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     National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention Industrial
    Session Part 2
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If you're Mike. Now I have a very delightful presentation comes to us from contract gets contracts usable approximates and it's given to us by the sales manager for Conrad. Thank you Bill. When an educational broadcaster shoots his arrow in the air he assumes responsibility not the least of which is becoming the expert in the size of the television receiver that should be placed in the classroom. And this opens the whole box called useful approximate. I did some market survey work. When I first joined contract. To determine what kind of receiver or what kind of viewing device was needed in the classroom. And I talked to a number of you and toured the country with the most delightful man that I talked to was a man named Joel Silverman who
worked for Gerald electronics corporation in New York a very difficult market at best. Joe's. Approach was pretty straightforward. I said Joe how many receivers do you think we ought to have in a classroom and he would always answer my questions with one of his own. He'd say what's the budget. And. I'd say all right Joe where do you put him. And he says where the kids can see him. And you would say you know well would you which side would you put the mind he said where the light doesn't hit the screen. And this went on and on and on until we developed. Some useful approximates and by definition a useful approximate is a true fact under limited conditions. The. These are usually subject to friendly interpretation by the man who uses them and he has to kind of understand what you were thinking about when you said them. And we've printed these up and I've got the almanac
in our booth if you stopped by I would be delighted to give you one. But some of the highlights from the Almanac we can discuss to give you a feel for what we're tempting to do. First of all what size screen should you use and obviously you use the biggest one you can get your hands on the projection television systems are ideal if you have control of the light. But if you don't have control of the light you then immediately go to 27 24 23 and you bomb very quickly into the useful approximate of budget. And you. Almost every factor that you can discuss in selection of a screen size. The location the number of students percent at the resolution the brightness the height above the floor and the use of the SAT will always bump into the ceiling a budget and the most
useful specification that I found is about $135 which seems to be the sonic barrier for 23 in screen. So. The useful approximates on. Location. Usually you try to get the receiver up over the teacher's head so she doesn't bang your head on it if it's suspended from the ceiling or you put it on a pedestal it doesn't roll over when you kick it. The number of students percent depends on the use. By use I mean are you going to use the television monitor or receiver to show microscopic slides as well as broadcast signals from the local closed circuit system or from the transmitter. If you're using the receiver to pick up a broadcast. Then usually the director if he has any skill will show big things
and resolution is not too important because you can't really. Use 8 mega cycles or 10 mega cycles when somebody is 20 feet away because how much elite type Can you read from the back of the room. But if you're going to use a microscope slide. Then you use more receivers per room and the student has to get to 5 6 7 feet away from a 23 inch screen to take advantage of everything the television can present. And in this case 10 mega cycles is not enough. So we we go from one side to the other and there's a lot of give and take on the specifications and resolutions. I'd like to show one of the charts. The first slide if you can put it on the wall. Screen size. These are tubes that are used on monitors. And we start with eight inch go to
14 17 21 23 24 and 27. Now if if you're looking at a. The two columns of first column is maximum square and that's if you are going to look at a maximum square on the screen how big could you make it. And you'll notice that on an eight inch monitor you can run a square five and five thirty seconds. And this is where the corners of the square will bump the round curvature of the two. That when you get to a 23 inch receiver and these are the ones that would interest you in the class room that the 14 or the 23 BTP for any 23 inch rectangular. Will take a maximum square of approximately 14 inches because it's a tube that's built as a rectangle. The 24 on the other hand is one inch bigger on the diagonal and it's a round belly too so it will be able to display a square of 15 or three sixteenths and you get a lot of for your money when you go from 23 to
24. And when you go from 24 to 27 you get a lot more for your money. The 24 and 27 inch tubes are kind of bulbous. But if you're looking at a maximum three by four rectangle. If you're displaying type or information reading you'll notice that the 23 and 24 are pretty close together and the 27 takes about the same jump so that you've got to think that what you're trying to display and most of you throw it away in the corners anyway you got a thing called the Safe action area and everybody is talking about 300 lines but you do all your picture work with about one hundred fifty because you're afraid to put anything in the corners knowing that this is pushed off by the lower cost receivers. If I have the next slide some more useful approximates somebody will say how bright Can you make the picture. Well. You'll notice the direct correlation between brightness. And.
Contra detail lines and number lines the left hand column. Are the results that we made kind of subjective of different size monitors with the full 800 line resolution. You'll notice that the 8 inch monitor will turn out about 100 foot Lambert's. With full resolution. And as you increase the size of the picture the light goes down because you're spreading the same energy over a larger area until you get down to 30 foot Lambert's for 21 inch monitor. I hesitate to tell you what you get on a 23 24 27 because a number is not very big. Now the if you turn up the brightness. To get a brighter picture. The spot begins to spread because measuring a spot is like looking at a mountain from the top and trying to figure the diameter. You spread your spot no matter what you do. And as you turn up the brightness the double on an 8 inch monitor you can only resolve five hundred twenty
five scanning lines and we set that as a second point and you notice you can go a little bit up to a 40 45 foot Lambert's out of a 21. If you're willing to sacrifice a little resolution. If we go on to the next size this is the next slide please. This is a little out side of your area as an educational broadcaster but it is of interest if you are considering high resolution. And this is for applications where people are very close to the monitor and they're using the monitor to transmitting data. We kind of build everything and you'll notice that you started five twenty five you go to six seventy five seven twenty nine eight seventy five nine forty five ten twenty nine and twelve twenty five. Now these are selected frequencies. If you think you have trouble with standards in broadcast start off on the industrial market.
The horizontal oscillator runs at the frequency shown. And this is a chart that's constructed using a 20 mega cycle band within the video amplifier. Now you'll notice the middle column the bandwidth required to provide equal horizontal and vertical resolution. And this is a kind of an EIA. Definition that if you're going to have 600 scanning lines you want to have 600 tickets going the other way in a square so that the test pattern is round and the resolution ought to be the same vertically and horizontally. The aspect ratio of the monitor or receiver will give you more vertical lines across the screen. But that's not fair to measure it that way. It's kind of like measuring brake horse power and other horse power. So. If you want to get equal resolution in both directions you only need six and a half mega cycles on a 525 line system. And you notice in the last column even though you have 20 mega cycles a band with the most vertical
lines you get would be limited to eight hundred to a thousand because the spot on the picture tube itself is your limiting factor. And these Remember all useful approximates because any one of you who has a microscope can prove me wrong under certain circumstances. But I'm right once every once in awhile. As you increase your. Horizontal line rate to 875. You would need a 16 mega cycle band with approximately. But the spot size is still limited to a thousand lines and you're exceeding your requirement for bandwidth at nine forty five lines. You would need a 22 mega cycle video band with in order to have nine forty five lines in both directions. But if you had a 20 mega cycle amplifier you would only be able to see 850 and so on for the rest of the chart. These kinds of things get asked us from time to time and there in this little
Almanac. And I think I'll quit at this point while I'm ahead because I don't want anybody ask me any questions. Thank you. That's a definite. We do hope that you will ask questions and ask them at the individual booth because we won't take time here to go into questions. But now we're going to have a revolution now. This is going to be the revolution and studio products and it comes to us by Dick Putnam the manager of studio engineering for General Electric. It's all yours. Thank you ladies and gentlemen. Television has been available to the public since the late 30s. And after some 20 years of this communication media we find ourselves admits they technical revolution. As a rapid change in technology falls into three major categories. They are transistors Asian pick up
devices and design. Does probably right to say that no one by itself is a sole contributor. With the introduction of transistors in 1958. There have been many advantages in the design of studio equipment for the educator. I might say that this device is also at a very interesting history and its relatively short life. The major advantages or reduction of power. Reduced heat. Better mechanical characteristics improves stability and probably most important to you is improved reliability. Little needs to be said about the first two advantages. Reduction of power consumption as a direct operating expenses attractive in itself. The reduction in heat results and redo reduction in required air conditioning. Improvement and environmental conditions for all components. And an increase in the
life of all components. It is not uncommon to find a reduction of power of 30 to one. And in practically all cases there is a decided advantage in power reduction. In a mechanical area of the reduction of size of all components allows a greater saving and volume and weight. Since the mass of the individual complements is greatly reduced. The equipment inherently has high resistance to shock and vibration. I am sure that you will have a much better feel as to what a student can do to equipment than we as a manufacturer do or fact I think we're just beginning to learn. The improvement in operating stability of transistorized equipment is perhaps less readily recognizable by those who have not experienced it. These improvements occur in part because of the properties of transistors themselves and in part because of the improved circuit techniques that are often possible.
Vacuum tubes are all subject to more or less of the majority of their characteristics. Including relatively short warm up time effects and long time aging effects. In contrast to tubes transistors have no microphonics and a minimum of aging effects. Stabilisation stable a stabilisation of gain and DC operating point can be achieved to a much higher degree because of the inherent high amplification factors of the devices themselves. Field reports are indicating a degree of reliability far greater than we might have anticipated. I might say that there were certain days in the early design of equipment of transistors that I dreaded the word transistor. On some equipment that we have in the field at the present time with hundreds of millions of transistor hours of operation. The average failure rate has been one failure per year of continuous operation. Stated another way.
This is approximately one transistor failure for every million hours of transistor operation. In the field of pickup devices we are seeing in another rep a technological change. Today we have to live as it were literally see in the dark. Others that are some sort of x rays infrared as well as other special applications. In the area of the image or thick on we have grown from the old reliable workhorse 58 20 which was introduced in the late 40s to the improved and the four and a half in Giles. The Vatican has had the same type of progress. When it was first introduced in the middle 50s. It was in fact accepted only because it was better than the icon of skull was presently used. Today that a conduit will stand on their own feet. We have many types available for
us. There are the conventional one and two as well as the inch and a half and a half inch. We have hybrid types and which focusing and flexion are separated. Where one is magnetic and the other is electrostatic. There's wide variety of tubes gives the designer a wide selection that will best satisfy the user's needs. I might add that there has been no major breakthrough in the sensitivity of the Vatican's. But closest to a breakthrough has been the introduction of the public on. This to abuses alleged monoxide foetal conductive surface. And displays many intriguing characteristics. At the present time this is not available in equipment manufactured in this country. But economists do not have the sensitivity of the image or thick on. What for operation under controlled condition they offer the user. In
exchange for the sense of a day. Longer reliability. At a greatly reduced operating costs. The most popular to today is the one inch all magnetic vertical. With the inner direction of high field operation. The separation of the field mass from Ridge 3. And aperture correction the effective response of this tool is amazingly good. I expect that we will continue to see this in the majority of new equipment designs. The third major carrier category is design. I must say that in the early days of television. Like many other technological technologies it was a source that there would be trained personnel available for operation. On this basis. It was very easy for the designer to insert a control rather than to
stabilize the circuitry. Today with the requirements of simplified operational stability and reliability. It requires in design only the ability to look at these three consumer requirements and design equipment that is capable of meeting them. I said in the beginning. That we're admits to a revolution in the design of television equipment. Like any period of change. It is not done overnight but over a period of time. We started in 1958. And today we are beginning to see the. Practically all equipment. Is transistorized and each day we see more and more. You may have a logical question in your mind. What is there in the future. We in industry are seeing many interesting technological changes on the horizon.
One of the promises is micro-managers ation. This is where circuitry is reduced to space even more than it is today. As an example. Where the conventional transistor has one active element and that's familiar housing it is possible to put our more active elements plus all the associated circuitry. It is expected that this concept in the future will offer the same advantages such as reliability and stability that I have previously mentioned. You as a user are in the middle of this revolution. You will find equipment available that will more than satisfy your requirements. As this industry continues to grow. I am sure that you will find they have put become I'm sure that you will find. That the equipment will become simply a tool that will aid you and doing a better
job. Thank you. That's five down two to go now and this time we're going to get on to something that will wake you I'm sure if you're drowsing a little bit. This is video 1984 and it's going to be presented by NF Cox. Cox the merchandising manager for Stark's stars DNF. By. Patient and hungry people. I hope that your weight will have been worthwhile for my participation in this. I am glad to be here. We will have some slides. We find that most television and broadcasting conventions equipment displays illustrate the evolving state of the art of equipment construction. Within a few months plus or minus of the convention date.
We had Sarka stars and I've been using logic. TRANS. And some Hugo Gernsback in an effort to preview preview educational videos that may be in 1904. Speaking of Hugo Gernsback. Some years ago. I received an autographed copy of the Gernsback book titled Ralph 1 2 4 C 4 1 plus. Because of his activities in school. Displaying a superior practical intelligence. The suffix plus. Was added. He continued in the opposite direction over his cipher would have been minus. On the other hand. Had he been average he would have been forever condemned to be. One to foresee for one. As we meet at this convention the technological explosion continues. We see
daily mention of new applications of television often the result of effort. To produce a more efficient compact. Reliable and perhaps less costly devise. We think what you will see presented here will be at least amusing. And we hope and pharma dates. If not altogether practical. Let's follow Rolf 1 to 4 See. 4 1. Through the period of his life. In which he uses electronics in large measure. To obtain his cipher a plus. Beginning with grades one through six we see a classroom. Much as Ralf might attend. Equipped with one teaching panel. And student seating arranged in a rather conventional way. According to our present standards at least. The teaching Island panel has five different areas. One. A
screen for maps and other graphic presentations. To three adjacent monitor panels for film tape bar slide presentation. These are lettered A B and C on the slide. Controls. For manual or automatic programming of screen and monitors. We also have illustrated a storage area for books tapes both video and audio. And cold cards as required. For Ralph and his fellow students we have a flat surface for writing on a flat plate video monitor. For viewing the projected and multiplexed information shown on the classroom screens. The desks are equipped for video and audio recording of home study material so that Ralph may continue to work for his plus. Switch console between the seats as far the various necessary controls such as on the
desk lights or other controls necessary to the time. By now we believe Ralph has completed his first six years and is now ready for junior high school. Soon followed by high school. So on this slide we see a rendering of a possible high schooler with a video monitor. For each pair of seats within the teaching area with fold up writing tasks. With. A video Jack may be provided for video recording by the student with his own video recorder. Most of us are aware of the. Ever widening use of Carol type situations for language labs and increasingly for general study by schools across the country. Now we see a carol of the future. Designed for Ralph's generation of high school and college students. This area includes a
laugher. Video and audio equipment for playback of study material. And control for access to the resource centers in the school area. And by school area. We mean in this case anything within 100 miles or so. Parents medically we think about 1984 and Patti's DC six A's will of worn out. And will be replaced by ground based television stations microwave broadcasting stations and maybe even educational satellites. By the time Ralph completes high school he is well on his way to getting that plus. And at this point we are sure that he is really ready to get on to business. Possibly he will have at his disposal an electronic study pack. Designed as a lightweight attache case unit. Personal Learning Lab.
He will You will note that it houses a video monitor of the flat screen type. Driven by integrated circuitry permitting very compact packaging. And we have a variety of controls included at hand for complete ease of control of the system. For example. The orange push buttons would control the video and put. The ultra compact video tape recorder is controlled by the blue push buttons. We might even anticipate a facsimile system that can produce material for the student as required. With this material of course he could be supplied with various forms to fill our other currently processed data which could be filed into a notebook farm or other methods of filing are used in any way seen fit. All of this plus a calculator a sort of electronic abacus to assist in math solutions. The
magnesium and aluminum case is covered with text drys Teflon or similar material. For the protective durability Ralph would need for use of the device day by day. The workload for Ralph will be heavy. So with the possibility that the study pack will be available to him we suggest. The class monitoring center for college students. To monitor a class when unable to attend in person could go to the remote monitoring center and search the audio video cartridge into the appropriate automat style recording receptacle. Lock it in place with his key and then pick it up later recorded ready for playback. At some convenient time. A key may be the secret to the system working well. We envision a key register drouth to assure the proper application of credit units and attendance credit. To help him toward his
plus. Carrying the idea further. An audio video library may permit the student to record borrow and buy audio and video material for study. Several library and resource centers could be placed at logical locations within a building complex. How does this look as a building. We think maybe like this. On the left a planned view rendering of the building on the right. In the center rotunda of the building would accommodate Ralph and his fellow students and will use either the chair monitors our portable learning lab as the situation requires classroom studios with the special fixtures and equipment required by the subject material surround the student video lecture halls. Here the
faculty may present their material via television with all materials and equipment on hand for doing a thorough job. Anticipating that surely the pleasures of dining will be retained. We have borrowed an idea from the Space Needle of 1963 and install a restaurant meeting rooms and a cafeteria in an oval or module. Crowning EDV University. By the time Ralph graduates with the great and no doubt by then mandatory use of electronics. He may probably be awarded the cipher to his number two because Ralph one to foresee for one plus. To be used on all of his government farms. And closing in on perhaps a somewhat more practical vein. We would like to show a few slides of chairs designed to make use of the latest techniques that may be a more flexible approach to the present day.
Awkward carols. Now you and proposed by several schools. The video monitor may well be one of today's miniature imported monitors. This would be augmented by a communication microphone near the monitor. A touch tone calling system a paddle is included in this concept to enable a student with a need to have instant access to the audio and video material available in the various resource centers. This will be a very definite possibility in the not too distant future. We believe this because of the growing use of Dial systems for simple arrangements of that of this type already in daily use. A loudspeaker and lighting system to permit audio to be heard and some of privacy are mounted on the back of the chair. This also includes headphone jacks near the monitor for private listening as well. Certainly this would include stereo in
certain applications. The light of course has obvious advantages for illumination of the student's work area with completely adequate and control of the light. Looking ahead to integrated circuitry some of which is already being used electroluminescent panels thin plate tubes for both monochrome and color. Compact tape recorders. Computer Programming satellite transmission laser transmission and all of the potential developments now on the horizon. We are sure that 1984 may be much nearer than we think. It would be our hope that Sarkis Tarzan moves a pace with the developments of industry and working closely with the educators that we may continue to bring forth new ideas and assist in the development of the electronic tools necessary to the educator not only of today but certainly for those of tomorrow.
We would be very pleased to have you come visit us in the exhibition hall to see some of today's equipment that 10 years ago was on. It has been our pleasure to have been in attendance at the 40th annual convention and look forward eagerly to 40 more. Thank you. Thank you. And as a reward for your patients we have saved the best for the last. We're not going to have TV visuals and program production and to bring the most charming speakers missed the doors the production the video and educational department at St. Paul. Thank you. I know you're starving to death and this complete presentation has been printed in a booklet by the Minnesota Mining Company It's available at their booth. If you leave and pick one up on
your way to lunch and understand this takes 14 minutes and if you'll bear with me we'll start right away. Every day new people enter the field of television. Many are teachers who are wise in the techniques of the classroom but who are apprehensive about many unknown aspects of television teaching. The preparation and use of visual materials is one of these worrisome aspects. To allay their fears we sit down with each instructor who will teach for the video nursing education series and go through some of the basic points. The first slide and I'll give you a finger signal here on. Thank you. For example this page is typical of most original source material and it would look on the TV screen about as well as it does here it's a page from a psychology book in action. The resulting interpretation which was made for television news on the lesson is quite different for many reasons much of which
what we will show you this morning concerns actual preparation techniques which you may want to pass along to your talent if they prepare their own materials. First of all one of the simplest and yet most often overlooked aspect of television is that the screen is horizontal. Most of our text books and other printed materials are laid out in a vertical composition for quality TV production. This must be translated into the horizontal. The television screen is designed in a ratio of three vertical and horizontal units three high by four crosses you know. This means that any card in this proportion measuring from four by five inches which is a small blue on to the largest that you see there which is 22 or 20 and even larger can be framed by the camera without cutting off the top or the side next. These are 11 by 14 inch camera cards. The light blue comes out a light gray on television a large hand and a swimming pool or magazine
ads. The red intestine video nursing you know and the other drawings are original art. These cards are convenient for the instructor to use while seated at a desk or a demonstration table. If it is not necessary for the instructor to point to any part the card can be used off the set and can be changed by the floor director. The 22 by 28 inch camera card fills the TV screen as it does here. The diagram and the lettering are kept simple and are large enough to be legible in a medium shot which as you know is when the instructor and the chart both appear on the screen at the same time. This size camera card is usually stapled to the backdrop. Now I'm going to discuss some of the materials that we use and later will talk about the actual artwork itself. For reasons of speed and dependability I use felt markers. They come in many colors and the need is thick enough to make a wide line with one
stroke. The markers dry immediately. They do not reflect light and they do not smear so nor fixative is required. Grief and souls are handy for filling in large areas tempera paint which you see in the jars can be mixed to any shade of green white camp is used for accenting charts and drawings. The sporangia is a white tempera paint the lettering is black felt marker. Hear the lettering is done with felt marker red markers used to fill in the little had the devil grease pencil sometimes called China marking pencil is used here in this camera card from our video nursing education psychology course. The large area marked human behavior is colored with blue green grease pencil to set it apart from the background. Here are two shades of grey tempera paint indicate this aspect of the spinal column. Poster paint
which is water soluble is another name for this medium large areas of gray are most easily rendered by cutting sheets of paper to fit. It is faster and it saves a streaking special paper in many tones agre can be purchased and we found this to be an effective way to present the pH scale in our video nursing chemistry course. We avoid large areas of strong black and white for the same reason that you ask your talent to wear a pale pastel shirt. The TV tube cannot handle the extreme contrast without giving a broom on the receiver. However small areas of white gray and black can be very effective without the risk of that annoying halo. Now as to the design of the visuals themselves usually the director blocks his program to establish that all creation of the instructor and whatever props he uses by following a somewhat flexible
pattern of long shot medium shots and close up. This is all very helpful to the student viewer. However when the camera fills the screen with a closeup we want our students to be oriented at once. Now look at this diagram of a textbook page and you tell what you're looking at. Not as well as you can here. The human torso stands out from the background and is recognizable at once because of the great tone of the main figure. Even our chemical structures are designed so the field is separated from the background. This is to help the students grasp relationships easily and quickly. You have probably noticed that every visual I've shown you has a very wide margin. This helps the camera man to center the critical area in our video nursing instructors have come to understand that whenever
possible. One idea per camera card seems to be a very effective device. Here the instructor has already oriented the first year nursing students to the location of the gallbladder in the body by using a life sized plastic human torso. Now the students are ready to learn the shape and the names of the various parts which are lettered large enough to appear clearly on the screen. Remind your teachers that not all receivers are adjusted for optimum reception and that a great deal of detail is lost at the receiving end. This is a reproduction from a standard anatomy text. What is it. It is this. We felt that the best way to present this difficult concept of the two parts of the Autonomic Nervous System was this very large chart five feet across and three and one half feet high from a long shot like
this. We went to close ups as the discussion progressed. However you'll notice that even along the lettering and the shapes of the organs are large enough to be recognizable. Which brings us to the matter of levering a simple Gothic letter no script or italics has proved to be the most easily read whenever possible I use uppercase capital letters only except that for some scientific species names in our microbiology course it was necessary to use both upper and lowercase. The captions on these black opaque cards were made with a commercial press on letter which comes in sheets. They come in white black and in colors and in many sizes and type faces. The title for chemistry which you see in the left foreground is a Polaroid photograph with these instant letters pressed into place. The two cards with the single words and a
phase and whatever the other one says were used for supers that is super imposing a difficult or a new word on the screen while the instructor defines or explain it explains it. This is a technique which the students like very much stencils are helpful for quick oversized lettering they can be purchased at almost any stationery supply store. Occasionally the instructors want to use this type of eat instead of soup bring the Word or having on a chart. Here are the small cards ancestors biological systems and get different reactions are printed with a small hand press and they are used by our teachers in video nursing for demonstrations on the magnet board magnets are glued to the back of these cards which can then be placed on the board moved about and quickly taken away during the talk. The large page about chemistry or a pubic agent is free and lettering done with a felt marker on a news bad tablet which
becomes ruled with one inch lines. This brings up a cardinal rule in the preparation of lettering for television. Although these cards are 11 by 14 inches but the size of the lettering is not the only difference. Guidelines are the difference. Remind your instructors to use guidelines. They are nothing more than parallel lines marking the height of the lettering but they can make the difference between a lesson with visuals that are good enough and visuals that are the best you can supply. Occasionally I use a somewhat different style of lettering. Yes with guidelines in here we have added our inexpensive animation fat carbohydrate and protein all seem to move in the direction of energy in those little statement areas when they outlined a strip of paper is pulled across behind the card. A glossy photograph after being captioned with the press on letters is
sprayed with fixative to reduce glare from the studio lights the same fixative is used to prevent charcoal from smearing in the shaded areas on this diagram. From the video nursing course. From photographs Let's turn to rear screen slides which we use a great deal with a bori camera a copy stand. Anyone can make instant 10 second transparencies using special Polaroid film for standard lantern slides which are three and a quarter by four inches. I use that type 146 Al which films in that yellow label box for it also makes transparency film for two by two slides. Anything can be copied with a Polaroid including three dimensional objects. Two advantages of the rear screens lines are one that the instructor appears on the TV screen with the slide and can indicate with a point or areas of
specific interest and two by using two projectors two lander and slide projectors moderate on a big card. We can dissolve from one slide to another and give an illusion of motion or the passage of time. With experience I learned that the captions in textbooks should be masked out. Making a Polaroid slide because if this were made into a slide the words would be too small. Now here we have a somewhat different subject area which was covered in the Spanish series for elementary grades for which I produced visual materials. Maps require accuracy and drawing which I achieved by making a certain effects transparency from a geography or an atlas. I projected the transparency with an overhead projector onto a sheet of cardboard and tracing the image with a felt marker. The. Mountains were drawn in with charcoal. There is too much extraneous material on most maps so I made my own keeping in mind what we
talked about earlier. One main idea per camera card. Here Brasil and Schilling have stepped off the continent because the map is stapled to a large sheet of insulation board pushpins are glued to the movable pieces which the teacher can and are removed during the lesson. When our Spanish teacher Dawn McGill wanted to teach the concept of inside and outside he placed the little dogs inside or outside the dog house. These three dimensional models were used in the same Spanish series for the fourth fifth and sixth grades. They are simply cardboard boxes. Like the little dog house fashioned with masking tape. The same kind of construction that your kindergartners use when in the peeper baskets. The cathedral towers cramps a foam rubber that are cut to make it look like stone. Next please. This little group came to life from pieces of illustration board in temper paint the illustration board is heavy enough to stand alone
and with a wooden or an easel base. Each figure can be set down or moved by the teacher during the lesson without risk of their falling over. Any language teachers among you will recognize it once the many ways in which these are looked at out people can be used in pattern practice and drills. The instructors.
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National Association of Educational Broadcasters Convention Industrial Session Part 2
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