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It'll I am I am I am I am. I am the evolution of jazz. A survey of American Art from Scott Joplin to Lenny Tristan. The evolution of jazz. It's a tape recorded feature presented under the auspices of Northeastern University by the Lowell Institute cooperative broadcasting Council Nat Hentoff associate editor of Downbeat Magazine discusses the growth of
jazz from its roots in Europe and Africa and considers the musical as well as the sociological forces that shaped it. Mr Hentoff we've been discussing the increasing use of extended foreign or at least experimentation with the use of extended form in contemporary jazz in one thousand fifty three. The Prestige record company issued too long playing records called New Directions. The recordings illustrated the experimental work of such a contemporary jazz man as Teddy Charles Jimmy Raney and Shaughnessy and the classical pianist and composer and avocational jazz man Hall Overton. These are transitional examples as have all been all the illustrations we've played in the last two weeks beginning attempts
to synthesize extended structure with jazz feeling intonation and improvisation. This is a child's perspective on the problem he says instead of attempting to play artificially intricate and complex solos with backgrounds that have become stale. On the other hand jumping too far ahead of the group's improvisational ability both as individuals and collectively with the backgrounds he has written compositions with new harmonies lines and rhythms as a basis from which to build naturally. For example this is called hedging. Most of the elements in the piece have been utilized in some way in jazz the basic harmonic structure remains the same throughout with minor exceptions. None of it is so different that of thinking jazz musician could not improvise on it. However the variety of devices and the juxtaposition of the harmonies generate a different feel. So that would be impossible to play a convincing
solo in the usual style but it is possible for the contemporary jazz musician to improvise as hear within the larger structure. The performers are Tony Charles on vibraphone Jimmy Raney guitar. And he shot as he drums and Dick niacin on bass. Teddy Charles edging out the.
Nocturne another penny Charles conversation is not says the composer a jazz piece. As a matter of fact he doesn't call any of these compositions contained on the too long playing records called New Directions jazz composite jazz works yet they do represent one of the beginning steps to build the synthesis of jazz an extended form and it is true that the solos are almost wholly improvised and that there is much of jazz intonation. Much as a matter of fact or that of the jazz language in the performances the improvisation a nocturne has in the phrasing and the feeling for the composition according to Teddy. A.
For her for her to depart for a moment from the New Directions albums. Here is a definitely a jazz performance as recorded in Boston Storyville by Stan Getz group. It's called Parker 51 and is probably a composition by Jimmy Raney I'm not quite sure there is more space for constructing solos in this than in the usual jazz performance and a greater sense of form though not as much as in the compositions we've just heard by Teddy Charles and the connotations we're about to hear by Rainey and by Hall overdone the personalities of Stan Getz on tenor Jimmy Raney guitar Al Haig
piano a tiny con on drums and Teddy Cody on bass.
Returning to the new directions album of the teddy Charles Quartet this composition by Jimmy Raney is not regarded by the composer as a jazz piece entirely. He says the phrasing which stems from the conception of the modern jazz man as the opening figure attests and the general interpretation given a jazz feeling the composition itself as linear in character and swings throughout as the vibraphone guitar build a concise theme to a climax. Not quite sure what semantic definition should be applied to this work. I think perhaps the best way is to say that it too is an example of a beginning synthesis between jazz feeling intonation and improvisation and extended form. Jimmy Raney's composition for what these are.
Paul Overton classical composer and jazz pianist is the man largely responsible for the ideas behind the music in the new directions album. Let me emphasize again that this is just one perspective. The approach to the synthesis. There are several others Bunny's Tristan knows Dave Brubeck Jerry Mulligan's Oscar Petersons John Lewis's and more besides Overton and classical. Composition is written a little Kestrel piece chiaroscuro an octet for woodwinds trio for clarinet cello and piano both the latter broadcast over WNYC New York for a string quartet which was awarded the hands of its prize a chamber opera performed by the Juilliard School of Music opera department of ballet and the First Piano Sonata which was performed in April of 153 new music concerts presented by the League of composers.
He is teaching composition and theory at present at present and his recent pupils have included two of the men in this album Teddy Charles and Terrence Jimmy Raney. In listening to the pieces in the album particularly those written by Overton I really get notes that one hears such devices as Polly's analogy of fixed scales and tonal centers instead of fixed keys and changing meters which reflects the innovations of contemporary composers such as bar talk Stravinsky and Neo and the organizing harmonic factor here is a tonal center isn't a tonality is incidental. Again may I point out to the Chas communication that the solos are almost wholly improvised in most of these. And that the texture is very much that of contemporary jazz more BeOS in a composition by Howell Hall Overton comprises the following schematic structure a material
section a consist of the juxtaposition of two opposed triadic tonality as the material for the succeeding sections is derived from Section 8 using fixed scales. The jazz break is utilized in a new light marking the ends of sections and having a K. Dench ill effect for an analysis of which would be A B C A resembles Rondo for an edge on as he plays drums and these predominate through the entire piece. What.
Barney Kessel in a recent conversation summed up what will be probably one of the eventual basic formula I will have to be he says an interplay between improvised jazz solos and the written sections each will be a relief for the other and will be complimentary. The forms themselves will evolve at first and rhythmic equivalents of classical forms but unless there are freely improvised solos it'll be something other than jazz. Then there is a firm precedent for the successful use of this formula in classical music in classical music. There were the improvised of the Gregorian chants the gradual freeing of polyphony that led to the melodic and ornamental improvisations of the 17th century. Together with the harmonic and melodic improvisation that came by means of the figured bass. And it's worth remembering that the 18th century when improvisation was so prolific was also a great century for composition with both often carried on by the same man. A motorcyclist were great improvisers in performance and today there is the
stunning astonishing French organist here who in various concerts in the United States has been extremely impressive as she improvises within a few of the subject of which often has been given her only a few minutes before a performance. Now in terms of contemporary jazz Jasmine have demonstrated a startling ability to improvise also with an implicit sense of more and more a complex structure harmonically Charlie Parker and Bud Powell for example contrapuntally the Dave Brubeck Jerry Mulligan units let it stand. And if this ability is used within your works based on the Afro-American material of jazz and all the other elements that have been added to the jazz language and also based on other ways of synthesis between extended forum and the Jazz Bass there is no reason why another dimension of
The Evolution of Jazz
Episode Number
Extended Form in Contemporary Jazz Continued, Part One
Producing Organization
WGBH Educational Foundation
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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This program continues the exploration of the usage of extended form in jazz improvisation and composition.
Jazz historian Nat Hentoff presents a series that traces the history of jazz, from its musical and cultural roots to its contemporary forms. "The Evolution of Jazz" was originally broadcast from WGBH in 1953-1954, and was re-broadcast by the National Educational Radio Network in 1964.
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Jazz musicians--United States--Biography.
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Host: Hentoff, Nat
Producer: Hentoff, Nat
Producing Organization: WGBH Educational Foundation
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 55-32-39 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:29:39
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Chicago: “The Evolution of Jazz; 39; Extended Form in Contemporary Jazz Continued, Part One,” 1954-08-06, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 21, 2021,
MLA: “The Evolution of Jazz; 39; Extended Form in Contemporary Jazz Continued, Part One.” 1954-08-06. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 21, 2021. <>.
APA: The Evolution of Jazz; 39; Extended Form in Contemporary Jazz Continued, Part One. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from