thumbnail of 1965 National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; 
     Inst. Division Session: The Application of Principles of Programmed Inst.
    To TV Inst.
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We're going to go OK thank you for the record I think we had better call the signature to the order for mag attention placed and I call the session to water place. There is room there is room at the front of there's really no reason for anyone to be standing at the back. Unless you're just trying to get away in a hurry there are plenty of seats down here. This session is long and which we want to begin investigating some of the relationships between. Programmed instruction and televised instruction and see how all the methods of programming and I don't know if all the panel will go along with this but I think that the effectiveness of program instruction has been as a
result of the method of development really rather than a particular format which happens to take. We want to see and to what extent these methods are applicable to the improvement of televised instruction and therefore we have brought together a group of psychologists who have been working in this field not for very long I should say because as this particular application is is rather new but they have been doing some interesting things that I think you will want to hear about are the way we will go about this is that a presentation will be made in one instance. You can come on skis. There is a film demonstration of the kinds of things which he is discussing had been my hope that we would have demonstrations of all of these.
But I guess maybe. Well I know I reneged on it and I think maybe the others have too. But this is perhaps because we are a psychologist and we need your help in an area of visualisation. At any rate there also be an opportunity at the end of each paper to raise questions and discuss the implications of the paper. Now Mr. Comey has been serving as a poll watcher in New York this morning. I won't tell you for which side because this may somehow bias your perception of his paper but it is his hope to go back and get there in time to make sure that things stay as honest as they can stay in New York and. Be there when his cow they hopefully I guess wins and
participated in the victory celebration so he is asked if he might be first on the program and the others have said that this is alright as far as they're concerned. So I'd like to introduce to you first Mr. Peak of Kemal ski who is associate executive officer of the Institute of educational technology at Teachers College Columbia. He's going to speak to you on the application of self instructional programming principles the production of television lessons on human ecology. You can ask it. Thank you very much. My presentation will come in three parts. I know a Latin teacher I'm not a psychologist. And as you know we divide things in three parts beginning with gall.
I will let him speak for about 10 minutes to try to tell you something about the nature of the project that we are undertaking I say we this is the Institute at Columbia Teachers College and TV here in Washington. Then we will have a showing of some footage of a kinescope which taken off one of the videotapes that we have we've developed what you will see is very much a product in the making in the developmental stage even though it is the seventh version of the first lesson of a series that will probably be between six and eight programs long varying in length from perhaps 15 minutes to a half hour. The subject matter is human geography or human ecology for six. Or perhaps we hope fifth graders.
The content really has to do with the teaching of the concept of population. The way in which a population can be organized to study it the concept of environment and the interaction of population human population and its immediate environment and the concept of technology. As the skills and the amalgam of skills and tools that a population the human population will use in order to change its environment and the lesson that you'll be seeing as I say will be the seventh version of the first lesson. It is essentially we will have much more than time to show you what is essentially the introduction to the series so that it kind of gets the kids used to the way we're going to deal with them and what their job is in this
series and the kindly way in which they will answer questions as the questions are put to them by the program. Now I'd like to say as a background to this whole art my presentation and in a sense a background to I think the rest of the program here that one of the things that is implicit or let's say an assumption that we are making in developing television instruction along the lines of are the way in which program instructional materials are developed is that we are heading toward the day you know education hopefully when all instructional materials will be validated materials when structural materials that are brought into the classroom whether they be in book form or television or in film or
whatever medium that they will carry with them a statement which says these materials have been developed on such and such a population. The objectives of these materials are such and such. These of the objectives have been achieved to this extent by this population. Something of a guarantee with instructional materials as to their performance with a specific population. Granted you can't guarantee absolutely that these materials or any materials will perform and specifically a certain way but it seems to me that we're coming to the point in the development of educational instructional materials where with the introduction of program structured as a step toward this development of empirically validated or validated instructional materials we are going to see this concept of validation generalized to more
and more instructional materials. Now another assumption that we've made is that. As the title of this meeting implies the processes that are used to develop programs structural materials that is specifically the development of a statement of objectives and the construction of a series of experiences that you put before the trial that he responds to. In this case there are audio visual presentations that it is possible to construct materials from a set of objectives requiring from the students all relevant responses to the materials which will lead the student toward the learning of the information the procedures the generalizations that have been set out in the objectives and the way this is done is not to. Simply to devise the lesson. And that's it.
And you've got enough basic principles and solid principles to develop a lesson that is going to teach you don't just devise the lesson you revise the lesson and you revise it and you revise it based on student performance such that through this period this procedure process of refinement and reversion you get closer to being able to make a statement about what these materials will do. Now when we finish production of this series we will go into a large number of elementary schools here in the Washington area. Most of our testing so far however has been conducted by bringing children into the studio in a rather abnormal situation obviously. But we have learned a great deal from having the students available in the studio give and take with them after the lesson as well as having them go through making their responses to the program as it appears before them having a pretest
given to them before the lesson. And then they post test after the lesson. So when we have given students 10 or 20 or 30 children one of these lessons we have as a basis for revising the lesson their comments on the lesson their pretest performance as compared to their post test their post test as compared to their pretest performance and the responses they make on the work sheet which you have I believe all been given if you had if you don't have a worksheet we do have a few more Mr. Guy from WTI has a few more and you can hand those out but we just have a five or six more so I'm afraid not all of you are going to. Yeah I worksheet. Now the objective here the long range objective is as I say to be
able to say to the user the school system the teacher these materials are set and set out to teach these things and they do teach these things to this extent so the teacher is not filling in the gaps is not making up for things in the lesson that haven't been done well. We will I believe be able to identify what we have done well and will be able to proceed with a certain amount of guarantee to the teacher that this you can assume will be talk by these lessons and then you can go on from there so that we are building. We are conceiving of this as a segment of a larger instructional system. Which the teacher can use with more confidence I won't say with absolute confidence I certainly would be foolish to make such a statement but can use
with more confidence then he or she has ever used instructional materials before. This is our objective and we obviously haven't achieved that yet. But I still maintain that this is the direction in which the field of instructional materials is moving and we hope that we're making some small contribution to getting further in that direction. Now we've got we're ready to look at a short segment at once. Yes if there are some seats up there if you go if you're in the back if you just come forward or you know some here and there must be a dozen or so right here. Just one comment or a couple of remarks about a riff based on
remarks that children have made we do not have in this series a teacher on the screen it is a audio is an audio visual presentation. We are using videotape because we can see what we've done. Immediately we don't have to send anything out to be processed as we would a film we can see it on camera immediately we can revise it. Occasionally we've had feedback from children immediately on developing a lesson or even from the crew occasionally. Tell us what about looking at it this way and it does happen to some time to come out to be a better way of doing it. The two comics I want to pass on to you that children have made is one youngster said and asked in response to a question how does this differ from the television that you get in school and he is a child in this class was it were class it received all in almost every day. I said Well usually in in class we do have questions in the in school not television pros we have questions asked but not as many and we're
not given enough time to answer the questions. In many cases we're asking them to write question and write the answers in some cases it's a spoken response in some cases it's just a thought response but the children tell us that usually they're not given enough time in the regular instructional television lessons. Another comment was Well there isn't a teacher on this screen and that is kind of good because mostly in school it's the teacher telling us about what we're supposed to learn whereas here we're looking at what we're supposed to learn. And a final comment. One child insisted that of course there was a teacher and he'd been seeing a teacher all the while and this was a very personal kind of relationship that he developed and he'd never seen the face but he was going to volunteer to tell me what the teacher looked like. Let's take a look at a few minutes of the film please. And when they learn about
something they want all the world around me on the program and in my you know you're in you're going to live in Lebanon and born in England mean you're in America. The war on terror the war and all the young women. Then on that number you're right they're not or they're going to run down. I move on. Where in Gardner.
More and more. I want to know when you learn on your own. Yeah. Morning are you in my room and the number in the New World. Here they're going the mean anything in your underrated movie where even you believe that I really like you. But I learned it means nothing to him and we are now on form. More color any more than in my opinion on the war in Iraq when
you really didn't get more than me. Couric and burning and blowing in the baton on our way. NOT mean I'm going one way or we will not be waiting. You mean Lord Lytton you know there are you know they're going to leave you and the environment into one room covered in the leg. We're all dead. You are not really willing and nor am I going to bury him on. The moon where you don't
need any more work than an inflated that are merely a medium for what I've written and written. Yes the model and it will be long and women can call them when they're around him in the bed or even on a good night. I don't want one of them or a lot of them more and more by my leg or
in the Machiavellian warm there when Bloomberg out there who believe the motley of the on their own. All of them look. Bad on me and even more often by when you get Martin to come along for the morrow. How many here do you know are related. You mean that every given by either of them in an article or other then we've been there a moment. Arguably you know. Yeah. And. How.
Many more. Are there and in the warm room there there an Indian or 190 million and in New Orleans anywhere Bartlett on the NE. Well I for one. Learned there the lady in the hood and he's gone down anywhere you know I'm ready to let him go that way you know I'm down in the middle. About a million in one were in the area they were in the government. Organize them back will you. You're good.
In your mind and your home your band will be in the way probably on your own you will be back in court in May and bear in mind that you are even dumber and nothing more. Back. Here is the one that I. Really didn't point out obviously you want to ask him. We're back with more on that rather than on what more do know about rugby league. It wouldn't be
one of the later in the tour in the American people and in the Lord all of them back. When they didn't go back in there back to one another. In the interim the early family and weather will be in the United there in Iran. That will be at me I'm gone. Well I think the more you listen I know about the form of government and only the back. And get in there are in their own room. Let him deal
with you all there or in Him. Will the thought it now but what we did with this apartment house population there I guess you know. What we. Yeah you know you are on the ball in this apartment. Or you know very little. We let go. And they come up with a number of live water board workers that they're working you can be amended by going about the number of male and female and you're an adult and the rest of the left
try to leave or figure out some population with their population that there you know it may get quite a bit with the park but then the job is you know are we looking at a film of a school and various. He threw the cafeteria workers the most noted of their office workers and the five telling the children this will get them to come up with these cattle. Then we move in here trying to get them to think about their own school and the developing categories within their home school population that have not been shown to them in any of these other populations that we look at and you know to get their first lesson here. Yet again every night I heard that they were going to look at a population they don't just simply look at the
same categories and eat and eat every part of my you know future life. Moving on you know where we share the popular population of Australian average. You really bring a crowd with them are probably a book that we are trying to get them to discover and they're set up so for them to do this at that point that you know if we're going to why there are very few some ocular in the kind that you run through you know Mark. The fight is a matter of fact when we get into the sub population of boy workers you know my government these guys are changing jobs all the time and his friends. Why do these people have done the same guy day after day all their life long and their sons and daughters do exactly the same job and the jobs are very limited in number and it's really limited in scale so that we have a basis of law and then look at the way in which we do
like a part of it you know around their environment and technology that you are getting with a very good technology and there are very few water parks for people and then one of the objectives of a future life together. If you had read many uses of water we American in our desire to see this rather dramatic her we the people they are anti primitive people who are simply using water to wash away and I don't know why. You recreate it. Well you know you like Mark. GUY Yeah we're I mean we got a lot mostly there
right. So we're we're trying to deal with the less rough your brain will respond more readily to one of our way of doing this right here and I think a lot of and you can all her who are going to learn an awful lot about how we're going over here. You become pretty critical if you hear the trial. You know something about form your level. You're going to. Post your words and then you know behaving or you're high and you can you can begin to make some I think pretty good. Yes. What you need to do to sustain is that when we were doing more making Guess what we're basing it I think like where they were
usually. Right. Right. Well to me that group of any any any medium that can be filed wired that way. It is really hard to say is that by not growing with his new thought and being here and find the wrong or right right is really curious. For most of these right. So I think it was my brother Roy the really dark yellow yellow every now obviously how
you program you know point your way or the hole in thought. We didn't know we had that technique and that pretty much dictated by the part of the work. But really I didn't make it you know further or to say something about I know what. It is that I think we are moving in the area of darkroom work day where we are going through. Validation to get you well along with that they have been killed and we have a long way to go. More there's more to the program but we are making a start there I think it's going to do you know the rest of you. You know Ariel and I did and you know that we are you
murdered my you want to be able Rover you report of these obviously they respond to talk with you right here. I've not had that we have not had but 25 percent have in some degree. Now we want to get them really valid evidence that they happen and get them. After all that I need here and you look at the basis for using their bases I think I have in favor or not or how they look back if I have thought somebody's song. I'm sorry I have cut right off right there lave that you know that maybe as we go through there is that some of these questions will be answered because I have a suspicion that all of us in certain ways are going to be saying the same thing perhaps but in kind of different fashion.
Karen thank you so thank you very much I'm sorry you have to run I know there are a lot of people would like to start talking here they want to hear it. Oh I say All right well our next speaker then who is almost often running already is Dr. George L. robber who is associate program director for training and education at the American Institute for Research in Pittsburgh. He's going to talk to us on the program in visual presentations for use in science instruction. I discovered. That while I only agree with him 100 percent only on the need for validation would like to amend the position in that as stark and become more of a technology in my car.
Miles you really should decrease though that the more we know about things more you know what will be in life might do for proof of it. For. A moment you know the thing should revive one of them. They did nothing but what we. Believe in the. News. Oh say can we hear you now. But I wholeheartedly agree with me. Well that's no problem. But I'd like to talk about the drive that I've been doing on the years the visual you television as the media. I think my results are really.
What the whole land rush. Toward a single concept I think their way out of all the other stuff other than. Let's. Call it what some of the result of research by the way go right out. On every level of the day that I would love with you people that try to present my my ideas which may be new video I'm going to try to ask you to go out and buy some things. I'm going to do. Some of the magic. We have a platform here that I've put this out there in the front lines of voting I should say by one. Or. The other that this way by. A lot.
Supposing then I think another of that. That was a this was a this outbreak and this is the way that you know the problem here and it's over and placed it on the. Rocks. What will the platform but will the scale and the child may have read it for a while. One would be why I would be less than with out. And out. With. The right. When I hear you would have for a child to say we're not looking at the history card from Korea life with or without putting the word what it was to learn. What might what might say he would have put what he had just
learned the concept the principal learned the world. One. Thing and you know that's right which way the block in my face something like that. Well OK so you say that he lived here for a year and yet could although I'm not sure Michel my eighth grade. OK let's go on from that now supposing I tell I tell the children I want me on that one. One Supposing you were in the way how. Five.
And then I have imagined that I have a checkerboard with a lot of me on the table here and I was following this one. I say OK all these these five blocks away five pounds and I got them on the table this way on the checker board this way and. £1 for one pound for a five. This is where one to this is where when how did this where when how did this where and when out of the square. Supposing one of them. Came out of five now the five. Five with 2005 this is where two halves of the square one. However this is where Or finally all five pounds are five to this ones where you could give them problems and they say how how how can I rearrange the effects that that will be so many pounds on each square. Now if you were if you were fourth and verbalize what had just gone. What might what my child verbalize what with the concept.
By. Well the what this is what we're trying to illustrate was that the same force can be redistributed to different areas. Now. Just just go along with that. Well again I think we have right here and live block away whatever. How about this right here live in this paper does there. Supposing I then give another example. They all have. This is a different side. And. I don't want to pay for the care which way should I put the block this way for this guy right there. They'll stay. This way. They don't want to care. And you can go on and do this kind of object this kind of I don't care which way
this way or this way and they are not going to say that's what I want. Concept they learned here. Was that something like OK something like that. Now I might say in hindsight that it would've been quite useful in teaching that kind of thing that it was a case of learn rather than rather than area with hindsight by what I had done this by you and. Show that the same boat not his area that was hyped up. OK well those are the I didn't dream these things up just to show you these are part of a lesson that I know your theory does. That. For us. Pressure especially what the lesson did was teach a lot of distinctions that are involved in the not in the United hears about or slam pressure. I have subsequently
used the same sort of technique. Now with that of leavers of Bernoulli's principle Archimedes law. There was tension there was that high which essential distinctions. That are involved in that are. Are demonstrated in this way. For example take the case of. Earth. We laughed again for a laugh but where. Perfectly alive. Number one would. Go. Well he essential this nation in these visual terms we. Work for example. Worth. While worth one star most of all
I think you are there and he writes. Well just like the US now live the moment the VAB Scituate But the AP is a case of something other than just yes or no. Well maybe I can think of a little later. Well OK so Amber and all of us by. Now Tauriel response there were no there was no verbal response yet. Yet. Now I can see this kind of response quite different from what you are on the program. Programs. Like drill there. I was like back just not like really deliver program and it was a point that what doesn't look like a program be a program but also like the point that what often looks like
programs. I think that question I'd like to point out that I think the whole program. Uses is responding very fast the way a lot of social our. Program. About. This business about having a set with a blank bill that will affect more than a program more than filling a blank or. By A. Program. That might be for example there. Nice try and all three of the psychologists all in one case I was told that were doing this thing we all. Know.
We live in an opera. Also. How many you have yet to respond. All members of your class. For example or. For. Fun. Robert law was in the palace. All these the child by all the and within his room in a tweet last generalization within the last oh. Mom. By. Proxy. Are involved in all their programs that way there is still a day of this for him in a general way longer. But I think the whole program. Right. Well. Don't just write a program by
by making up for a word not. Program. Program not a technical kind of thing. Line shaves a certain time here for the way of. Course. Now the kind of lesson the kinds of things that I was always very nice to get a dev demonstrations were designed he says very generalisations that are involved in the concepts of force and pressure. Now some of the ideas that that lady Hine behind this kind of work as a here's the stuff that I've written that I made on the web. All you have to have one with an R O. While we're here you are in a film which I may have learned from visual I had just written this up with some new ideas and I've been trying to get his you are and make sure
that shortly. And I'd like to do is to give you some of the results. Or is there a switch. I shall let you know if I'm writing I'm So I think I'm going late. Well there is one experiment but I did it with program far less visual terms much like what you saw on our last and. Final such demonstration the way women are waiting there. Why. Not blow away the result of our life and the life out of the holder of the boy. For others it was all programmed this very same way that let it happen and children respond. So. Now. There are a lot of what predicting what the right now.
Now there was also a verbal lesson covering. That. Serial some of the results are. We have a. Human has the joy of the program. For life. And for. Some of the result is due with the verbal. And the verbal program just a verbal program. OK so your every program they were made and I learned the lesson and the verbal. Not were not so good at making the connection for a lesson and. Now the other way only last
Friday did well on her of a life or on visualize someone. Out by the slight explanation this little. Boy. How many interact how good is that you know how you rebel and the other we're. Rather further. Finally we also got both visual and glass but in different orders wondrous saw the visual left earth followed by our visual left very little worth while. All right we need to get out of this hole visualize them all.
Then Roma last sack Lang Lang made. Another video for less for a while now. Results here indicate that the visual verbal war there is right. Here right. My thought seems to be that we have all the world left. Earth. Had all these robots Association which enabled them to make the action we will as I saw and broke. The rules of play and I
like all of them. Oh well the other group they got the girl the cereal for us. Then the cereal not have the visual was by visual association of the verb in the serial which might carry. And I think process from the verbal visual was when I would not have visualize all over. My in a raw visual verbal order of presentation was preferable. OK one other. Line. That. You respond. I mean the visual reason they drive. Profitable to just have your number and I'll know that you live with a group that that made predictions based on oil options that are.
Merely watch on my own no give me a second to just laugh. There was another study that got the same kind of thing that was that matter. Visual sighting verbal each segment of. Our. Time. Well what I would like to do now is I just wrap up by saying how recommending the way I think presentations are the I think they are the program visual demonstration. Why are the kind of hungry serials that I just drive. With with your actions that this is then followed by the brutal lessons covering the more technical language. They are ideas that will. Further up the.
Active response. Now I think there's one other in addition to the subs. Finally I think there's one one further implication kind of thing that I think that is right about the role that life is rough and we are learning theory. I think there's much to learn from this example. And. There are various role visuals human responses or forcing responses or serving as examples of the germination. People are very about wearing crocs. Without a letter. I think also the practitioners know much. More than it is that. Very little about more than one show
or one case of knowing what you ought to have. Oh yeah play rock. I think that the practitioner here find out what role are set. I see a relay here used here and these and I was right. So are you for life. Well for example for the right you just get. There. Now take something like life where we're Thank you. He is the rational part of a number of very that's a very abstract thing. There are a number alive as
he gets the idea across. There are a number of things. Do I think I've been watching for that crack I think a lot of that stuff. Is there. Well I think there are two different faces the way you want to use the subject. They're also visual meaning they're instrumental in helping you get other. I hear there. For example the idea populate that that's the idea of a population of the very right thing you can use for things. Thanks a lot. Several years ago. When I. Read your source struck some
learning that from that center. Dr. Carter talked about by his truck. Oh there's. Your father right. For a recent issue in the Saturday Review You probably saw a B.F. Skinner wrote an article entitled Why teachers fail posing the problem in this form is in itself I think somewhat novel. Generally when a student fails to learn the reasons are attributed to the student whose inadequate intelligence lack of motivation or lack of interest in the subject matter provide convenient rationales for performance to fall short of the teacher's standards. If the teacher is a man of gentle persuasion he may grade on the
curve as a result he may pass a student who correctly answered some unspecified half of the questions. If he is instead a man with high expectations he may impose an absolute standard even though as a result most of his students will fail. In either case it is the student who is judged and the student who failed. Unless he is held totally responsible for his home own learning however the student's performance must be interpreted not only as a measure of him but of his teacher as well. Suppose during a ball game is the third baseman is assaulted by a wild throw from the outfield. The official scorer is required to assign the era to the man who made the throw. But if a fumble occurs in the education game it's almost always the catcher or the student who is charged with the error and who suffers the aversive consequences. I said almost always and this is true because a new attitude can be found among some educators especially those involved in program construction. The programmer or the teacher who produces instructional materials in the programming framework differs from the traditional teacher in that
he assumes responsibility for student failure. The educational goal is spelled out in Criterion test the teacher programmer's job is to produce and revise instructional materials until the student can perform competently on these tests. I think that it's really the shift in this locus of responsibility for student learning that is the central defining characteristic of program instruction rather than things about which may be helpful are not small steps active response and so forth. But these are really simply means to the end of producing validated instructional material. Once the stick once the teacher has assumed responsibility for the student's learning he can no longer measure his success by the depth of his knowledge. The originality of this presentation the stylistic stylistic excellence of his lectures or even the aesthetic quality of his visual aids he accept as the ultimate criterion the production of behavioral change in his students. At the Center for Research and learning and teaching your chops and programmed instruction are offered to university faculty several times during the year and these workshops are precisely that.
The significant preponderance of the participants time is spent working on the specification of objectives in the form of criterion test and the development of short program units in this process center staff function initially as interrogators asking what do you want the student to be able to do. How would you know if he has met your objective. Why is it important that the specified behavioral changes be brought about in the process of this third degree. Not infrequently a teacher will reconsider his goals or redefine his criteria. He may even reject as trivial or irrelevant instructional goals that he previously considered important. All this occurs before any instructional materials are even drafted. One criterion of teaching frames have been written in a preliminary form. Students are brought in to pay for the test a short instructional units these units are revised to the basis of student performance performance and suggestions. Teachers go back to work correcting the errors they now consider their own. Some of the participants go on to develop instructional units for their classes. Others do not.
But if we can accept the validity of faculty evaluations in the workshops the effects of their efforts reverberate in their teaching as a whole. Our objectives in these workshops are really not to turn out a group of program authors. Rather we see the process I have recounted as applicable to all his structural developments. What relevance is programming for television. Dr Skinner in a 1961 article stated quite specifically that the use of films and television does not constitute a new method but is merely a way to amplify and expand old methods together with their shortcomings. Yet can't these media have something more than that work during the last few years. I think it's provided tangible proof that the programming approach need not be alien to any medium. Objectives may be defined in the form of criterion task instructional materials developed and validated for film slide presentation and even TV. The program for television may be as responsive to faculty and students feedback as is the author of a program tech. I'd like to do today is to present a case study of the production of one
program videotape as an example of precisely this process on the project Ray Okamoto from the school of nursing with the teacher programmer and I was a programming himself. Although we were both novices in television many stands then there are undoubtedly points of which we might have been more successful. I think what we followed as a kind of procedure that may be applicable to a wide variety of structural problems. I passed out a flow chart which I guess didn't flow through the full audience because there weren't enough copies. But at any rate this shows the steps taken in development of the instructional material the chart has two functions. First to represent clearly the developmental procedure the second to indicate the contributions of faculty and students in the development of the final product. If you don't have a flow chart we want to teach the girls to teach to give shots and not kill the patient in the process and we succeeded at that so that some sort of at any rate the project really began long before the development of the instructional materials. The faculty of the School of Nursing had been engaged for several months in the specification of instructional outcomes from the
baccalaureate program as an initial step in curriculum revision. Sender staff had been serving as consultants assisting faculty in this effort. We could foresee instructional as well as criterial problems primarily bridging the gap between classroom teaching and professional practice and this is a common one in the professional schools with whom we work. When we did arrive at interview objectives for the first course it turned out that they pertain either to actions in the clinical setting or at least to behaviors that would be regarded as prerequisite to later clinical courses. Faculty from all the courses were engaged in the first and second steps in the project defining the objectives and identifying specific problem areas. Instructional outcomes for the first course were selected for the importance in the eventual requirements of the practicing nurse clinical facts faculty identified what they thought were problem areas. This meant pretty much that the students who enter the clinical courses were less than adequate in certain defined respect from the several identify problem areas. One the preparation administration of medications was selected for the development of
instructional material. Pretty obvious why this would be important. The girls would have to be administering medications in the hospital a soft mors and the cost of an error is quite obviously high. And at the present time also faculty were presently involved in tremendous amount of repetitive teaching of material to small groups of students. They repeat over and over again with the syringe. You know this is how you do it and I guess it was a dreadful bore. Once a problem area was selected we worked with the faculty of the Sophomore class in defining and redefining the objectives. Actually two instructor units were produced in the first unit. Basic requirements common to the administration of medication by any route were taught in the second preparation administration accept detainees injections developmental procedure was highly similar for the two tapes for the sake of simplicity I'll talk only about that word for the septic a nice injection to start off with we had to have the 10 faculty members agree upon the characteristics of.
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1965 National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention
Inst. Division Session: The Application of Principles of Programmed Inst. To TV Inst.
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Public Affairs
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University of Maryland
Identifier: 5504 (University of Maryland)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:30:00?
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Chicago: “1965 National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; Inst. Division Session: The Application of Principles of Programmed Inst. To TV Inst. ,” 1965-11-02, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 27, 2024,
MLA: “1965 National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; Inst. Division Session: The Application of Principles of Programmed Inst. To TV Inst. .” 1965-11-02. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 27, 2024. <>.
APA: 1965 National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention; Inst. Division Session: The Application of Principles of Programmed Inst. To TV Inst. . Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from