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A long long way that is still join us have there for us and some of it is yet on the chart. Nevertheless it can now be said that after a great struggle this day is clearly the moment of a great victory. The new zeal that is it's all over it is really true and they have promised great. That alliance counted downtown in a restroom and the jobs and everything to go again and they got only two weeks for summer and 60 days a summer of 90 days as the claim is attack. So although we're very proud of it I don't know but I'm glad it is although you didn't want to see no blood she added. I'm happy with it. To the extent it was successful. As far as it when it was successful
very successful as far as the specific. Demands and goals of the. Movement was concerned but I don't think it's. Significant I don't think what they received in the way of concessions was really significant in themselves but rather in. The implications that they might have. We all are proud I would surely say that much. But they really have suffered and I'm glad that I mean this is all about them too. But I'm grateful that as this is all over after Iowa we all will benefit from that you know public purpose of going to one hour when I heard it was over the radio I was driving leads out of here and now I was coming in on Thursday and it came over the radio and said this committee had made an agreement and that they were going to compromise with the
Negro on the segregation of the lunch counters the water. Fountain. Also the restaurant. Well it upset me to. Take to that too much because all my say I can hardly see. Our Mattie are better than he is not they it is just a little matter of the cleanliness and everything else. Everyone knows the dog. I believe that everyone knows that niggers carry a very high rate of NRO diseases. Myself I don't waste a kitchen and this self important committee is all hopped up over that here and they want to use restroom with me. That's fine with me. I don't have to do it but I was upset over the truth.
I don't agree with one bit in the world and never will I don't believe it will change some things because we have got a matter of trust in myself. Again and. Again the. Song freedom this is water look something and Jack Summerfield at the St. John Church the speech meet and some of them in the Birmingham Alabama Friday night. They didn't say any.
More than 2000 negroes are packed into this church overflowing the sanctuary and balconies the staircases and out on the sidewalk of 53. The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. The Reverend Ralphie Abernathy other negro integration leaders are here tonight. The Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth head of the Alabama Christian movement for human minds is not here four hours ago was taken to Birmingham's Holy Family Hospital. Here is. Dr. Ralph Abernathy. A man. Care. Guy. I. AM NOT A GOOD. Picture and neither you don't stand up for me.
When I. Went out said Victor and I do not mean a hundred Jaspar the Negro in Birmingham but I mean a bit by Alabama. I mean a victory for the white man. I mean a victory for the United States of America. And I mean a victory for the free world here where. History is. Fiction. I'm not going to make a long speech tonight. I'm not going to take but three minutes. And according to the copy and one half a minute. Since I've been up here tonight I don't have to prove he had a bad back and speak. This is Doppler looks and coming in from Los Angeles California for
her. Arrest the mole the adopted. Son of The Howard Stern is the richest Negro and Los Angeles. The only. Correct here. He is the owner. All the Broadway Federal mutual loans Association in Los Angeles take a picture real nice work of. Arresting K.. Became Oh no way from Los Angeles. Just see about us. Behind here. Dr. King is in Los Angeles. I am in Los Angeles. Dr. Hudson is always that way. He stays with us from the beginning to the end. He's on the national board of the
NWC. Last night they had a meeting with Roy Wilkins and end up and come up to Mississippi and he came out over here to burning them and when he got here was disappointed and discovered that he didn't have to go to jail. If. Nacho Yeah like don't speak what three minutes I'm allowed and how one minute of that time right now. If I was Dr. King and the wonderful people of Birmingham my people. I bring you greetings from California and I wouldn't leave one word with you continue this fight we must continue this fight until the war. And the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag means what it
says when it says if. If and when people tell you the time ate right. Don't you tell them that when they call your bar your brother or your son or your husband to the army. Nobody told you the time wasn't right. Well have. And last April and in the fall of the year when you were called upon to pay your taxes nobody ever said to you since you are a Negro it'll be 10 or 20 years look all the time is right to pay your taxes. I have. My boy died on the fields of Naam a day.
And many of you here your sons are husbands brothers to the cause of freedom. In my bar and your boy could die for freedom. It is your duty to live for freedom I have if. He. Is the target speaker. You know no one will give up another minute. I don't mind giving up my minutes to poor speakers but but good speakers like him makes it rough for me. Now my friends I'm just going to say two things I'm going to my seat number one on this thing is not oh. I have to caring is going to use them oh all about I don't
know what he's going to say. He can say it because he's God's man. And he knows how to say. What I want to say to you just in case he forgets to tell you that this is not as yet. And we must still stick together. And we are and when I say we I'm talking about Martin Luther King and Ralph Abernathy and staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference is going to be here with you until the mid terms put into practice what they have promised was. I. Was stunned. I started to have a protest deceive men. Some of my friends had never seen me like this before. I started to have a
protest I went to the hospital to see the leader of this community. We all know who the leader is Fred Shuttlesworth. Last thing Brant said to me before you left the press conference was Ralph I want you to go to 16th Street Baptist Church and meet with the students and then come to the hospital and see me and I went out to that hospital and they didn't want to let me see it. And I didn't like it one bit. Now you know outrage Stern anywhere and at any time. I believe in being rude Ojo tamale. Martin Luther King is married when he would stand up to New York. I've got the next plane and when I got there he said no nobody can see him you don't know who you told him he was. We put up 50 000. And let me in and when I got to Turner number who I was they said OK come back.
And I went out there to see it and they come in and meet told not to put in the bid and he couldn't resist and I started to tell them that if I was breathing my last breath I would want Fred Shuttlesworth to hold one hand. And remodel for King the holy of of one of the. I. And I would want my why I don't hold my. Own. But. Just pick COAS just because Dr. King told me not to raise sang. I wouldn't turn that hospital out. What I wanted to see Fred Shuttlesworth. And I wanted to bring the report back here. And Fred chose with his not so sick that Ralph Abernathy CVM would have killed him. It would have made him feel better and you to not see it so.
Narrow. Gun has given us a lead up. Where journos where there's a great man. To great man. And Milton Smith there's a great manager who are. If you. Move here in my pocket right now. I've checked for $1000 which Milton Smith went to New York City and spoke up and made such a stern address that day said the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. One thousand dollars and I got a ticket. If you haven't gone know it is a great man and the only reason we killed all great men. But they didn't but who won the game. I am
gonna pick him to lead us to freedom how. Are you going to find him again or who hears you not for whom fake carrying me for who. I am if. THANK YOU ARE BACK kind of admiring. Their friends and. As I've said so often on my fellow citizens of. Bayamon have Alabama because I really feel like Birmingham is home now. And I think that down I should say to you that although we have
reached certain agreements and their struggles. I do not plan. To leave Birmingham on a permanent basis I will be right here with you have. A long long time. I said to the members of my staff that we should not fail that this is a time for us to. Leave our brothers and sisters and Birmingham. But that we should commit ourselves to being in and out. Staying here with the situation until every day our green men that had been made by the merchants and by oh those has been met and carried out.
Now I want to. Read a statement that I read in the press conference this afternoon and I think it will give you. An idea or at least explain to you exactly what has been accomplished. Accomplished over these last few days and then I will take some excerpts through the statement read by your president Reverend Shuttlesworth that the press conference which explains the agreements made. Now for the first statement. I am very happy I had to be able to announce that we have come today to the climax of a long struggle for justice. Freedom and human dignity in
the city of Birmingham. I say the climax and not the end. Father we have come a long long way. That is still a strenuous path before us and some of it is yet on chart. Nevertheless it can now be sad that after a great struggle. This day is clearly the moment of a great victory. The greatness of the Triumph is measured by this one fact. It is a victory where that cannot possibly be confined to the limited area of one race. Indeed the agreements which have been reached over the last few days are sick no accomplishments which redound to the credit of all of Birmingham
citizens. As a matter of fact I believe sincerely that this victory cannot even be confined within the limits of this sprawling metropolis. Birmingham now stands on the threshold of becoming a great enlightened symbol sharing the radiance of its example throughout this entire nation. Credit for what has been done most go to many a person without question of course. The name of the rat Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth stands clear out as a magical name in this magic city. He has walked a long and often lonesome road to reach this state. And even now his health is empath. But he has just a reason to be thankful and glad. But I wanted his great sacrifice and moreover the
many men and women who worked with him by his side and behind the scenes and the Alabama Christian movement for human rights must also be brave and without a doubt the world will never forget the thousands of children and adults who gave up that home physical safety and freedom and went to jail to secure the safety and freedom of all men. I must say this too and these recent days I have been deeply impressed by the quality of the white persons of the community who worked so diligently. But just solutions to our mutual problem. They must also be given real credit. They are men of good will. However when all is said and done when this situation is seen in the perspective of eternity ultimate credit and
glory and honor. Must be given to the Almighty God. For he has clearly been at work among us. And it is he alone who has finally gained the victory for all of his children. Under his guidance we now enter into a new date for Birmingham's people a day when men will no longer fear to speak the truth. And citizens will no longer cringe before the threats of a misguided man. We look forward now to continued progress toward the establishment of a city in which equal job opportunities equal access to public facilities and equal rights and responsibilities for all of its people will be thought of every day. However even these Needful Things are not our final goal. The deepest hope that surges
up within our hearts is this. That Birmingham is on its way to the creation of a new kind of community not simply a new image but a new reality. We are looking forward to that moment. So nearly upon us. When this metropolis will truly become a magic city again this time feel it with the beautiful magic of a new brotherhood. When a man afraid to know respect and love each other we seek. Oh intimately. A magic city. When I call I will no longer be the measure of a man's worth like character will matter more than pigmentation. I cannot because without saying that the Negro community must accept this achievement in the right spirit.
We must not see the present development as a victory for the Negro. It is rather a victory for democracy in the whole citizenry of Birmingham and Negro and white. Our growth in nonviolence has been such that we cannot be satisfied with a victory over our white brothers. We must respond to every new development in civil rights with an understanding of those who have opposed us and with an appreciation of the new adjustments that the new achievements holds for them. We must be able to face up honestly live to our own shortcomings. We must act in such a way as to make possible a coming together of white people and colored people on the basis of real harmony of interests and understanding. This is the time that we must events calm dignity and wise restraint. Emotion must not run Ron.
Violence must not come from any of us. But if we become victimized with violent acts saw intent the pending DAYBREAK a progress will be transformed into a boom in midnight of retrogress as we stand on the verge of using public facilities here to fore close to us. We must not be overbearing and whole team spirit. We must be loving anough to turn an enemy and to a friend. We must now move from protest to reconciliation. This too is our hope for Birmingham. It is our hope that it will cause us to look at the signs which say it's nice to have you in Birmingham in a new way. Now we will know that these words are meant for all of God's children and we will know that they are sincere then and only then will all the citizens of this community
be able to say in joyful response. Thank you. It's great to be in Birmingham a city of our. Respect and brotherly love now. I want to go over with you. The specifics are great lengths that have been made. We told you that we were dealing with four points. Number one we said that we are tired of segregation. And that we would. Seek to break down the barriers of segregation in the places that we spend our money. We asked for our desegregation of the lunch counters. Fitting rooms restrooms. And water fountains. Their agreement calls for number one. The desegregation of lunch counters.
Restrooms. Fitting rooms and drinkin found things in plan stages within the next 90 days. Now do you know a baramin Ham is doing something that even the so-called progressive Atlanta Georgia didn't do when we made our agreement. After our sit ins to get into integration at lunch counters they were integrated after 6 months but here in Birmingham is after 90 days. We're moving on the freedom land. Now this will be in order to assure ensure a smooth transition. All the planning stages. And to keep these mobs from getting a rouse you know the clan they still live somewhere. We're not announcing the dates right now. We didn't do it for the Press this morning but each of these will be done. Now the first one I'm going to announce tonight President as I've
announced the first one and I'm going to run along with Ralph Abernathy to Atlanta to moderate our churches Sunday but we'll be right back here Monday. Now the first. Development will be Monday it's supposed to be three days after. The settlement. We settled today and Monday would be three days in the fitting rooms will be integrated by Monday so you will know now that the fitting rooms are integrated. Starting Monday now we will let you know the second statement I will I'll let you know that the second will be the water fountains and the restroom. And I will let you know exactly when that's going to be. We're gonna do this through the mass meat. So that number one is clear and there's a great victory for justice in Birmingham. They have agreed to desegregate all of the facilities in the stores of Birmingham Alabama.
And I think this is a great and significant victory number two. We made it clear that we were tired. Of getting. Poor jobs. We have tired of being the last hired and the first time. We've made that very clear. We made it clear that we wanted some jobs. That are comparable to the jobs that any white person can get in Birmingham. Now this is the agreement. The upgrading and hiring a new grows on a nondiscriminatory basis throughout the industrial community of Birmingham. This will include the hiring of Negroes. Listen to this. As clerks and salesmen within the next 60 days I does mean when you go down. And then our committee will be appointed within two weeks composed of
business industrial and professional leaders. To get Negroes in new positions that they've never been in before. Throughout the total industrial complex above and I'm out about and I we get asked for some clerks in the store was negro clerk so when you got on the negroes down my knees come. By we're going to get that. But even more are we getting more than we asked for on this one. No other city in the south. I. Want you to listen to this has gone this far. On the question of employment this is a significant victory for the city of Birmingham Alabama. Now are you going to jail or do you feel that you went to jail in vain Have you ever gone to jail don't get all you need a new job don't you think it was really wonderful to go to war.
Now on the third point. We made it clear in negotiating sessions over the last two or three days. That this movement. And these demonstrations. Would not stop that the movement would not bring. A halt to the demonstrations. Unless all of the people in jail. That come out we would never leave anybody. We made it very clear that this had to be done. We talked in terms of the dropping of the charges. And this I am happy to say is being worked on these cases are going to be. Handled. And something good is in the making on this point. The first thing the city of Birmingham doesn't want the burden of
having to trial some 3000 people or be Chinese cases until my little 7 year old daughter is in college. So that things are going to be worked out there but I'm happy to say to you this evening. I'm happy to say to you that everybody is either out of jail on the way out of jail. Haven't been arrested. Thank you. This has been made possible by several things. They have made a plan what about all of the persons up to 16. They get out merely by the signing of something by the pounds and another person and then bond money was provided. For all of the other persons so that everybody. Is out of jail. They will be out in a few hours. We had some 800 to get out today and it takes a long time to get eight people eight hundred people
out so if you have anybody in jail. Rest assured that they will be out tonight and if they just find it impossible to get all of them tonight they will certainly be out by tomorrow morning. The final point that we asked for was a barrister committed to deal with these other things and I'm happy to say to you that this is in the making. Now already the senior citizens committee have made it clear. That communication with big stablished between Negro and white citizens of this community within the next two weeks and through this channel of communication we will begin to work to get all of these other things moving get the park so. To get public school integration. And to get jobs in the city we want to see some negro policeman. Right here.
Now if you can see that as I took time to do this because I think it's most important. And you have not struggled and you have not some but in vain. And if I wasn't a little hoarse tonight I could preach about the meaning of what you've done not only out in about a fool you they may try to tell you they may try to say that they plan to do all of this anyway. But. But but as of late I got this. From a source that I can't reveal but they were in a meeting downtown. Yes the other day. It was the day that we had the big development with thousands of students going downtown in what we now call the sing in movement you know Negroes don't want to sit in a sing in. They would go in your store and sit in and sing and while they are sitting in your skull. And I know that they were in a meeting the leaders of this
community the business and industrial leaders talking about this thing. And the men who were talking with the wind the spam. They had about given up they said nothing we could do because our business says little sac we're tired of it and they. Had a number do but call and not to tell the government to send the National Guard here and get this thing on a march along. We've we've tried to do what we could do but these these niggas that's not going to stop and we just can't we're not going to put up with. It. And that's the way to stop them and then they had their lunch hour. And they went out for lunch and when they got up and saw me. Oh man. Oh I'm. Standing on the side wall saying We Shall Overcome and hang on let nobody turn me around. I heard when they got back in there after the lunch time. They started sand I messy
we think we could grant point WAM. And they moved on down the plant to an extent that. Now I'm saying this in a humorous vein but I'm very serious. Do not underestimate the power of this movement and these thing would not have been granted without your presenting your body is on your bare lies before the dogs and the tanks and the water hoses of this city. Thank you. And then another saying you know. The United States is concerned about its image. When things started happening down here Mr. Canada got just. A mistake. Canada has a sit around tables of the world and some time Mr. Crew chef is on the other side. He is battling for the minds and the hearts of men and he should in Africa.
From one billion men in the neutral is sucked out of the world. And they aren't going to respect the United States of America. If Sheed to Prime Min and women of the basic rights of life because of the color of their skin. Mr Canada knows this. And Associated Press got a picture. But don't hold. Back I don't know your man and that man didn't have his hands out. He didn't have his hands up and he didn't have a knife in his hand but if you saw that picture it would have been standing with his arms down none violent and a dog biting him. And when that picture went oh I'm over off his head in Africa. And even in France Mr. Canada said Babie you better get your system down out and look into this matter. Dangerous situation fi image approach. And I'm telling you. Nothing has so stirred the conscience of this nation. At this Burnham movement.
I can think of nothing and I say it out of one who has been in several struggles for freedom over the last few years but I have never seen people as a round over any development that we've had. As they have been over Bearman where they saw 6 year old children being arrested. But one thing to know what they knew what they were being arrested phone. May they may not been able to spend a way to pronounce or write but little 6 year old girl was on the line. And they tell me that the policeman stopped and say What are you wrong. And she looked up feedom. Was the old dog. I know. It's a really great movement. And. Nothing has so I arouse a conscience of his nature. But you know I have those just yesterday.
People told the National Council of Negro Women they may still be coming I'm not sure but they were going to bring hundreds of women here for Mother's Day they wanted to come to make a witness from all over America. A group called from New York said they had two planeloads charter planes ready to come from California Dr. Hudson's community I had a call from Reverend Maurice Dawkins and Reverend Marvin Robinson Sandra Day were coming down with a plane load from Los Angeles. Then I got a call from Evan Lauer Odum of Denver Santa he was bringing a group down next week. And then I got a call from Howard Belafonte this morning and he said Mom not talk with you just didn't look like the 7 was coming but I read some things that looked like you wouldn't comment. I want you to know we have 3000 people. Ready to go this morning to Washington to picket around the White House and we don't want no business to read.
The old. I this is an amazing thing and it should make all of us feel happy. And then we had our friends you met the Jewish rabbis who came. All we are thankful to God that there are hundreds of right people of good will and thousands and millions will let them. Have our friend back to stagnate tonight. The American Baptist Convention. Was calm and he made it very clear. That he was ready to participate in the demonstrations of necessary. We're happy to have Dr. Hudson tonight. That great courageous humanitarian who has labored over the years for all of this. And finally. I'm thankful to God. For the leaders of this community. I'm thankful to God for Fred Shuttlesworth. And. The oak.
And the goodness of God is found in the fact that he has placed at his side. Some of the most dedicated. Courageous and intelligent. Man that you can find anywhere. Look at his two vice. First and second vice president. I've never seen a more Noyon. Vice President as Reverend garden and a more loyal vice president. And I've never seen a more responsible and loyal second vice president. As Abraham was then his brother Calvin. Think of the word brother. And then I think of the fact. That God has given to this city over the last year. I just think about it in
18 months. Our group of powerful young dedicated ministers of the gospel. And I think of the fact. I. Think of a man like John Paul over that is one of the largest churches. I think I'm my own brother in ends May I think the revenue men say right down to Thurgood. Yes I think a revenue clause right up here a 16th street battle. Then I think of that man who'd been here a little longer. But who deserves his name because he's a dynamic force they called him fireball Nelson Smith. Then we think of all of these other ministers of the gospel I look at a man who'd been in the field for years and I don't come in this meeting single
my heart when I don't see Reverend joy. Oh this is a marvelous thing that so many others I could mention. And I mention these and I'm sure you would excuse me if I have mentioned some names. This has been such a great experience and I wanted to do this and I want you to know. That you have done a great work here. I don't know if we on our staff have been spot Birmingham but you have certainly inspired us and we go away. We go away for just a few hours but as I said we'll be back Monday. Forget. You know what out here that's foul ball Walcott.
Now now had me say finally. That we cannot allow the enthusiasm of this movement to pass because we won a victory which is a significant victory. We're saying we've got to be sure that these things are carried out. My friends the Barakat is feel alone we made it clear in the negotiating session. That we work. Hard to demonstrations but that a boycott would continue. But this is the way we are sure. This is the way we are sure. And that we are sure our sale. That these agreements will be met now we will tell you when to call the boycott off. And I tell you off the record that they planned to do these things in less time than they stayed here. They wanted us to give them the maximum
number of days but they planned to do it in less time than that because this boycott it really hurt and they admitted that. Our our. Own let us be sure to keep this movement going. Now the thing is this we are going to work for the next few weeks in voter registration. Our. The old I want to say to you that I don't know. In 10. Who and. My staff people who are so dedicated and you know all of them I would venture to several time. To leave here on til they can work long enough with you. And the leaders of the voter registration program of this community to double the number of Negro registered voters in Birmingham. Now we can do the old we've
demonstrated our power in the area of nonviolent direct action now now as get political power through the gaining of the bout. God bless and we will see you. Monday night. BC. Lance was a man. Turned upon his men. This is our leader. He spoke on the house tonight. Now let me say this to you my friends on my morning we want on all of the students together at 16st to get involved in a voter registration drive. We want them to go in a door to door campaign knocking on doors and making a survey. Getting the names and addresses of all of the people who are not registered voters
in your block. We haven't Babbo will be able to tell you more about that. Now whatever you do do on Monday. On Monday you ought to send your children to school. Just that nothing has ever happened. Now nobody has been suspended. And not going next door assuming that they're going to be suspended. But let us send them home to school just lag nothing has happened. And then if they are suspended. We told her to go she'd intimated that we would have to let them know that those students was going were going to get it other students in school. And the first day but go macho
around that school. And then the second day it bad and invited them back in. They were going head on over to the white school. I. Now keep turn mind Monday. See to it that hair for a child is in stewed jetlag non-Apple. And if they don't send none to you about it tell them to you just keep your mouth don't send them to them about. What if they call you. And go on in it to Superintendent call you in and tell them. That I learned in your school system. That our nation was created under the dock. And dedicated to the principle that old me and a created equal that your teachers taught us. That all citizens the same rights and they were guaranteed them by the
Constitution. And we believe because the white folk told us so. And look on their own or die. And you tell them that. Now. They're sending for us already. They send in for Martin Luther King and Ravin now that I've already all better Joe if you want us to come. Rana was St John of the night where Reverend Dr. Anderson told him. So if you win a victory in winning Hamm said I've already told the chief the polies he made will clean out the jails and Oban going our way. Nashville Tennessee. Well just right now. You saw on television tonight I know Nashville Knoxville Tennessee won't see us and Movil is trying to get around us. God did going to hear it in
a pointed out by Rachel come in. Jackson Mississippi Coelus and loaded us. What I'm here to tell you we can't go in there where on telly every one of these promises is carried out radio and band. Arrest what. What is soon as these promises have been carried out. We got to move on. And all. Now my friends. I wanted to boost the man who is going to bring you to pep talk tonight. Is a man who needs no introduction. I've known him a long time. Back to one of our great churches here. He is going to give us a message on our back. What do you look. At a Famous Bowl Game 5 ball mills on smale road.
A crucial game. In the series of desegregation has been. Bullied in Birmingham Alabama. Martin Luther King Jr. has served as general manager of Freedom's team. For shows where it has been pitching. Ralph Abernathy has been behind the plate. Why do you want to have best field manager. Andrew Young. At first base CT. James Babel courts at Chas Billups then refeed. Abraham would then send a fee to meet then right field. Became playing
first base and John Porter was playing third and ends of a playing second and yours truly was at shortstop. And the Negro community of Birmingham was reddish when cold to take the fee. God is the great commission of the freedom of the. United States Supreme Court justice is the game. Governor Wallace hasn't had a hit over seems. It. May or may not Haynes. And that shot the whole. Commission away has
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Program
Bull Conner in Birmingham
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/500-6688mp8q
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Description
Description
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Date
1963-05-10
Topics
Social Issues
Race and Ethnicity
Media type
Sound
Duration
00:54:10
Credits
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 5484 (University of Maryland)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 01:00:00?
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Citations
Chicago: “Bull Conner in Birmingham,” 1963-05-10, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed February 4, 2023, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-6688mp8q.
MLA: “Bull Conner in Birmingham.” 1963-05-10. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. February 4, 2023. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-6688mp8q>.
APA: Bull Conner in Birmingham. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-500-6688mp8q