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My fellow colleagues ladies and gentlemen it is with great pleasure that I welcome you to this convocation which commemorates a significant event in the history of our country the founding of Howard University. One hundred and fifteen years ago. The charter by which the Congress established the university made a reality of a dream of 17 men. The original trustees or cooperators of this institution. Because of that dream more than 50000 young men and women have graduated from Howard and thereby have realized their personal dreams and enriched
our nation and our world. It is the fulfillment of these dreams that we celebrate today. We request that you remain standing for the invocation by Dr. Evans Crawford dean of the chapel and following the invocation. The exercises will proceed as assisting in the program. Thank you. Let us pray reverently O God we will acknowledge those whose prayers made for the dawning and the sunrise of this Howard heritage. We thank you for all of the rays of light that have sustained it and that have brightened the paths of its sons and daughters. We are grateful for the lustre of their lives
and for the leadership they have given to people all over the world. We give you praise for all who have brought honor to this heritage and especially for those we honor today. For being beacons in their professional integrity and their human outreach. It is in light of the Lord that we would continue to see the light of hope and promise. Even amid the darkness that seems to wait to extinguish the flame of our hard won liberties amid today's encircling gloom lead us as a kindly light. For we would recall our past and we would pray that our memories may rouse us. To hear the cause of the present doubts still abound about our dignity and our capacity. Many still would measure us. By what we have suffered as
victims rather than the value with which you have created us so we need a sense of daring set once again in a climate of devotion to keep us with that steady beat so that we can march on to victory as one rekindle the flame of our forebears in us that we may shine bright among those dimming lights and those who seem to be tiring in that quest for freedom renew us with the combination of courage and compassion so that we may speak truth to power and speak that truth in love and in all that we do. Help us to let our light so shine. That. All men and women may see our good works and give you the glory. Amen.
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My God my God my God oh my God oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh. Oh oh oh
oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh. Oh. Oh oh oh
oh. Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh. Oh.
Each year since nineteen forty three Howard University has honored selected alumni. And presented to them distinguished achievement awards at the Tartan Day dinner at the dinner last evening we continued that tradition and I have a pleasure now to introduce to you the 1982 recipients who grace us with their presence here this morning for distinguished service in the fields of dentistry and public service on at Addis Anderson. For distinguished service in the fields of medicine and medical education. Name you well Julian
Haywood. For distinguished service in the fields of law and public service. Gabrielle Kirk McDonald. And for distinguished service in the fields of business and international service. Frank Savitch. Also the Board of Trustees has authorized presentation of special citations to individuals who have made substantial financial contributions to the university.
Last evening the citations in the form of illuminated scrolls were presented to Dr. Margarete Williams Foster and Dr. D with T. Wylton I asked you to join with me and expressed them to them. I'm grateful applause for their generosity. Mr. President I have a distinct pleasure and honor and privilege to present to you a distinguished actress and humanitarian. Ruby Dee. To race.
To receive a degree doctor of humanities. Ruby and Wallace are to use the name by which the world knows you. Ruby Dee you are a dramatic roles. Many of them pioneering. And your writings have made a unique and refreshing contribution to the world of the theatre stage screen
radio and television. And you have brought to that world not only a superb talent but in addition a graciousness and a dignity that have given you a special place in American hearts your interest and outstanding gifts. And fortunately for us been exclusively devoted to your profession you have found the time to work tirelessly and unselfishly during the past several decades. For practically every worthwhile civil rights and liberation movement in our nation. Your great social compassion coupled with your charm and brilliance as a performer has made you one of the most highly respected figures on the American stage.
Born in Cleveland Ohio you grew up in Harlem under the watchful eyes of admirable parents who saw to it that their children had a decent a disciplined and cultural upbringing during your student years at Hunter College. You were also an apprentice with the famous American Negro Theater which then function from the basement of Harlem's legendary one hundred and thirty fifth Street Branch of the New York Public Library in 1943. You made your Broadway debut in a walk on part of a short lived play called South Pacific. Not. The Musical. However in 1946 you appear again on Broadway
not in a walk on part this time but in the role of Libby George and Robert or Audreys drama Japp a play in which Ossie Davis began his theatrical Korea during the same year. You played the title role in a long running all negro broadcast production of Anna. The costume although you have appeared in several negro films earlier the motion picture which brought you to the attention of film producers was the Jackie Robinson story in which you played the wife of Jackie. There followed an impressive number of other motion picture successes you have made appearances on radio. Perhaps the best known was
the Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee study hour which starting in 1974 ran for three years and was heard over 65 stations across the country on the national black radio network your television debut was made in 1960 when your appeared an actress choice on camera three. Over the years you have been a guest artist on several television series. You received an Emmy nomination for your performance in one episode of East Side West Side series and you were the first black actress to perform on a highly popular series of Peyton Place in February of last year. You and your husband launched a new diversified and
fascinating series with Ossie and Ruby celebrating the arts of life which is currently being carried out on public broadcasting. Whenever that was of course to be defended or a battle to be fought in the interest of civil rights or black liberation Weber with the Martin Luther King or Malcolm X Webb of a National Association for the Advancement of Colored People are the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee you an Aussie where there. You have also toured at numerous college campuses dramatising black literature and in 1970 the New York Urban League gave you its Frederick Douglas award for bringing a sense of pride to countless millions
throughout your highly successful career. You never became a primadonna. In short you never left the people and that is why. All of us love you. Ruby Dee because of your positive position as one of the nation's theatrical greats because of the superlative artistry you bring to that position because of the important part you have played and elevating the tone of black trail. On the American stage and because of your unswerving and deep rooted dedication to the cause of human rights Howard University takes enormous pride and pleasure in honoring you therefore by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Board of Trustees of Howard University.
I do now confer upon you the degree. Dr. Humanitas Norris Gaza and admit you to all the rights and privileges pertaining to I direct that you be invested with the hood appropriate to this high degree and I present you with this on my.
Madam Chairman members of the Board of Trustees my fellow administrative and Procrit colleagues my fellow students alumni of Howard and friends of this university it is my pleasure to present to you all the address for this conversation. Dr. Ruby. Oh my my my this is such a day
will come. You know you see this because. Thank you. My eye on those. Yes. And good morning. Good morning to you. Dr. James E. G. Present to Dr. Jodeen pitmen Woods chairman of the board to the faculty the staff the loamy and most of all to the student body of this great university to my family my friends my dear husband
and to the distinguished ladies and gentlemen gathered here today and to the founders in memoriam and their descendant generations upon whose shoulders we now stand. First my congratulations to all past and present present. I Lumi awardees especially to the right is Zora Neale Hurston and Tony Maurice. And. Then my deepest thanks. Thanks to the Howard University the committee for conferring upon me this degree which I shall ever cherish and for the honor of being chosen. You're a first woman orator of the
day. Gwendolyn Brooks Pulitzer Prize poet has written a poem in tribute to Paul Robeson and I think the last three lines might serve as a theme for what I would like to express here. And they go we each others harvest. We are each other's business. We are each other's magnitude and bond. I think I didn't go to a college like Howard
and everything happens as it should. I think some of the time and I remember Fortunately I remember taking piano lessons and violin lessons and I remember learning to write poetry because when company came to our house where we could be excused to go on about our business. My two sisters and my brother we had to either play the violin or the piano or recite a poem you know. This was pre radio pre-TV home. Sounds like real time anyhow. And so I mean even when radio came on we didn't have a radio in our house that's how very dedicated my mother was to this business of development and learning and writing and. And that was due to her very special efforts.
That I developed in a particular direction. She was determined to see us through for children that she had adopted through marriage and which made me know that giving birth is one thing and being a parent is another. At any rate. Then. I majored in languages where I was going to be an interpreter you know. And I studied French and Spanish and German and of course English literature. And I gloried in the word and the thought the idea and the poets. But there was something missing. There was a kind of hole in my life and it was after I got out of Hunter College that my education really began because then I discovered the world of black American literature. And it was those writers who enhanced what I had learned previously who put me in context and showed
me ways and gave me direction and told me who I was and comforted me. And so. I appreciated them and I don't see how one can be black in America and not know the literature writers are so so neglected I think at any rate. One of the poets I learned about in in that I learned to love in college was I was Walter bent and I think all the girls loved him because he wrote them a book called This is my beloved aunt and I'm going to take a liberty here and a couple of liberties and you know I'm going to change go from the subjective to the collective in terms of the love poetry because there's something I want to share with you because hate is legislated
written into the primmer and testament shot into our blood and brains like vaccine or vitamins we need love more than ever now we need each other's love. We need love more than hope. Money wisdom or a drink. Because slow negative death with the world and only yes yes yes can turn the tide. And of course in school I've gotten a glimpse of the black poets. Paul Laurence Dunbar and my mother's favorite was a poem by Langston called Mother son
and I like to share it with you. I say this to my son or my sons. Well some day a life for me ain't been no crystal stair. It's had text in it and splinters and boards torn up in places with no carpet on the floor bare but all the time I've been climbing on and regionalizing and turning corners and sometimes going in the dark when in no light. So why don't you turn back. Don't you sit down on the steps because you find it hard. Don't you. By now
I still climbing. I still go in life for me. No Chryst. Another one of my very favorite authors is Toni Morrison and when I think of how much we owe to our mothers and fathers and I and to the land to which we came and this is an I'd like to share with you an excerpt because we find readings everywhere including the paper on the bathroom floor you know and especially in the dentist office. And this is from her book Song of Solomon. He had come out of nowhere as ignorant as a hammer and broke as a convict with nothing but free papers a Bible and a pretty black haired wife.
And then one year he least 10 acres. The next ten more. Sixteen years later he had one of the best farms in Montauk County a farm that colored their lives like a paint brush and spoke to them like a sermon. You see the farmer said to them see what you can do. Never mind you can tell one letter from another. Never mind you were born a slave never mind you lose your name never mind nothing here. This here is what a man can do if he puts his mind to it and is back in it. Stop let it said stop picking around the edges of the world we live here on this planet in this nation in this county right here nowhere else. We've got a home in this rock don't you see.
Nobody is starving in my home and about our home. You got one to grab it. Grab this land take it. Hold it my brothers make it my brothers shake it squeeze it turn it twisted beat it kick it kiss it with it stop it. Dig it plow it see it. Revit rented by itself. Own it. Build it multiply it and pass it on. Can you hear me pass it on. But they shut the top of his head off and ate his pie and Georgie peaches and even as boys these men began to die and I die. Still. Another one of the women I love. Of the poets. I love a lot of them too. Was is is Coulon and
wodges but the kind of one of the poets that I wished I needed. In college you know I needed that kind of poem. Kind of sharing an insight and talent emerges. This is from her book how I got older and she writes it. This particular piece and calls it for our fathers. The wind blew my father from the south to the north. He came with a heart as deep and as wide as a tunnel. He came with a dream and a hope for a beautiful harmonious future. He came that it was a prayer a
jitterbug him a colored corn bread sweet potato green country song. The wind shifted him like wheat from chaff like corn from husks and the wind that blew him here blew him down blew him around while the flashing lights glazed his eyes and rechanneled his heart in a new direction. He became a new dimension. He learned how to lock and close doors and bar windows. He brought dogs not for love but for protection. He learned to carry guns not for harmless hunting but for restraining man. He learned how to be cool not country to be stiff and serious and silent laughter was reserved for home and homebodies home folk. He was a tree with cautious and displaced roots walking the streets with feet that hurt that tapped the rhythm of concrete and not the
loving crush of green grass the history the root the strength of my father is the strength we rest like rocks our fathers and their brothers came and sweated in factories prowled the streets for day labor in their card playing and drinking with their bomb in an evil Gilliard and their God was their strength their pride their purpose. The face and no one to tell them they were black they graze their Miras every morning and did what they could to retain some love some dignity some honor while they lost their sons to wild city streets and wars their women to white men's kitchens and corners. They gave us a portion of their grace
they gave to us a legacy of hope. They pushed us out us kicking and screaming through rapacious schools hoping that somehow an education for us would right the wrongs for them and we grew loud and bold and stupidly brave and taught ourselves to call them weak and useless as the Holocaust of the 60s began. We blame them for surviving but living as best they could. We blame them for what history did not allow them or even us to do. Never remembering that the love we had for ourselves was the love they gave us. When I was a child my father was the fix it man and everything that went wrong in my house. My father could fix. I thought my father could fix everything. I had a puppy and because we had rat in our house my mother laid poisoning on our part dirt pop linoleum floors and my puppy being
animal beings Dubard incurious ate the poison then. If I die and mama tried it out. But how was bleeding Daddy big black daddy to fix it made. And I would not let Mama throw my puppy away because I believe that when my daddy came over from work. He could say oh the 60s stripped us of such love and trust and we ran they get in the streets changing our hair our food our God out dress him condemning our elders and screaming obscenities at each other in the name of revolution in the name of positive change. We stripped ourselves of our heritage of tradition of the strings of old wise men who were our
cushions of love who gave us extravagant care who were our rocks in this weary land. Now I am no longer a child and I have seen my father's son my brother shot down in the night by a black man and I have seen my father's heart that tunnel of love turn into a sieve of dust and at my brother's graveside I watched my father. Your father our fathers set stiff and strong brave and proud and ramrodded in grief. I saw that Jesus in my father's hands saw a doctor lawyer preacher in his face father a construction worker in his back saw his actual hair turned white and gray saw him fold into himself his body limp like
some autumn leaf opening and closing in the beating. When I saw him and all the others and you we must look to our old man look to them for strength for knowledge for direction. And learn what they have always known that love and respect is our beginning. Love and Respect is our right and we must learn how to love to Protech to cherish our young all our own.
That was Coulomb and Neiges we are each other's harvest. We are each other's business and we are each others magnitude and bound him. I received a paper from the Third World women Lyons a little throw away. And it inspired something I had for you know. Calling all women calling all women calling all right just women calling all says this calling all sisters calling all right does this deal away to our secret place have a meeting face to face. Look at the facts and determine our pace. We want to reach first and second them. Women come together women in and outside the power structure working women well women women who feel alienated and isolated. Women who are frustrated who have given up women and women questioning women women and polarize and organize ostracized by being
penalized. Help us start to bridge the gaps racial cultural generation. We want action generation. These men these men they. Just don't want it again. Ketchin ex-prisoner women singing dancing pretty women old and young and middle age women like this say oh yes and bring your lunch. Problems. Problems problems common problems that we make and cause each other says GRANDMOTHER. Mean you can bring a little brother sallam you grab a cab you get limo or pick him up and lay him down democracy or socialism lesbianism and I give them feminism here and now pugilism we're just going to get them. We've got to get together or die. Now is the time. Find solution will make that next revolution
on. Oh yes. And don't forget you march. When one of the things that I when I knew that I was to receive this honor you know it can change me for weeks here and I was reading and you know you read a lot of stuff and you don't come away with a couple of pages but I renewed my interest in the end in the deep that is how it and the profound structure here. And I came across an article that was written in 1930 in 1930 Howard University under the presidency of Dr. Mordecai Johnson.
So I fit to award Dr. WBB Dubois an honorary doctorate. And what he had to say to the graduate is graduating students some 50 years ago. Seems to me to be just as pertinent today so allow me to quote in part from that prophetic speech someday every human being will have college training. Today some must stop with the grades and some with high school and only a few will reach college. It is of the utmost importance and the essential condition of I was survival an advance that those chosen for college be our best and not simply our richest or most idle. But even this growth must be led. But it must be guided by ideals.
We have lost something. Brothers and Sisters wandering in a strain in strange lands we have lost our ideals we have come to a generation which seeks advance without ideals of discovery. Without stars it cannot be done. Certain great landmarks and guiding facts must stand eternally before us and at the risk of mobilizing. I must end by emphasizing this matter of ideals of Negro students and graduates the ideal of poverty. This is the direct and to this is the present American ideal of wealth. We cannot all be wealthy. We should not all be wealthy and ideal industrial organization in such. No person should have an income which he does not personally need nor wield a power solely for his own whim. If civilization is to turn out millionaires it will also turn
beggars and prostitutes from a simple healthy life on a limited income as the only responsible ideal of civilised folk the ideal of work not idleness not dawdling but hard continuous effort at something worth doing by a person supremely interested in doing it and who knows how it ought to be done and is willing to take infinite pains doing it. The ideal of knowledge not guesswork not merely a careless theory not inherited religious dogma clung to because of fear and inertia and in spite of logic but critically tested and laboriously gathered fact marshalled under scientific law and and feeding rather than choking the glorious world of fancy and imagination of poetry and art of beauty and deep culture finally and especially the ideal of sacrifice I almost hesitate to mention there's so much
sentimental twaddle has been written about her. But when I say sacrifice I mean sacrifice. I mean a real and definite surrender of personal ease and satisfaction. I embellish it with no theological fairy tales of a rewarding God of milk and honey heaven. I am not trying to scare you into that duty of sacrifice or the fires of a mythical hell. I am repeating the stark fact of survival of life and culture on this earth. Thou shalt fore go thou shalt do with out we American negroes are not a happy people who we feel perhaps as never before of a sting and bitterness of our struggle our little victories won here and there serve but to reveal the shame of our continuing semi slavery and social caste.
We are torn asunder within our group because of the rasping pressure of the struggle without. We are as a race not simply dissatisfied. We embodied dissatisfaction to increase abiding satisfaction for the mass of our people and for all people. Someone must sacrifice something of his own happiness. The larger the number ready to sacrifice the smaller the total sacrifice necessary. It is silly to tell intelligent human beings to be good and you will be happy. The truth is that they be good decent honorable and self-sacrificing and you will not always be happy. You will often be desperately unhappy. You may even be crucified dead and buried and the third day you will be just as dead as the first but with the death of your happiness it may easily come increased
happiness and satisfaction and fulfillment for other people. Strangers. Unborn babies and created worlds if are for real sacrifice for others in your life. Work appeals to you. Here it is. Here is the chance to build an industrial organization on a basis of logic and ethics such as is almost wholly lacking in the modern world. It is a tremendous task and it is the task equally and at once of Howard and Tuskegee of Hampton and Fisk of the college and of the industrial school our real schools must become centres of this vast crusade with the faculty and the student body girding themselves for this new and greater education. The major part of the responsibility will still fall upon those who have already done their school work and that means upon the Allouni who like
you have become graduates of an institution of learning. But unless the vision comes to you and comes quickly of the educational and economic problem before the American Negro that problem will not be solved. You not only enter their form the worshipful company company of that vast body of people upon whom a great center of learning with ancient ceremony and colorful trappings has put the accolade of an intellectual knighthood but of people who have become the unselfish thinkers and planners of a group of people in whose hands lies the economic and social destiny of the darker peoples of the world and by that token of the world itself that was W. B. Dubois I would like to
conclude my. Offering inspired by the Reverend Jesse Jackson's chant. I am somebody. I. I say I am. As I am somebody. Somebody because Biglow you you you make me so mad because because you are part of the guys you you share the same madness of me when you laugh. You make my lips a lot of laughter. When you cry. Engine engine pulls me from
inside when you are hungry by food. My food turns to poison makes me burst bony fingers clutch my tongue when I when I know your thirst because you are hot because you use share. Somebody notice me when I see your precious blow out of place your bones exposed in death my blood my blood chills and stops as I try to give you breath. I must keep you keep you from all over. We are in danger. Your a of man. Hope you find our hope. Hope you find relief because you are not. With you. You that somebody is me. I cannot own that which you cannot also possess. Crime is man. And from now on I'll confess for God.
You are part of you. You share some bad news of me ew ew ew ew ew at the other end of the Steeles spring of hate so we can see when you when you know my love my love will warm you cleanse. So let me let me take your pet pet me off thing. Feet your face. No no your heart beat and no doubts erase it builds you up hard because you use shit. This by me. We are each others we each others business. We are each others
magnitude and bond. Thank you.
Oh. Oh oh oh.
All. All not
all the the so called Be lot. So.
Not that we cannot. Thank you enough for sharing with us assembled in this room. And with our vast radio listening audience your inspiring message particularly do we thank you for the way in which you conveyed your thoughts our way which those thoughts could not fail to reach our heart. As Howard University embarks on its one hundred and sixty year. May I assure you that we shall always cherish the memory of your work and the presence of your person with us on this occasion.
We thank. It has been appropriately observed that he who enters a university walks on hallowed ground. Without question this observation pertains to Howard University. It is the ground upon which a bold enterprise was initiated an enterprise that has flourished despite meager resources debilitating skepticism and opposition which has fluctuated between mildness and virulence. It is the ground upon which untold sacrifices have been made
by students and their families as they have dared to aspire to and fight for. A better world for themselves. For all their descendants and for their fellow sisters and brothers most of all it is the ground upon which the thought of learning was lit. Establishing continuity and fraternity with the community of scholars past and present for it is by this light of this talk that those who thirst for knowledge will find it and in doing so will ensure a better tomorrow because an inquiring mind can be neither complacent nor satisfied. We face our future with a
firm commitment to back her complaints complacency. We will succeed because we will never yield to the negative forces which seek to obstruct our way continuing to steer the course on which we embarked in 1867. This university is determined to make the American idea the American reality. All of us must join in renewing our dedication to the mission that is ours historically and which has never been more difficult to realization than it is in this moment of time. We shall give our best effort and win when we have done that
we shall take the extra mile to ensure that through sacrifice and shared standard of excellence. We carry forward to the future of our proud heritage from the past. For Howard University there is no river too wide to cross no mountain too high to climb. Here we dream the impossible dream. Here we come from the unconquerable father at this university. We have learned there is no hiding place and no resting place.
We take a moment to acknowledge. Certain specific individuals or groups of individuals who join us for this occasion and who come together to celebrate another important moment in the history of our country and in the history of this institution I shall call their names and ask them to stand and be recognized. It is pointless for me to ask that you refrain from applauding. I have done so for twelve years. Without your co-operation. Not that Geraldine Pitman woods the chairman of our board of trustees. Members of the board of trustees and trustees be married to.
Dr. James Maybrick Jr. president emeritus. Dr. Arthur Chester red head. The chairman of the 1982 Chapa day dinner. Relatives and friends of the top day award recipients. Mr. Tito how would the great grandson of general all of whom this institution.
Members of the diplomatic corps. Members of Congress who are present. Members of the international sponsors Council. Members of the Presidents administrative cabinet. The vice presidents emeritus. Mr. Clifton a kerning president of the Howard University Alumni Association.
Dr. Herbert the chairman of the university center. The DS and directors of our institution. The distinguished members of the 17 faculties of Howard University. University administrative staff personnel. Mr. Walter J Woods president of the Howard University student
association. All of the members of the student body. The relatives and friends of Dr. Ruby Dee. The eminent and distinguish doctor Ossie Davis.
The retired members of the Howard University family. Mrs. James z. When I decided to get married. Almost 29 years ago I decided before I got married so it would be a unilateral decision. That my wife and I would have two children a boy for us and a girl. Second. The
boy was to be named James Edward cheak junior. The girl was to be named James Seena. It would be. That. When my daughter our daughter was born in 19 63 it was my misfortune to be in Memphis Tennessee. And when I returned home my daughter had named her Janet invisible. This is the first occasion that I have been privileged to present her formally to an audience at Howard. It is appropriate that I do so now because it
is her intention of being with freshmen come this year. Dan. I wish you to know that a delayed telecast of this convocation will be aired on what's station w h m m t b channel 32 this evening at 6 o'clock P.M.. This will be the second time in the history of this institution that our of a convocation exercises will have been telecast and by our own station we invite you. To watch.
This has been a great and glorious occasion for all of us and we thank all of you who have contributed to making it a success. We ask that you stand and join in the singing of the alma mater. But before we begin to do so let us express our profound thanks and eternal gratitude to the university choir and Dr. nards. So out. So. As.
We. Know. We know. We know. We know to be.
We. Know we know. We know we know. We
know her know her
for me. You were. Do. Moo.
Moo. Moo. Moo. Moo.
115th Annual Howard University Charter Day Convocation
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115th Annual Howard University Charter Day Convocation with Ruby Dee receiving honorary degree.
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Director: Holland, L. D.
Producer: Holland, L. D.
Producing Organization: WHUT
Speaker: Dee, Ruby
Speaker: Cheek, James
Speaker: Crawford, Evans E.
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Chicago: “115th Annual Howard University Charter Day Convocation,” 1982-00-00, WHUT, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed October 26, 2021,
MLA: “115th Annual Howard University Charter Day Convocation.” 1982-00-00. WHUT, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. October 26, 2021. <>.
APA: 115th Annual Howard University Charter Day Convocation. Boston, MA: WHUT, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from