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     National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Engineering
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Can you hear me further back there. Not we apparently don't have a public address system here today although it was thought that there might be one. However we have the amplifier. Well there's a slight thing missing and I don't know if somebody has a souvenir or not. Let's see where the 40th National Convention. The program. Was billed as a standard for television equipment. I have a feeling from talking with a few people that perhaps there might have been some. Misconceptions of what we were actually going to discuss today. So I'm kind of curious as to what the background of our audience is to do that we just have a little raising of hands as to those who are from TV stations. All right and those who are from closed circuit television facilities.
All right then I guess we didn't get it wrong then. And also within the group who are classed as administrative. OK and production personnel. And engineering. Well. Again we didn't guess wrong I guess. Now our panel today sort of fluctuated around a bit as they always do at conventions of this nature. But we feel that we have a very good panel that we have ended up with here and it conforms basically to the format. I'd like to just introduce your recorder who is Dr. Bernard Cooper who is the chief of the Bureau of mass communications and for the New York State Department of Education. Right over here. Mr. William Kessler who is an engineering consultant primarily from Florida.
I wasn't sure if I am. Mr. William. Mr. Noyes will it get it correct here. The chief engineer for. Radio television and film department at the University of Texas and some of you had a tour of there yesterday of the very fine facilities. Mr. Willis I am. I am and William Lewis who is the chief engineer of the University of Colorado television facilities at Boulder Colorado. We are going to discuss. As you noticed in the program four major categories are going to cover these four major categories that of low cost video tape recorders. A con an image or three con cameras facilities planning and technical standards and interconnection of
facilities. And the way we're going to go about it today is we're going to have a few short presentations and then open discussion or conduct the rest of it on a question and answer basis because I'm sure many of you probably have questions if we again anticipated correctly. We will start out today with Mr. Kessler who is going to speak with. Who's going to speak about facilities planning. Yes. Thank you Bill. As your chairman has pointed out he has asked me to make a few remarks on systems facility planning. I think I will limit some 10 minutes or so it is pretty you know fine well we'll do what we can in 10 minutes. I think it's rather unnecessary to point out that this is going to be a very brief sketch touching the very highest of the highlights in this
connection. But we hope that some of the comments that will be made will be useful. To those particularly those groups who are getting into the use of television for instructional purposes for the first time and from scratch. Those of you who are in television have been in television for quite some time probably are well aware of most of the points I may touch on. Beginning from scratch I think it's my feeling that one of the first things the educator should do is to first establish his instructional TV goals. He must decide whether it's going to be a closed circuit operation exclusively. A broadcast operation are both. And whether it's sources of programming will be exclusively live production. Heaven forbid most plans these days. The use of net tapes or other tape resources. Film resources net cetera. Secondly he must establish his financial resources. Determine how much. Funding is available at the local level.
And the funds available at the state level. And in general the sum of these two will in general determine. The federal matching funds available that may be available to him. After these two phases have been completed it's of course obviously necessary to reconcile the first two. And herein lies the big problem of course. Trying to match the available funds. To the objectives that one is trying to resist achieve in terms of equipment facilities and personnel facilities and I might add that in discussing systems facilities they were thinking largely of the physical facilities in terms of the electronic equipment required rather than production facilities and talent and other and other requirements. I think as a third step one of the most important things that might be done. Is to do a little traveling around. This it is many of the successful shops. Plants as possible in order to ask a lot of leading questions as to what
problems they have experienced what problems they are experiencing and in general ask one keep question which I think is very illuminating and that is would you do it the same way if you had to do all over again. I think these things will reveal many things which will probably aid. You in some effective planning. As a next step I think. I would suggest that you hire your chief engineer as soon as possible. So that he will become a part. Of the system facilities and he will eventually have to live with. He will be very useful to you since you will be close by and will act as an essential communications link. Between the educator or. The consulting engineer or the various equipment suppliers. As I say this will be of considerable value once the facility is and he will feel that you had some part in laying it out and there is every reason to believe that you will find much less wrong with it once it gets into operation
or at least they'll probably work harder to make it work because it'll be a little more of his many of his ideas undoubtedly will be fused into this thing. I would also suggest that during this preliminary planning stage that you put as much as possible down on paper. Only when you begin to put things down on paper can you reveal isolate or locate some of the fuzzy or foggy areas in which the planning has been somewhat incomplete. This of course leads to the preparation of specifications. And preparations of performance level requirements and a feature that you will need in the equipment that you plan to purchase. And as a next step by no means deal with any one particular supplier vendor. Try to deal with them all. You learn a great deal this way you are giving yourself a break. And I think you're getting all the other suppliers a break and if you. As a planner or as an educator ministry or so on are for example your engineer may have any specific thoughts as to the
type or brand of equipment that he would like. I think by no means should this be reflected in the written requirements on the specifications. Under the circumstances this would in some measure defeat the purpose of the specifications because once a vendor know what you want knows what you want and feel sure want to make decisions on that basis. I think he's less likely to sharpen up his pencil to give you the best possible price. So this is something that you probably should keep in the back of your head as much as possible. During the purchase of equipment I think there is one very important point that should be constantly kept in mind and that is this not necessarily what you pay that determines what you get. It's a matter of fact we the engineering profession make use of the very important. Criteria in establishing the performance of a transmission system and that is for example the signal to noise ratio for example is not how much signal you have it's important or how much interference you have which tend to chop the signal up. And reduce intelligibility complain
thereof. But the ratio of signal as compared to noise. This to us is a very important criteria. I think we have an economic analogue of this which is the value received per unit dollar expended. And I think this should be one of your major guides and determining how the money will be spent. Of course we're going to have some discussion this morning it's get into a little more detail on the choice of. Cameras image or what the con cameras vs. but it caught on camera. For example the choice of quadruplex tape machines vs. He local scam. As a matter of fact I would not want at this point to make any kind of recommendations along these lines each of these devices has some unique features which are very useful. You know me should for example a very con camera be considered a general substitute for an image or three count camera or vice versa. Neither should a
quadruplex machine considered a complete substitute for the Unical scan machine. Each of these machines for example have some virtues which may be less apparent in particular installations in particular uses to which it may be put. So in a general sense no broad conclusions can be made in this particular area. I think my last point I think I'm running out of time. I think the last point that I would like to make is if you're going into educational television for instructional purposes you're going to be spending a great deal of money for equipment. It is hoped that you will get good equipment. I would urge you not to make the mistake that's been made in many plants and it is not skimping on the engineering personnel to maintain and care in previous equipment I don't think any piece of equipment is any better. Than the people. Who are charged with the responsibility of operating you and me. In short I'm simply saying that the people you have to
maintain and operate this equipment is and many it is much more important than a brand name stamped on a piece of equipment. Well that concludes the main points I have to make. Did you wish can we open a questionnaire you will later. Thank you thank you very much. Me. Thank you very much Mr. Kessler. We'll now. Discuss our hear discussed rather the subject of advantages and disadvantages. Benteke Khan vs.. And this will be done by Mr Willet. Most customers say there is no universal device that will do all things. And what I would like to do is to give just a few ideas of the performance that could be expected from the two different types of cameras. As we all know there are two basic systems for image conversion that are now in use. The use of the
image or the con in the Vatican. Historically the majority con is the older of the two developed. Not too long after the icon of skulls and your icon is a very highly sensitive it can make a very excellent picture with very little light. Its resolution is good linearity is actually a time it has a high signal noise ratio. On the negative side the tube has a rather short life. This is generally in the neighborhood of about a thousand hours. It's rather expensive and is subject to image retention if it's less focused on an object for a long period of time. This camera has long been the choice of the network in the commercial user for pick ups it's a very versatile thing and can be used under many many different circumstances. The better con is a far less sensitive device and much less than the image of the car but it does have excellent linearity of its grayscale. And have good resolution and with proper lighting the noise figures are quite good. It's
not particularly sensitive to any of the image retention problems with the image off economy as. To cost it run too low and the life is extremely long in fact it's not at all uncommon to see a bit of con is running 20 25000 hours actually and don't change service where it just runs today and. The Vatican is the universal choice for film news as highlight level is available. And it time slide rather material may be left focused on the face of the two for quite long periods. This type of camera is a logical choice for any one attended or any surveillance type of operation or that this type of application is very suitable for this because of its lack of retention you could leave this camera focused on a scene by some time without the image retention problem and also even if you do have low light level on this there is little camera motion on it and usually in this type of operation will have some degradation of picture quality can easily be accommodated. When it's used as a studio camera the video con results
depend to a large extent on the operator with reduced light Vidocq on increases its noise up and become subject to smear with motion. The depth of focus of course depends upon the lens Iris opening. Many times this is compromise in an effort to obtain better noise and smear characteristics. In general if the user understands that the pickup area for Medicare is going to be limited the lighting level is going to be very high and motion should be restricted. Even a con can give a very accurate result. There's been some recent developments in these areas of the image of the Khan and the Pentagon which point to some rather interesting things for the future. Image I think there have been some feel match types introduced this greatly improved the greyscale particularly the greyscale NE area. This becomes something that has a very flat gray scale now compared to what it used to. It greatly improves image focus you can focus damage much more sharply than you could in the
past that seeing imperfections within the tube itself. And there have been some improvements in life expectancy of their majority and if you're at the con end of life is normally due to deterioration of one element and last element called a target and end of life on this has been changed considerably by changing the type of glass it's in use there is a tube demonstration downstairs one of the as a new and different name to it. They're suggesting that they can get a life expectancy is three and four times a normal life with this too. There have been other tubes introduced in the past so they have been on the market for several years with the magnesium oxide target which is a long life to you that is very subject to knowledge is the one that's on demonstration down here now. Manufacturer claims the noise level to be comparable with a standard target types so as the improvements come about in the US perhaps damage was done to you and less and less expensive to operate.
Newer designs of the tube utilize a four and a half inch target as compared to the 3 inch target in the older two. This increases the signal noise ratio quite considerably. Four and a half inch tubes with Stephen standard target structures have a longer life expectancy than do the 3 inch too. There is a little more cost to you but with a longer life expectancy the cost per hour in many cases is the same or even slightly less. Using four and a half inch to three inch. I guess it would be fair to say that the newer four and a half range camera designs are on the market now represent probably the highest order of television camera and television picture perfection that has yet been achieved. The Vatican too is also growing up in size. There are some 1 1 1/2 inch target area of Medicare now on the market compared to the 1 inch tubes that are the traditional size. The increase in size and this
reduces the noise level from it and does increase the sensitivity of this to the adverse characteristics of lighting problems become reduced when you get into the higher output from it. Some experimentation has been done also in this type of to using different types of target material I'm sure you probably have heard the word public on. The public on tube is a dead account with a lead oxide targeted. This has a very great deal of promise as far as the development of a tube that has much much higher sensitivity. Nothing has been so far as I know is trying to combine all of these features don't want to have Fanchon sensitivity and so forth all into one too but I'm sure in present state the lead oxide type target Q was a tube similar in nature to the plumbing to have seemingly had some problems with life expectancy the life
expectancy of these tubes is reduced considerably and the noise level has been increased. But I'm sure that as more and more research is developed the better types of tubes will be developed for both of these characters. I suppose you might say that in picking cameras one must look at the application for which the camera uses going to the end purpose. The results that you intend to obtain and be guided by this more than anything else as to what type of camera would be the best for any individual installation. I mean. If you sank that the image or the con and fit a con decision has been a problem over the past few years it is nothing compared with that of the so-called low cost video tape recorder. Scandal problem whatever you want to call it. Which now exists. If we can consider
that $12000 represents a low cost. There are now a number of low cost video tape recorders on the market. There has been quite a problem in determining. Which one. If any. Is going to be the standard for the future. If we can predict exact or if we can do a little bit of history making here. If we go back 10 years which isn't a terribly long time. You can say that as far as cameras are concerned the standard was the image or the con and if you thought of anything like that a con or other. Of this nature you just well you actually just didn't think of it. If we can apply a similar reasoning to. Video tape recorders we have the basic. Quadruplex or quadruplex. However it is finally decided upon in standards.
As as the basic machine for the last few years. However for educational use and in particular non broadcast or instructional uses in close circuit facilities as we're talking about here. This machine represents. As much of an investment as maybe your entire system has in order to buy it in the first place. So and in many cases it's maybe three times as much as you have to spend for your entire system. So consequently what. What do we do as educators in selecting other low price machines. While there are going to be other units coming out in the near future also. However to help us try and decide now what we need to do. Mr. Lewis made a series of tests a few months ago. Which has in turn been published by his university and I would like him at this time to describe what those
tests were. And. What the results were and how we went about them as sort of guidelines as to what you might also like to do with your looks. I might add that the court is not wished by the university but by the State Committee. A little legal policy matter for the university. I feel every time I talk about the illegal scan records that I have a time bomb or a hand grenade with the pin pulled in one hand you can seems to be a very very hot issue. In February of this year. Our ATV Committee. For. Which is an organization set up by the institutions of higher education in the state of Colorado was asking the question what do we do about the fact that really about the only similarity. Between the scan machines is that they all plug into a
wall outlet. What can we look to and what will these machines do. We decided that. The best thing to do is to get a hold of these machines and compare them. Put them side by side on a table and see. What they would do. In February we asked the manufacturers of the helical scan machines Ampex PRK. De age and Sony to provide us with a machine on the basis that we would keep that machine for a week. They would bring it into our shop set it up. Cause the machine to operate to their satisfaction. And go away. And let us do any event of our curative maintenance on a machine that came up during a weeks operation and they wanted to essentially let us do anything within reason to the machine. Three of the four manufacturers accepted was only abstaining from the demonstration. Machines were brought in
and. They were set up. And they left. About the first thing we did was Consider what are we going to do with the information we get through and what do we want to say in a report. Well for the average school administrator you want to know. I get the time to yell at DB Ejaz just tell me what it will do. They could care less really. They must depend upon technical people. Therefore we did not decide to write a complete technical report on the machines which very definitely you could do. And it might be in your own operation that you would want to do this before you would select a machine. We did it really little more than take each machine initially. And prove to ourselves that it indeed did do what the manufacturer claimed that it needed to do. And we stopped there. As far as a technical report goes I have many notes and observations that we made during the week that we had the machine but we did not write
these up in any particular form I'd be happy to discuss them in a later time. Once we determine that the machines will indeed do what the manufacturer said they would do. We. Had an open house we invited all of our own faculty and. We invited people from the public school system so we invited any educator that was interested in the scan machine non-broadcast. These are only non-broadcast machines to come in to look at the machines to operate the machines to comment on the machines to give us any ideas that they have. I also told my people in the studio that the machines were never to stop. They were in the studio and scan machine was just sitting rethread it rewind the tape record anything whatever happens to be on our line in our studio keep the machine running as a result the machines were run some 50 hours and 4 days.
We found that in looking at the practicalities of the machines that each had its pluses and each had its minuses. Taking some small things we found on the PR machine that the shield over the audio head was a definite and chronic problem to a person on technically oriented who had to thread the machine. Consider They missed the audio hidden threading consistently. We found people were frightened by the fact that the machine which we had in February the Ampex machine would not turn itself off on rewind when it came to the end of the tape. It would just take off as a logic circuit which until the take up really stopped the feed reel will not stop. We found a number of. Really small things which we felt could be changed to make the machines better. We've written this up in a report called television tape recorders. And this
report is available. We hope you would send a dollar with a request from the radio and TV department at the University of Colorado. It outlines in detail. The operational aspects of our week with these three machines. In the end. After we got through the report was submitted. To our committee for television that was formed by the institutions of higher education. And they hashed the situation over and decided. We cannot pick a recording standard such as we have in the quadruplex machines there is not. However we have many requests as to what to do therefore we're going to have to make some recommendation. This recommendation for a specification was included in the book. Essentially we have come out in writing with a recommendation that the schools in the state should
by the ethics record. This is not to say that it is even the best. It might really be the worst. We just might be all wet but we had to start someplace. Maybe then 5 years ago I have a bunch of antiquated Ampex recorders around the state. It was based many in many ways on Imperial observation on likes and dislikes of people who operated the machines. This is what we had to do because the manufacturers have forced us into this so we're stuck with it. A lot of what we reported on in our report which came out in April has been improved upon the Ampex machine now as an example a machine in the display as a P E cell which causes the machine to stop and rewind the heads don't run all the time as they did then. The Sony machine has considerably
wider bandwidth and does a lot better job than it did then. It's been updated in modern times. It's easier to get the helical scan machines converted evidently to. Broadcast Standards so to speak. Many things have been updated in this business of the low cost recorder is moving very very rapidly. One thing which we had a great deal of trouble with and which should be checked upon and undoubtedly will hear more about interconnection facilities with the University of Colorado has a bell system interconnection facilities which means Boulder and Denver campus and the bell technicians in a brief period when we used a legal scan machine would not guarantee any satisfactory transmission of the signal from the machine through the equipment. They had trouble with the signal in their clamping amplifiers and so forth. They got around this someway as Mother Bell always seems to do quite adequately. It took some time but they're very leery.
Of this machine. When I put it on my desk. Also of course the 15:00 is being on broadcast and the PR and the Sony. Here Again. Twenty five hundred mega cycles is requiring a broadcast standard. We looked at them we looked at them from a practical standpoint we did look at them from an engineering standpoint this doesn't give you administrator. Administrator so we stayed away from this in a report. I think that this is one of the best ways at this point that you as educators can look at your equipment and look at it and see what do I want to do with it. How do I want to do that and set one. You're given a choice and stay with it. So. I'll let you ask questions of me. I think that's a better way than going through the. Atmosphere. In case some of you didn't get that address and would like to have would you repeat it for the euro.
You're on the radio television department. Your audio visual instruction the University of Colorado in Boulder. I'd like to mention just a couple points there that we will undoubtedly be seeing constant improvement in all of the lines of the locals and machines in the next few months and continuing on from here. The subject of standards. Is rather obvious that there are several of them here is trying to be resolved. It isn't quite sure however that it will ever will be resolved. In fact a very definite question might be asked need it to be resolved. When when you consider the number. Of. Educational systems. Which will be in operation in some way or another with closed circuit. Open circuit
whatever you want to call them facilities in the next 10 years. Maybe we don't need a single standard. Maybe we need several standards one which might be for. Educators another which might be for pharmaceutical houses. Another which might be for any one of a variety of people or a data processing agency and maybe the answer is in this. Instead of having. All machines in one standard way. The subject of broadcast standards came up with these machines. This is a rather interesting area also. Some of these machines even though they are not sold as. Broadcast quality or is the important factor here is the stability of the signal if it meets the FCC specifications and several of these machines even though they aren't sold as broadcast machines actually do if they're maintained at a high
quality level. Meet these specifications now. However you will find that all of these machines now also have a little extra black box or a gray box or or other circuits which you can include in them. To be sure that they meet the standards and this is another important consideration for you to make as you're purchasing your equipment. You will find in the back of the room. When you're leaving a report which is entitled to standards of television transmission. If you need additional copies of this I understand they are available from the and E.B. headquarters at a small nominal charge of $2 I believe anybody can correct me on that and maybe if you write them a really nice letter they might send them for nothing. I don't know however you'll find those in the back of the room. After we have our signals of course an important consideration is the distribution.
This deals with one area of distribution. If we are in a small school system or in a small or a a building for example we may distribute in two ways which you're familiar with that of video which is just the basic television signals as are derived from the cameras. Or we can put these signals on a channel. Less calling it our f by means of what is known as a closed circuit television transmitter. This closed circuit television transmitter sometimes called a audio video mixer. Is nothing more than a low power television transmitter. It doesn't in all stretches of the imagination of course reach the same standards as a large television transmitter but it performs effectively the same. Functions. If we're going over longer distances are. We.
Going outside of buildings we can distribute on short and short distances away by means of cable connections. Or if we're getting into long distance. Distribution like from town to town for example or where it is. Physically unable to put cable between buildings if you have to go across town for example you can go into microwave facilities. This report discusses some of these microwave facilities. There are four general bans or systems of microwaves knowledge available the 2000 mega cycle twenty five hundred mega cycle the 6000 mega cycle in the 12000 next cycle. This report again deals with the. Ones other than the twenty five hundred make a cycle systems. I believe some of you attended some of the other sessions yesterday dealing with the twenty five hundred mega cycle systems they offer some unique advantages for a
small school system complex that might be within 10 miles for example of each other if you were going to distribute from a building out to other building say 10 miles around. By all means look into it. It is not however a cure all and I don't consider it as being such. Otherwise you're in for some sad disappointing results. Also the comment was made about Mother Bell. For some reason we seem to have gotten into an interesting discussion about Bell Telephone and Mother Bell. They shouldn't be overlooked however by any means they have some unique features. Which can be of advantage in your distribution systems. By all means consider the factors of maintenance. Whenever you're comparing prices. Between. Handling your own system
and handling a leased system. This is something by all means to take into consideration. You may or may not find that you would save money by. Going lease or going lease. Compare all of the features. Also I believe Bill mentioned the film and tape interchange possibilities. The low cost video tape recorders again I don't know why we keep calling them low cost. I guess it comes back from our wanting for so many years to get something less than $2000 we now call them low cost. Honestly I wouldn't even call it low cost but we do. Now are we do we have any questions for the panel. Yes as most of the US is the same. Visibilities tell you that. It would force rather to take a number. Question was we want to get this recorded on the tape back here was the real
feasibility study that you have. OK well. That's all right he did get it recorded he says he sing for us. All right another question to begin with that too. Yes. Well I really. HEADLEE where he was living you will feel like you like coming out how reliable are the low cost. Machines and what is the headwear. Problem. Well there are two rely listing reliability first in our case we ran them a week and we ran them and what I would say would be more than normal operation. All of the machines operated well. Well let's take them by name. I may get shot for this but I'll do it.
The Sony machine ran the entire week with only a minor mechanical problem occurring at about forty five hours in the pinch roller assembly on the cab stand of the machine. Because we are almost through our demonstration and the problem is so minor and. The adjustments were more or less major to completely correct and we didn't totally go into a repair on the machine. It ran well for the entire week. The PR I mean. We found to be. Reliable but the least reliable of the three it was found to need. More frequent maintenance. It was found to be among other things the head brushes and the commutator and the head assembly needing more attention than the other machines needed attention as needed.
We also found that in removing circuit boards from the PR machine to make a check or to work on them removing and replacing would change the characteristic evidently to something in the plug on this board difference in pressure in the fingers. It would just follow the machine the Ampex machine or that we had ran the entire week with a par with one problem during the week which was a power supply problem. We lost a transistor in one of the power supplies. It was repaired with a transistor which we already had in stock for some other equipment in the shop. The reason for the breakdown was lack of silicon grease on the transistor to conduct conduct heat into the heat sink. Therefore the transistor overheated it was not actually a breakdown because of design it was a production problem. The machine operated very well.
They were all in a weeks test equally reliable. I believe that should anything definitive be done by any university I think they should be run for six months and just have the pants from off of the standpoint of Head life. I think you have two aspects to fear one is the tape and the other is the head material on the tape recorder manufacturers are doing a pretty fair job as far as Head life on the big machines are concerned the quadrature machines. Therefore it seems to me that. They should be able to come up with material to do a pretty fair job on the illegal scan machines. In talking to the tape manufacturer they're finding that they're going to look again at their tape products in terms of head life the abrasiveness of the tape and so undoubtedly you will see new developments as we are seeing new tape on the market by revamp thanks to memory access. Rather than just the old standard 3M tape this will add to head life. This is something
that's only just going to sit down and run the pants off these hands and find out no one really knows I've heard rumors of 50 hours yet. Frank Jamieson here in the front row from college state college and really has what about 250 hours on your iPod. Not quite 200 OK. So this is you have to accept it and take I believe Dr. Cooper had a comment here with your inference to what's being done in New York. There are going to be. There are 31 the AR 15 hundreds in operation in New York State. We have recently begun to supply to hours schools and. Private institutions at no cost to them. Doubling this from our broadcasts acquisitions to slam track acquisitions which we do in the department for these institutions. We've done about 200 hours of these things and we have been through two types of
tape in the process. Initially we started with the. 388 tape of the manufacturer whose name you know very well and who shall remain nameless for the time being. Our experience with that tape. Are you having trouble hearing Lee. Our experience with the 388 tape. Was a very similar experience we later discovered. In cross-checking with the Southern Connecticut State College. We were averaging about 40 hours ahead. These heads were being replaced by Ampex at no cost. Anthrax developed in the meanwhile of their own four slant track to which we went as rapidly as there was available tape in any kind of quantity. As soon as we were working with them
packs tape we noted a rather interesting kind of difference the Ampex tape seemed to. As one observer put it slide by almost like butter. They seem to be almost no friction. We have yet to wear out the replaced heads that we began to use with the Ampex tape. In the meanwhile and an Ampex sent out a flyer. That now that its tape was available for use on its slant track recorders it would no longer guarantee the life of the fifteen hundred head if used with other than Ampex tape. Again it was very careful not to mention any other manufacturers. And frankly our experience with the tape as a factor in the head wear has now made such a difference that we simply use only Ampex tape in making our slide and track recordings.
We did not and we based a lot of. Our attitude toward the kind of track recorder we would use on two factors. First of all we relied heavily bill on the results of your experience and your report. But in addition we use our own rude judgments on them. Since we knew that we were going heavily into twenty five hundred mega cycles. And since at the time that we initially considered the business of dubbing to slant track recorder we knew that it would be just kind of a spent $9 over the horizon. Before most of our schools would have to be using FCC type excepted slant track recorders. We considered the fifteen hundred as kind of the particular slide track recorder that we would have to remain with. In addition.
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National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention
National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention - Engineering Standards (Reel 1)
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