thumbnail of 
     National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Radio Session
    1 - Radio Reconsidered - Tape 1
Hide -
This transcript was received from a third party and/or generated by a computer. Its accuracy has not been verified. If this transcript has significant errors that should be corrected, let us know, so we can add it to FIX IT+.
Please feel free to refill your cup of coffee you can't leave the room but you can fill the cup of coffee at any time. But quite seriously we thought it might be nice because we do have a very full program this morning. You look at your program you'll see that we have quite a few speakers and we felt that it might be nice to make it possible for you to have coffee and quote donuts. At your pleasure. So to help yourself as the morning rolls along if any of the members of our ad hoc evaluation committee have not picked up their. Valuation form Jad. Ed Burroughs over at the door. Has them. And please just follow the simple instructions on them and you'll be billed later. Also I'd like to call your attention to the fact that those of you who have. Not yet picked up a division luncheon tickets. They are still available even though the absolute deadline has been passed apparently quite a few people registered yesterday and the day before. Without getting all their meal tickets. So we have an
understanding from the hotel manager at the Austin Hotel. That he will work with us through the morning with additions. So if you need to do this I urge you to take care of that. Very very shortly. Fact what we what we might do I don't know are there many people here who still need division luncheon tickets. You are not a problem because you got to be there. Ok I mentioned incidentally that the gentleman who raised his hand there is the main reason that I call attention to the division luncheon because it's going to be an extremely exciting affair. He's a very provocative speaker Mr. William Kalen the Westinghouse Broadcasting. And. I I urge you to make every effort to be there if you haven't already made the arrangements. Please do so this morning.
Our business session of this afternoon will be at the Commodore Perry hotel in the colonnades room I believe colonnade to the Commodore Perry that's the third floor in the jacket. And the luncheon will be in the ballroom of the Austin Hotel. Please Jim. In thinking about. What to call our first division day under the new regime of national educational radio. It seemed to us rather appropriate. To give it the generic title of radio reconsidered. Because this is precisely what we intend to do. Here this morning. At our luncheon and throughout the months to come. We want to reconsider Radio in. All of its facets. What we all do
every day operationally the kind of dreams and visions we have and what we're trying to accomplish. And certainly in terms of the. Overall future of educational radio. We hope that you will join us in this very serious reconsideration of radio's role. This first session. Which is devoted to outstanding examples of enterprise and experimentation. Has As you can note from your program. A number of people from a variety. Of sources in the broadcasting field. And as a matter of fact. You'll note too that the majority of them. Do not come from NPR member stations. In fact only one has a. Relationship with an NPR member station as a professional and the others come either from commercial broadcasting organizations. Or fairly
similar ones. This was done. For one basic reason. We felt that perhaps this was a proper time. For us to get. Some feelings from the other side of the fence. Let's see if we can set up a kind of a two way. Communications link here. Because I think we do have a great deal to say to each other. From educational radio to commercial broadcasting and vice versa. Our first speaker this morning. Unfortunately cannot communicate with us. Directly. Because he has an abscessed ear. And Mr. Richard Gilbert who was going to be with us. To discuss those Stan Freberg spots on religion rojak Summerfield the other day. That yesterday in Atlanta a doctor informed me that I have an abscessed ear in the plane travel may be impossible for the next week. I am optimistic however and intend to go to Austin or bust. But not an ear drum.
And as recently as yesterday early afternoon we didn't know. And then the cable came in late yesterday afternoon. And Mr. Gilbert's doctor absolutely insisted that he could not come. So we will have a rain check on those Stan Freberg spots. However. The man who is now in the number one spot. Will also I think. Have something to say to us in terms of radio reconsidered. He's a man who I first met three or four years ago at University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. We were doing a series for the NSA be called classical drama. And I said you want to be nice if we had you know somebody like Don Gillis write us a music score. And it just so happened that Don Gillis lived in Ann Arbor Michigan so I picked up the phone and I called Don and I said and we had never met before. And I said I have an impossible task for you to write the greatest musical score for a classical drama in the history of radio.
And you will work harder than you have ever done before. And you'll probably lose money on it. Will you do it. And naturally being a very sane. Mature individual he said yes. And he wrote to music scores for us one for the arrestees of your repartee s which was a very exciting experience and one that was a wild experience. The music for the birds of Aristophanes for those of you who have carried the classical drama series are familiar with that one aspect of Mr. Gilliss creativity. But it goes a lot further than that he of course has had quite a prolific career. As educator he's taught in a number of universities including Tech Texas Christian University in this part of the World University of Michigan and a number of other places. He has a distinguished career as an administrator as vice president of the National Music Camp and interlocking for a number of years. He of course has a distinguished career as a
radio producer for 10 years he was a member of the NBC production staff. And one of the most outstanding of his production assignments was as a producer for the Arturo Toscanini NBC symphony concerts. As conductor of course he has been a guest conductor with many orchestras all over the world. As a writer. He's currently writing a text on music theory and a humorous book on conducting called from twig to triumph. And of course perhaps he's best known to most people as a composer. He's composed over a hundred fifty works including Symphony Number Five and a half. The man who invented music. And of course he has a direct tie with NPR right now because those of you who. Are familiar with our current network offering are aware of course that the music of Don Gillis. Is an exciting provocative 26 week series. And we've taken a little out of license and gone to one of the titles of.
Mr. Gillis a series for NPR and stolen the title music to be incidental by it's a great pleasure to introduce Douglas. Thank. You. I'd like to express my deep undying gratitude to those of you who are carrying the series on national educational radio network and commiserate with you. Those of you who are not. I don't know what you're doing during that 30 minutes. It is true that I met Jerry Sanders University of Michigan and when he asked me to write the music for the birds. I thought the word had gotten around generally that day. Get us music was for the birds. And the experience of working with him led me to consent to come to
Texas under the same general agreements that I had made with him at the. University of Michigan. When we talked about a type of music to be on standby. I gave this thing a great deal of thought and I think I worried about it. Tremendous amount. I'm not really prone to nightmares as much as I am to day dreaming but I had gone to the Hi-Fi show and. While I was there I saw some tape recorders that were reading you know 30 speed and then 15 and then seven and a half. And then it finally got down to five sixteenths. These machines were barely running. And they were still producing sound I got thinking. Although I wasn't able to take half of five sixteenths I figured it would. They could get it down slower and wondered what would happen if they got down to the point of absolute zero. Exactly what would happen they would still get music running we see
the video tape machines running that way and I projected it one step further if they could get it minus zero. We might be able to project ourselves into the future some pot this is music which has not yet been heard news which has not yet been heard. Stock market reports which have not yet been heard. Anyway I got to thinking about this. And sure enough I had a dream about this whole situation and I was listening to classical music program and the year nineteen seventy five. And it went like this. Well I eat fish. He's only like me when he. Beat me.
Eat the ears. Eat eat eat eat eat eat eat eat. Eat Eat sleep she. Eat eat eat. Yeah. I'll be not as if that was a sustaining dream. Even has this followed me throughout my somewhat hectic career. But as I got to thinking about this I thought well the teachers of old.
Have been successful. We read in history have always been able to manage this whole deal with gaining success and getting their points across by parables and allegories and fables. And so I looked around for a a good parable to be able to bring you this morning. That might relate somewhat to your own basic problems. And. While I'm not an old teacher at least a good teacher I'm older now and I did run across this parable and. I have this Japanese tape machine at home we translated it so that. We could bring you this particular parable. But you originate originated and I believe it was an FM station called W W W W FM and it goes something like this line and this is all you need.
Your son doesn't know that. While we're. In the number one on my list from. One moment please. Oh yes Lizzie Sloan who is a liberal. This is the one. Stand by please because. You're so
right to stay. Home when you're going to give you five dollars to get from it without taking out that book well that is your right on all. Of these young. One least. Lazy. We regret this unseemly interruption. He will but in the meanwhile in answer to your merry way as liberal eugenic one full of Webster's I'm really. Nightly. And like. A. In. English. A comes from Latin which comes from really a out of the rough weather unleashing of there are but. We'll get to in the early days of this he's already sort of out of.
A valuable one for me. A loose sleeveless gun one by address. This and this. We all try to put the punchline on the parable just at the very end of this particular documentary which I am bringing in this morning music to be answered down by as a title which I dreamed up for a short spot on one of the shows which I did for you and music to be incidental by is a rather significant subject in terms of radio in the sense that most music we are aware of in both the symphonic and the Pops area is rapidly becoming incidental music not in part but in whole. Now composer when he writes an opera for example needs a great deal of incidental music to move characters around on the stage.
He can't just have his friends launch into arias immediately there has to be a certain amount of time given for stage movement. This is incidental music. Where of course all way of incidental music and ballet which is all incidental to what's happening on the stage parallel to the action interpretive type of music. We are also aware of what happens in the movies. I once wrote a film and Fela told me that he wanted nothing but neutral music that he wanted. He wanted no music at all that could be that would be noticed while while the music was being played the successful film score he said was one which they would notice if it wasn't there. But if it was there. Then they should notice that at all. He also had other ideas. He said there's one weak spot in the film but so put that put the music in the cello at that point.
But this. This business of incidental music as a sort of background to life sort of distresses me about 6:00 a.m. this morning I was walking down one of the wide streets here in Austin and and I heard some music just coming out of the. Nowhere. I looked around there were no transistor radios walking up the streets with people. There was no visible sign of a human being. But the the name of the store was. French and I stopped and there about the door was a loud speaker at 6:00 a.m. this morning. It was tea for two coming forth and I wondered if it's been going on all night or if if music was so going to be so incidental that it was impossible to control the electronic equipment and they were going to play it no matter. Who was there since we who are there no longer listen to what's going on. We listen. You get on a plane and we hear music we get on
elevators and there's music there is one firm in New York a very high class firm that began using classical music in their elevators. And I got on one day I was going to 28 floor and they just started the Beethoven fifth and it runs 30 when I was five it took me ninety three round trips. In order to hear it all and then I ended up on floor 17 which I didn't even want. As it happened with the coda dentists are using it as you know. Instead of hypnotism which they should be using. But everywhere we turn we have music which is incidental to our life. It's a curious thing. When I was a youngster back in the OT twenties and earlier music was a very vital element in our lives that it had. It was an event we made homemade music on Sunday afternoons in the family or we heard it in church or we went to
band concerts. But in pre radio days and recorded music days it just wasn't possible to hear much music unless we made or helped to make the music ourselves. Coincident with the beginnings of radio as you well know there became a great and and valiant program and are great in the field of public school music. So suddenly the nation became music conscious art conscious if you please. And as they fell a monic in the NBC symphony and the Philadelphia symphony came through the loudspeakers more and more youngsters were inspired to become musicians or to take up music school bands and orchestras grew by leaps and bounds and where in the middle 1920s there were only a handful of symphony orchestras we now have something 12 or 13 hundred school band programs jump from a few hundred to something like
27000 there are so many choirs. I couldn't tell you how many organized choirs are in high schools and churches and high school orchestra programs in other words we've become a nation of music makers in one sense but not a nation of concert goers. We have developed a huge technical skill and a lot of the inspiration for this great growth of the arts in the United States has is due to what radio has done its major contribution has been to create an appetite and yet I wonder as as now we have created the appetite and we have have had 30 or more years to evaluate what. Has really happened in our life in our land whether or not we have failed in one large sense. When are charters and acceptances of the channels and of the frequencies which we gain from
the FCC we are more or less obligated to perform a public service which more often than not we translate into that form of program related to either the arts or religion or politics or whatever the brownie points are in that particular area. And yet along the way we have. Tended to become more and more to rely on the electronic gadget and not quite as much upon the development of the individual talent within the community. How many of you have outstanding records of the use of the of live music on your campus. And I wonder sometimes how much effort it would take to go further into the community and organize for your use of this vast amount of talent which does exist as a result of your efforts. You have responded as it were and these 30 years of wonderful traditions which have grown up.
And yet you're not using it. I wonder if when the FCC came out recently with its wonderful speech about the waste land if they didn't overlook an area which is wasted which is this great vast quantity of talent which by not being recognized for years stultify eyes and atrophy eyes and is lost completely. The drop out in the area of school music for example. The kid will take up trumpet or harp and about. 50 percent of them carrying on when they go to college and after that there's no place for them to play and no place for them to sink perhaps radio can perform a function. We can't go on with this idea of. Of the contributions of radio to mankind the contributions of radio to the United States in terms of serious music. But I think we must
look very very seriously now at the content of the LP as a means of programming now that we have arrived at this point of technical efficiency. I would like to see us take the broader step onward and try to create talent rather than to just use it and to try to create it in a live sense rather than to just record it and play it back. For my own purposes as far as the future is concerned this is vital for as a composer there's no point in writing music unless there are people the plainer people are saying even if there are people to listen. I would not much prefer to have your station do my 75 and I have to live then to be able to send you a tape of somebody who did it 10 years ago because we are alive and we are living among living people and it seems
to me that if we are to be responsible in the area of music then this responsibility forces US demands from us the added energy to create. And develop and bring into life talent which does exist. Actually I had a nine hour speech prepared here but I can already see my time is up because Jerry's fidgeted three times and I I feel that if I can say any lasting thing to you it would be in this. Business of being prepared against that day when your turntable does break down permanently. We're lucky in this instance in that the dictionary was handy but perhaps next time there won't be anything in there except a racing form and you know that is make to good programming in educational circles.
Since I talk so much about live materials will now go back to the tape and hear the finale of this and the last notes sounded out in their full pristine electronically conceived and dedicated glory. This will be the end of my function. Thank you for listening and if you get a chance to play my music do it well you. Know. Nothing changes in the cause and effect just one big long long was a riddle and they are. Able to go to one place.
Why. Yeah they are. The e-file. I am only please. Will eat you. Jane and I see the face of a ground invasion. Webster's halyard are slender and wish that I allowed any reading off of this turns to ride for slim. Well Don Gallus has certainly proved that this is music not to be
incidental by. We turn now from music to a field that we are all of us concerned with more and more these days. The area public issues and we turn to a man who has been spending virtually all of his time in the last few years devoting himself to the development of programs in this field. Mr. Burt Cullen director of community relations at station WRNI s the Westinghouse Broadcasting Station in New York City. I like to feel that burden I have a kind of a common denominator because it turns out we find out that both of us as high school students in New York City found our beginnings in broadcasting via the All City Radio workshop at the Board of Education station WNYC. It also turns out that we both are alumni
of the New York University Department of radio and. I consider myself quite lucky to have followed the same pattern because Burt certainly has developed into highly creative imaginative producer of documentaries for radio among many many other things. He's been with Westinghouse for four years. Firsts with the staff headquarters as a staff liaison Special Projects Coordinator. He coordinated the logistics and participated in the planning for the fourth annual public service programming conference held by Westinghouse. He has been the holder of a number of significant broadcasting awards. Including for i.e. arty awards from Ohio State a freedom's Foundation Award. A certificate of special recognition from the National Conference of Christians and Jews a major
award from the religious Public Relations Council and the 1963 Protestant Council award for broadcast achievement and that could go on for nine hours to sell without further ado. I turn you over to Bert Callan of W.A. and Westinghouse to discuss realities for the people by the people there. Thank you very much Terry. From I. That's a hard act to follow Mr illnesses. But I empathize to an extreme degree because when I once in my professional career ran a classical music station I had a recurring nightmare which used to concern the day that I'd tune in and hear the phrase due to technical circumstances beyond our control we must now bring you a brief interlude of human speech. When I was first invited to come here and speak one Stern injunction accompanied the invitation and
those of you know Jerry Sanford well know i'm sure how stern and injunction he can deliver the message was bring tape. I'm sorry said it since I'd far rather talk about argue about public affairs programs a documentary production than to be put on the spot and have to demonstrate what it is that I mean. Also I think a demonstration tends to be somewhat hazardous since it can easily degenerate or at least on my part in a way. And then I wrote session one further piece of apology is really in order I've I've had of necessity to select segments of long shows. My program director as would sometimes be the habit of program directors of popular music and news stations would call them interminable. But of all of us in this room only I know how good the segments I didn't bring out. In any event I am really both pleased and honored to be here and I'd like to take it all just one moment to tell you why many of us in public affairs tend to look whether
you're aware of it or not to our local educational noncommercial collegiate stations for inspiration. We tend to feel that it's your task to keep reminding us what the pure state of the art could and should be. We frequently shamelessly swipe your ideas and then translate them when we can into our own medium at our own pace and Temple. Those of us who are not daily employed as diggers in the groves of academe tend to feel that those of you have the time to explore issues of leisure and spend weeks and months preparing a programme have by far the best of life. I chose that phrase diggers in the grove of academe with full malice of forethought by the way Jerry did not mention in his introduction that I recently succumbed to the lure of the campus. I'm trying to teach students what it is I do for a living. I find it and I mean this is a compliment to those of you who really teach. Far from an easy job I suspect I'm here as well because I've been fortunate enough to have been in the past few years honored as a recipient of some rather distinguished awards for radio program concepts and production. Let me
presume since the awards of which I'm most proud to be still with by academics and educators to lecture to you. I paid my compliments and I'm going to flip the coin. I feel with some magnificent exceptions that by and large those of you who are charged with improving the breed have let those of us who look to you for inspiration down badly down the quality of public affairs programming and documentary production emanating from most educational and noncommercial broadcast entities suffers from a dismal lack of professionalism. And I for one see absolutely nothing incompatible in being both an educator and a professional. When one is engaged in the art of communications. Most program offerings are and always a strong word slightly seedy in tone. And an imaginative concept. I find this very surprising when I think how often we in the course of our productions come deal for the U.S. our libraries in Europe people in order to make our programs more exciting.
Such for a moment I'll put on the Group W Westinghouse had as opposed to the Wynn Stetson award winning programs as songs for presidents America sings ESPN the fair adventure which is a new series with Dr. Frank Baxter voices and sounds of World War 2 poverty in America would have been impossible without the aid and resources of various universities and their people. A recent program involved procurement of some never before heard in American material regarding Soviet experiments in extra sensory perception for inclusion in the program. I could never have gotten this material I suspect had I not been able to include in my letter of request the name of the world famous psychologist and college department chairman who was acting as educational consultant for the series. Your facilities are generally admirable. In terms of those things which are technologically capable. I wonder for example if you're aware that about 90 percent of the superb Telefunken microphone sold in this country are sold to educational stations. We commercial broadcasters rarely get near one of these they're too expensive. You have other
assets time people a reservoir of creative talent that is unparalleled in the history of communications yet. And I regret I'm not joking. I recall one noncommercial station that not too long ago aired a two hour lecture on the history of gastroenterologists in the middle aged negro male at 9 o'clock of a Wednesday night. This to me is on professionalism to the nth degree to very freely paraphrase the FCC in the Pacifica Foundation decision. There is no obligation to be bland or non-controversial. That kind of programming represents the state of the art that's worst. And where we do engage in it as commercial broadcasters the public would depart in droves and the rating X would sever our communications channels to them. One cannot communicate in a vacuum and I suspect among educational stations a tendency to preach to the already converted then to talk only to oneself. We have I must admit that asset with I could our economic fate is tied to ratings. However he and I accurately maybe
since they do show us at least it tend to show us when we're badly wrong. Without that advantage you must be doubly responsive to your mission and to your audience and to your community in its totality. Let me make it crystal clear by the way that I'm talking about for the most part. Programs that cost very little money. I've chastised enough I'd like you to hear what I brought along that I'd like you to hear why I have selected each of the segments before I roll the tape I want to pay my just debts as a producer to the writers and editors of these programs. I would hope should we have time for discussion after the panel or as we encounter each other in the meeting halls and hotel corridors. You'll tell me where I'm wrong or convince me that the art is being advanced by your efforts. I was concerned as I am because I deeply believe that at this moment in the history of mankind we must develop our communication arts as the aid to mutual understanding that they are. To their highest possible creative potential.
Sometimes the reporters gathered on the street. It is there again in the morning more. AS. A game. No Larry.
King goes a little slower. Without. Me telling him. It's the way I want it even though you like me to my room like what happens then really I want to go as far as he has got out. While.
This program might have been a pedestrian news documentary it was well on its way to becoming one. I have not a tape editor or the foresight to add the music to the opening. The combination of the contemporary sound plus the actual voices recorded on the scene gives us extremely low budget program dramatic emphasis and I feel a great deal of impact. Next you'll hear a group of three selections grouped tightly together. The first the sky is a memory as a result of choosing an unusual location in the course by the way of attempting to solve a problem brought to us a public service problem presented to us by the United States Navy. As we went on board a U.S. Navy submarine and recorded The Real sounds and the real people. The memory of the thresher disaster was still fresh in my mind. I think this combination of actuality recording plus the timing inherent in when to do the program made it effective with our audience. The second excerpt in this segment the twisted mind again heavily utilizes on the scene recording. Writer reporter secured permission to
record in the disturbed boards of a mental hospital. This lends a stock impact of reality to what could have been an abstract some dull discussion of the complex problems of the schizo phrenic. The program was very deliberately and very carefully underwritten. The third represented attempt to create a new form it's a grandiose term for it but at the time when we felt one was needed. It's called the unfinished American Revolution. It's both a documentary and an editorial and it's clearly labeled as such. Our community contacts a tipped us off that the excerpt you will hear recorded as it happened was going to take place but the landlord and Tenant's his voices you will hear would meet directly face to face. We were there and we were then able to use the material collected as an illustration of a in earlier speech by the president. Which was rather abstract in Intel and the program that continues along the same vein. These three are tight together it's this guy's memory the twisted mind and the unfinished American Revolution. That brought him way
more. Life. Is suffering here miserable. Outside. But. What really really I don't think of razors and I don't think summer was really. Resent this guy was enough for a. Historian and often this. Will go away by rote. Like a strong light.
Boy boy boy. Once again that's your lasting closers. And I need your Little Steven. I know I. Love you all right. While the top side where they. Were there's a little arms Easter being the mothers of these are the voices of schism. He. Worked on them. Just imagine a way to.
Easy. Just ease some. Of these impacts on the. House of working from home and from hospital that is in this country are the issues and the reasons why we are so this is the very actually a body that no way for a day on a body to meet with her to get any weapons. The fire from spreading or some will love it. JOAN. I don't know that no one except what I have consistently very. Active duty here where expects. Me satisfaction although you know you believe this is the golden rule of your rental you know more loudly in the mall one day about what we do in the office of the elite the red pressures of the saleswoman association one
in the risk of losing the quality of the other. What's the reader in the right approach. Rather just for all the wish to lower the level of your most vocal we'll hear somebody a commentator or what was meant by the fire of frustration and discord. Lol wow. So you only want to take a life never loutish thing to tell you a revolution particularly in the mind of. Leave next to the next program segment is from a program called How Much Love does a child cost. We have been asked to help the fund raising activities of a local children's village. We became intrigued with the efforts to help the children you'll hear
the technique involved having a reporter writer live in for three weeks among the children until they almost forgot the omnipresent portable tape recorder. The story is advanced by having the children in the. I'll admit this took oh maybe three or four solid weeks of editing. Translate the jargon of the adult psychiatric social workers in a counterpoint technically the adult would explain the case. I don't think this is in the segment in terms of this child has a lady tendency toward hostility. And the next voice you hear is the kid saying I'll I want if I want to fight people I want to hit people all the time. The second segment which follows tightly on the heels of it is an experimental opening for a program called the Pied Pipers of Harlem. We wanted to achieve with material we'd already field recorded an opening that we thought would grab at the attention of the audience. You're not. Your. Own.
Please note: This content is only available at GBH and the Library of Congress, either due to copyright restrictions or because this content has not yet been reviewed for copyright or privacy issues. For information about on location research, click here.
National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Radio Session 1 - Radio Reconsidered - Tape 1
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
If you have more information about this item than what is given here, or if you have concerns about this record, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/500-z02z7m4x).
No description available
Public Affairs
Media type
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 4330 (University of Maryland)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
If you have a copy of this asset and would like us to add it to our catalog, please contact us.
Chicago: “ National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Radio Session 1 - Radio Reconsidered - Tape 1 ,” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 23, 2024,
MLA: “ National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Radio Session 1 - Radio Reconsidered - Tape 1 .” University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 23, 2024. <>.
APA: National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Radio Session 1 - Radio Reconsidered - Tape 1 . Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from