in school or those desiring cultural and Richmond in their home but directed to the basic needs of all elements of the whole community. President Johnson has called for the creation of a great system. And the implementation of this concept the tools of education will be called on as the primary means to solve major social problems. As for the American textbook publishers just put it on a scale never envisioned by our predecessors. The government seeks to involve every member of society in the educational process. Education training and information efforts
have become an intricate part of how the activities of almost every agency of government. And I refer to the federal the state and the local level. The experience gained in using the newer communication media for education and defense must now be applied generally to all areas of public need. What we will be suggesting in the course of this next hour is a basic addition to the services rendered by most stations. When I see Dick call down there and we've been preaching the doctrine of services to special audiences for a number of years and he has referred to this on one occasion as a missing link. We'll be discussing the community educational services for which the primary responsibility may not be assigned to the organized apparatus of education namely the public school systems the
universities and the colleges. These services are of several kinds. First they may be direct services to consumers. Such programs mental health information counseling to the parents of retarded children. Community Development information in the paint up and clean up at a small business development programs to combat the social problems alcoholism juvenile delinquency literacy programs to bring into our society the groups that remain outside the mainstream. In California we have two million Spanish Americans and as Jim day knows that there's fourth of these reside in the San Francisco area within the grade B contour of his station. There may be programs to reduce the infant mortality rate which
in the United States is among the highest of Western nations programs to stretch our civil defense system to save lives in times of disaster. To prepare people for the problems of a gene to make life adjustment after 65 easier programs for the preschool child. Particularly the culturally deprived. Programs providing instructional information or medical self-help especially in the rural areas where the opportunities for physical survival may be less than in the urban areas. The second category of a service that should be of interest to our educational broadcasters are the services in direct training. Both personal professional personnel leadership for various public service agencies. And in the new Jap job categories for the
underemployed and New York City is turned over. Has a turnover of 6000 caseworkers every year and is overwhelmed by a simple task of orientation and moving to. So I see those television station the city was able to provide for the training and job on the job training for a 4000 city hospital nurses whereas previously they had been limited to training two hundred sixty annually. Because of the nature of the auditorium structure involving a hospital. There are the developing new job categories for which a number of programs are now underway. Such as the health system the homemaker. These job categories as well are expected to provide a livelihood for hundreds of thousands of people in our society. Yet the development of these categories is limited essentially by the training
problem not by the need of society for the service. And the third general area that is of interest to educational broadcasters is the provision of public information about many of our national efforts such as their pollution and the space program and so forth. I only touch on this area because the net and others are having excellent experience in developing this type program. This is a call to a total approach to the use of Broadcast Services instructional television cultural entertainment and community service and we will be concerned with this third leg of the three legged stool. Those of you who attended are read the proceedings of the conference last Friday and last February on channel allocation sponsored by the
JCB and NEA and a B. Will recall the emphasis placed on the broad community needs which could be served by broadcasting. But one of the difficulties which the advocates for educational channels faced was that in practice very little is being done today to use television and radio to meet those needs outside the area of formal education. It was Ed you're a man who you will be listening to in a moment too is head of the welfare and education division in the office of General Counsel in the Department of Health Education and Welfare who first made me aware of the amends opportunities outside the areas labeled education. These are opportunities offered by existing programs in the Department of Health Education and
Welfare programs which are part of a budget which totals in excess of six and a half billion dollars a year. And he is here today to share some of his observations with you. But at the risk of overlapping a bit let me describe what I mean when I talk about the opportunities. There is an area of educational need which is almost totally unassisted by educational television or radio. They public welfare program is comparable to public education in that it is a basic national service. Over 5 billion dollars a year of which 3 billion in federal tax funds is distributed not only in the form of direct payments to those who are unable to support themselves because of old age or physical disability and so forth but also under
the amendments of the Social Security Act of one thousand sixty two. Stress is now being placed on services to prevent dependency on public welfare payments. Emphasis is placed on providing the training and knowledge which will keep people off the welfare rolls and make them self-supporting and in addition the provision is made for strengthening family life so as to break the deadly cycle of poverty that extends from one generation to the next. A great amount of attention has rightfully been given to the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 and we are going to touch on it here. But many of the actions planned under that program are those for which authority existed under the Social Security Act and other social legislation. But media people must think in terms of mass audiences.
How many people are we talking about when we talk about the area of Social Security. At any given moment approximately eight million people are receiving financial assistance under some public assistance program. More important an audience of between 35 to 40 million are eligible for services designed to prevent the need for public assistance. One group that is of particular interest to the public welfare agencies are the aging. Those over 65 years of age account for 7 to 13 percent of the population. Of the several states. And they represent a population that is approximately the size of the elementary school population in this country. There is a growing recognition of the special problem of aging
requires an educational program to assist individuals in meeting the unique problems both in the period before and the age of 65 as well as that period after 65. Now the decision to use a television service to provide such materials as would be made at the state and local level. There are of course problems to overcome. You would find I think that the old questions would be raised by another professional group the welfare administrator and he would ask. Can television teach Can a defectively provide the necessary information and experience to the appropriate audience. And the radio or television station is going to have its problems.
Can it supply the appropriate audience to receive the kinds of services that for which an agency may be pain. State and local welfare officials are being urged to adapt to the new emphasis to provide the services which will assist in making people self-sufficient and remove them as a burden to the taxpayer. Welfare commissioner Dr. Ellen Winston told the state directors and I quote federal legislation is far outpace state and local action so that the benefits their congressional representatives have made available to them are no reaching many people who desperately need these benefits. In this period
of stress on innovation and on new methods educational television and radio operators should demonstrate a willingness to assist in meeting the new demands placed upon the welfare administrator. I know I've touched briefly on on one category of public assistance and treated as an example of that category. The special audience of the aging I do it as an illustration. Mr. yeoman will provide some additional illustrations and a much broader list of possibilities. Now we could if time permitted go on from here to the Economic Opportunity Act recently passed in particular relate to Title 2 for which approximately a billion dollars has been made available. This is for the overall act for the individual title. Title 2 of the Act provides for community programmes and should
be of particular interest to TV and educational radio operators. There is also the appellation programme. And I action was not completed on this in the last session but if passed it would involve another approximately one billion dollars as proposed. Funds could be made available for the nonfederal share in matching existing matching grant programs and there is evidence in the House committee report that the House committee consider the educational television facilities act as one of the eligible programs. The educational broadcaster condition someone by Title 7 of the NDA in the educational television facilities act wherein the relationship between the applicant and the federal government is a
direct may mistakenly look to Washington for the key decisions in exploring the opportunities that exist in the many other programs. However by and large these decisions are made at the state and local level. Research and development programs are an exception. They often involve some form of final approval at the federal level although the cooperation of the local agencies is essential but within each E-W a great deal of assistance can be provided by your regional office. And we have Mr George hand of the Dallas office here to provide some helpful thoughts in that direction. Program development in these new areas has been aptly described the other day by talking with Jim Robertson has
as a mining operation. First you go out and look around for the vein having discovered the vein why you begin to try to mine it. Sometimes you find that it's a vein which you can go on mining for most of your adult life and in other cases it will be a vein that may last for a period of two or three years. There is a great deal I think you will appreciate this if you listen to some of the speakers a a great creative area here. And for many of us who have grown up in the public school system and the university system we may not be fully prepared for are they the opportunities for free enterprise and for aggressive pursuit of
programs. A rough outline of our of our present overall problem in the TV. Is that on one hand there is a large scale need for a TV and radio services. And there's a very strong prospect and very reasonable prospect that funds are available for the services. On the other hand we'll soon have well we have no 94 television stations and I think we can look forward to another 35 to 50 operating before the end of next year. A large majority of the existing stations operate five days a week and the average eight hours a day. And the big question that I see here is how do we get
these two factors together. On one hand the opportunities and on the other hand the operating mechanism which is not being fully you. We have taken three station representatives who in my opinion had a lawn bike experience. And while they're not very rich yet why they are rich in experience and they're ready to at least write letters home as to how how things are and we're going to you're going to hear from them shortly. New demands. In summary are being placed on all professions in all areas and a noncommercial communication media can provide an enormous assistance because of its ability to
distribute knowledge and experience held by the few to the many who need it. Unfortunately the professional be a welfare case worker or the agricultural extension agent or the public health officer is largely unable to keep up with the technical developments in communication. They are like all of us overwhelmed by the day to day problems which which they have to deal. And then on the other hand the educational media professional has by and large been unaware of the wide range of social needs which he can help meet by means of regular programming by means of research and by means of destructive demonstrations and media use. The speakers begin to correct that problem. They will be available Incidentally after our meeting for any questions
and I'm going to ask them to. And insofar as possible stay near the message center so that if there are any individuals here who want to pursue one point or another in greater detail they can do so. Mr. had your man as assistant general counsel for Education and Welfare in the Department of Health Education and Welfare and he began his career in government some 25 years ago with the old social security agency and later when that was included in the Department of Health Education and Welfare and which was organized a little over 10 years ago. Why he joined the department. He is a man of really deep social understanding and great intellect
not only as a thinker but he is an activist. He is a. Humanist but he is also a realist. And in his hands they becomes a really creative tool. The Office of General Counsel has made important constructive contributions to the educational television facilities program and I would say that ATV and really all areas of education and welfare are are fortunate in having Mr. Garman in his present post by Nasmyth Jarome and come forward over here I believe and to carry on from here. Thank you Dr biassed room for that very generous introduction and I
also would like to thank you for giving me credit for the idea. Having participation by educational television in the social programmes and actually in all honesty I have to confess that it's somewhat of an Alexander Botts earthworm tractor arrangement that caused this last fall when so many of the people I knew were working on planning for the poverty programme I said to John one day thinking I was making a joke because I couldn't think of anything that to me was remote it was more remote. What are you going to get on the poverty bandwagon. Well it turned out that this wasn't such a remote question and John started asking questions about what was being done in the poverty area and what the needs in social welfare were and ended up by
pointing out that there really was a role that educational television could play. I will attempt to give some illustrations and they can only be illustrations because one could go on for an infinite period of time talking about the different kinds of financial arrangements that are possible for those who can make a contribution in the current education health social programmes. First I would like to give you some idea of the organisation of the Department for those of you who might not be familiar. Of course the secretary of Health Education and Welfare is the boss of the department. The department then at least for our purposes here is made up of six major constituent operating agencies. These are in alphabetical order. Food and Drug Administration. The office of education the public health service the Social Security
Administration the vocational rehabilitation administration and the Welfare Administration. While each of these units operates under the direction of the secretary of Health Education and Welfare you can appreciate the fact that the wide variety of work requires. That considerable amount of the administrative leeway and decisions are actually made on the level of the particular unit are in some major operating unit below that level. There is a commissioner such as a commissioner of education the commissioner welfare and so forth in charge of each of these units. In the case of the public health service it's the surgeon general. The breakdowns in these units are such for example that in the Welfare Administration you find a bureau of Family Services administering the public assistance grant programs and the Children's Bureau administering
programs relating to child health and child welfare. In the public health service you have breakdowns of the Bureau of medical services a bureau of state services. Many divisions within these bureaus and then as another unit in the public health service and very important in this connection is the National Institutes of Health. Which in turn is broken down into a number of institutes such as the National Cancer Institute National Heart Institute National Institute of Mental Health and so forth. As to government organization. Those of you who are not acquainted with it might be interested in knowing that each year the United States Government Printing Office puts out a manual called the United States government organization manual. This runs to about eight hundred pages and is an excellent source of the broad organization of all the government agencies and it can be secured for a dollar seventy five a copy.
Many. We have a few direct activities of the Department of Health Education and Welfare basically so far as your interest would be concerned. It would be the fact that the Food and Drug Administration which operates directly in all of its activities that is it does not support activities of others through grants. But instead it is a regulatory law enforcement officers office basically operating directly for the Food and Drug Administration. You may have some use for the services you can give because in the course of its operation it is interested in consumer information. It is also interested in relationship with federal and local agencies which are regulatory in the food cosmetic area so that there certainly is a possibility that some
exchange could take place through educational TV that would be helpful to this agency. The public service and public health service also has a number of direct operations but we will defer discussion of them because I think they would also be included in the kinds of activities it finances through grants for purposes of help from educational broadcasting. The Social Security Administration as you know administers the program of all ages fivers and disability insurance are what is commonly called a Social Security program. In its program it maintains about 600 district offices throughout the United States. Each of you almost certainly has a district office in your hometown. This program currently provides benefits to about 900 million individuals and disperses about a billion dollars a month. In addition it
maintains an account for almost every working individual. It's obvious that the public it's public pretty much includes the entire public and that a public information program must loom very large in its operation. In addition it has arrangements with state agencies usually the state vocational rehabilitation agency to make the initial determination of disability for those applicants of disability insurance. Now this necessitates relationships with physicians. And there may be some possibility of the development of communications in this area because the large number of physicians that are involved cannot be reached easily through ordinary group meetings. But as distinguished from those programs I just mentioned are the majority of the programs in which our interests lie today. Programs where
activities are carried on. By state or local or nonprofit organization at the local level but financed partially are in some cases entirely with federal funds. These are the real areas where the world is really waiting for a service and where funds are available to pay for that service. If a worthwhile one can be developed. It's important to realize that in these programs there is necessarily a certain amount of overlapping. Some of these programs are developed around categories of individuals such as children or aged or disabled or indigent or even categories within the categories such as the aged indigent or the disabled indigent. Others are organized around a field such as public health or education
and therefore cover a number of categories of individuals who are in need of public health and I suppose that would be everyone. And who are in need of education which in today's situation is almost everyone also. Now where a line of activity concerns a class of physically disabled or mentally retarded indigent children for example. It might well involve one or more concerns of the vocal officer vocational rehabilitation the Office of Education the Public Health Service and the Welfare Administration. This has particular significance for you if you are trying to help to get help for something you believe can make a contribution to a program. For example suppose that you feel that your community has a need for some sort of series that would aid in the adjustment of persons confined to their beds or to wheelchairs. Your health department might be able to use Public Health grant
funds or it's possible that locational rehabilitation funds would be available under some circumstances welfare grant funds might be used or financing might come from a combination of these sources. I'm pointing this out so that if you have some pet ideas for projects in back of your mind you won't feel that you have to find in one of these programs something that is exactly made to order for your project or on the contrary you shouldn't feel confused if several of the things mentioned here seem made to order. I think the more possibilities you can note for financing an activity the better. And I believe that Dr. Han will explain later how you might be able to zero into the target. The office of education programs as far as we're concerned here can be narrowed down to a few which I think special
note should be taken off of. You're all familiar with Title 7 of the NDA and I won't go into that. You are familiar with the acquisition of science math and modern foreign language equipment including audio visual equipment under Title 3 of the NDAA and out of lino that that was recently amended to enlarge the subject matter field so that in addition to science math and modern foreign language it is now available for history civics geography English reading and elementary are secondary schools. This as you can see opens up considerably the area for schools to acquire audio visual equipment and therefore may must necessarily have considerable impact on you. In addition recent amendments to Title 3 opened up the area of grants for state
supervisory services so that they are now available for all the subject matters. As you know state supervisory services. To improve instruction in the subject matter areas and this includes virtually all academic subject matter areas now at least a large portion of them. The state supervisory services contain as one large element in service training of the teachers on the local level. So the question is instead of having necessarily a teacher institutes or teacher meetings at some central location in the state what can educational television do for assistance here. Similarly Title 5 of NDA provides for grants for the improvement of counseling and guidance services. And again this one large element of this can be in service training of counselors and people
and guidance area. Another amendment to NDA extends the Institut authority so that in addition to institutes for teachers of foreign language and teachers and counselors and guidance personnel institutes are now available with respect to those engaged in history geography reading or English instruction. Those engaged in the teaching of disadvantaged youth library personnel and particularly notice individuals who are engaged as or are preparing to engage as educational media specialist. The potential is not open for instruction not only to educational media specialist but also to a variety of types of teachers and supervisors on the utilization of educational broadcasting instruction. Now as to research the office of education in addition to the title 7 program has a cooperative research program under which contractual arrangements are made with state and state the educational agencies and
universities for studies research and demonstrations in the field of education. A variety of these programs have been supported including those concerning the better utilization of teachers in-service training of teachers and the use of qualified lay individuals as part time teachers. And again all of these raise problems are in service type of training. Vocational Education and manpower training and development has been increasingly emphasized in recent years particularly as we come to grips with the problem of disadvantaged youth. Here we have involved a problem of teaching basic adult literacy as well as a problem of new methods of instruction in vocational education. In addition there is a problem of staff training vocational education teachers themselves. Now the
regular state elect regular grant from the federal government to states is available for the improvement of the qualifications of teachers and of vocational counselors here again a training program. In addition now for the first time the commissioner of education is authorized to make grants in on research and demonstration projects in the field of vocational education and to train personnel working in the vocational education area. All of this with special emphasis on those programs which have a relationship to aiding disadvantaged youth. In the office of education as a result of a delegation under the poverty program our anti-poverty program as you plays facially the Economic Opportunity Act will be making grants to state educational
agencies to enable them to improve their offerings on adult basic education. This will be operated under delegation but in a fact will the grants will be made directly from the Office of Education to the state educational agencies state educational agencies then will make apportionment to local adult education programs. Another. Training type programme which the Office of Education has responsibility for by delegation is in connection with the training of civil defense workers and that's from the office of civilian defense. Now in connection with the public health service a number of activities. In fact any activity you can think of that in any way affects the public health. It stands ready for financing if it is the right if it will make a contribution.
To give you one example the Public Health Service recently has emphasized that accidents loom large as a public health menace. So it is made provision for increasing informational activity including accident prevention of all types automobile industrial household and so forth in its accident prevention campaign the public the Bureau of state services of the public health service supported for example a two year public information program and community wide discussion group program in Charleston South Carolina which had the result of affecting a 20 percent reduction in the incidence of children hospitalized for accidental poisoning. In its annual report for fiscal year one hundred sixty three. The Department of eighty ws states that among projects in various stages of planning operation and reporting an accident prevention area or development of a safety education program for use in elementary schools in Kentucky.
A pilot project to establish statewide training for ambulance drivers and others in emergency medical service promotion through local health departments. Of a course on gun safety in the home and public education to reduce accidents involving the use of power lawn mowers home appliances flotation devices and dry cleaners. In addition to this type of activity the Public Health Service of course has a need to disseminate information and has authority to support all types of programs which will get information to or upgrade the skills of the many types of professional health personnel ranging from the physician to the nurse to the health technician to all types of individuals whose services are needed.
In vocational rehabilitation. Again we find a program dealing with people with a physical or mental type of disability. Basically it is the program operates through grants to state vocational education agencies and they provide services to individuals. Obviously they have a big staff training problem in their provision of services they also have a problem of relationship with physicians and counselors and others who are supplying services. They have a job in providing training within the range of the ability of a disabled individual. In addition a research demonstration and training grant program is administered by the Office of educate our office of or by the vocational rehabilitation administration under which funds are available to public and nonprofit organizations
to pay for any type of research or demonstration to improve vocational rehabilitation and training of not only Vocational Rehabilitation staff but also independent personnel who services are depended upon in the vocational rehabilitation process again the physicians occupational or physical therapist or speech correction experts counselors and so forth. He well very administration is responsible. As I indicated before for programs of the Bureau of Family Services concerning public assistance grants programs of the Children's Bureau concerning child health and welfare programs of the Office of Juvenile Delinquency and youth development and programs of the office of aging.
As Dr. bias to mention in your recent years much of the emphasis which has developed from art perhaps resulted in the poverty. Dr. R. and I property Dr. has been to develop a service component in the welfare program to make the provision of subsistence and medical care more meaningful to promote self support and self help among welfare recipients to provide these services. A large amount of trained staff time is required and trained staff. In the service area is very difficult to come by now. It is because of this that the Welfare Administration now requires that in order to receive it's federal grants for the assistance programs each state agency must have a full time training director. So if you have some ideas in the welfare field are I think that you might like to develop ideas in the welfare
- National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Fourth General Session: "Financial Resources" (Reel 1)
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- MLA: “National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Fourth General Session: "Financial Resources" (Reel 1) .” 1964-10-28. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. August 9, 2022. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-zp3vzm63>.
- APA: National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Fourth General Session: "Financial Resources" (Reel 1) . Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-zp3vzm63