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A. The American West was once wilderness. A place of raw beauty where mighty beasts roam free and the soul of man was humbled. There is still such a place. More than two million acres of deeply gorgeous fire scarred and geysers studded rocky mountain landscape. Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone of 150 years ago offered no such comforts as Old Faithful in. The mountain men and trappers who roamed this rugged and isolated land filled Montanas bar rooms with
stories of a place where the earth spewed steam and. Few believed. By 1872. Three geological expeditions had confirmed. The fantastic tales. And on March 1st of that year Yellowstone National Park was created. The Northern Pacific Railroad jumped on that bandwagon and they were thinking from the very get go that this was a great place where we can put people on a train in Minneapolis or Chicago and cart them out to Yellowstone and make money off the. Railroad didn't get here till 1883. The first arrival of the railroad is really what kicked Yellowstone into gear. All of a sudden we had 5000 visitors that summer instead of the 500 to 1000 we'd had before then. By the turn of the century there were a number of hotels in Yellowstone. But the Spartan accommodations that the upper guys are basing kept many of the. Way.
In a scenario repeated in other national parks. Powerful railroad interests helped to open the parks to tourism by creating first class accommodations. The railroads were bankrolling the national parks. For the whole first half of the 20th century. Please don't get me wrong they weren't. Doing anything with resource protection or building the roads or things like that. But for tourist travel to the Great Western National Park to Glacier National Park to Samedi to Yellowstone. They were the ones who were providing the funds to build the Grand Hotel. At the turn of the century. Every child the president of the Yellowstone Park Hotel Company of the time managed to convince the Northern Pacific to fund for him building a very good hotel here at the upper Geyser Basin and he hired a young architect at 29 years of age Robert Chambers Ramer to come and do it for him.
Robert Riemer was a versatile architect who appreciated the relationship between a building and its setting. This sensitivity would create a lasting identity for lodges in Yellowstone and all the national parks. The original queen and plans were scrapped. After visiting the upper Geyser Basin. Riemer was inspired. He turned to nature and designed an asymmetrical rustic lodge to reflect its setting. He understood the nature that surrounds the building the trees the mountains the rocks take just about any tree a tree is not symmetrical. It's asymmetrical but it has a balance of form. I really wanted to do the same thing in building. Construction of the end began in June of 1993 and continued through a very long and cold Yellowstone winter. It was so cold nails shatter but the work continues.
Little is known about the 50 man who built the old faithful in even most of their names are lost to history. They drag hundreds of native lodgepole pines and tons of Rhyolite rock to the shadow of Old Faithful geyser. Robert reamers giant structure steadily rose from the steamy earth but things didn't always go as planned. I'm sure that at some point the master carpenter came over holding the drawings just angry as can be. Mr. reburn. You see this thing on the drawing and you see that up there on the building. I can't build it and reamer looked at his drawings. He looked up at his buildings and he said. Oops. And so Riemer would make changes as time went on he massaged if he improved it. He he made parts the buildings that didn't exist in his original concept. The Old Faithful opened in June 1984. The
first great lodge in the world's first national park. The original section known as the old house had 140 rooms. Initially the middle class couldn't afford to come to a place like Yellowstone. The train ride was expensive and when you got here it was $50 for a five day tour on the park which included your meals and your accommodations but that was a lot of money in those days and it was basically well-to-do folks who could afford that. So the hotel had to be built to their expectations. It had a rustic look to it. No doubt about that and everyone commented on that in a very very positive terms. But the old faith was built as a luxury hotel. This building had electricity from day one. It had flush toilets from day one it had lights and telephones from day one. Cold running water steam heat. It was a luxury. Over the years two wings were also designed by Robert riemer.
Today old faithful in offers 326 rooms in the heart of Yellowstone Park. The inn is owned by the American people and overseen by the National Park Service. It is operated by a private concession company. This is very much what our rents looked like today and the old school. Is exactly how we ran. Today we're renting 89 curiosity about the past is so great that interpreters such as Ruth Quinn conduct tours four times a day. This piece of furniture is an original piece of furniture in this room it's the wash stained with the copper top here that would have had a pitcher in the basin on top of it so they could bring water from down the hall to washing their hands. A chamber pot underneath so they could not have to walk down the hall in the middle of the night. And so. The Rams in the original part of the building are still very much the same way they were constructed. We've left a lot of the character the same way we do now have sinks in the rooms but visitors in the original part of the
building still walk down the hall for the toilets and showers just like they did when the building. OK. We do have more modern rooms and additions to the building but here in the original part in the old house we try to keep that character the same as it would have been when visitors day. There are certain people who only stay in the old part of the building. It gives them a feeling of being connected to those visitors who came here many many years ago and they are essentially our history our past. You can get a feeling of that pass by staying in this building. Over the years I don't know. I've replaced several hundred of these I suppose around the end. Like little kids get food with them and. Get out and stick in your pocket and have went back to Iowa. You know I never got the idea it was that this is just no interest in that material.
Blacksmith George Ainslee is one of the many craftsmen who preserves the legacy. That go in here is to make the work look like it worked originally. So my job is to try to match the texture and the color and the scale. That the original ark had in mind. You know the end is not a. It's not a dead building it's a live building we're still working out we're still using it. It's a constant job to keep. A building like this up and run because it is in use all the time it's not a museum it's still being used. This is the front entrance to the air. And if you set her very long when it's cold out you'll see this door open. It's like it's never still open close open close. When I came on the project this door had worn down to where it was dragging on the floor was taken several guys to drag it over in the morning and drag it out at night. We came in ground out and just flat put it after Bush. And now with that pushing in there it works like it used to.
See it mass and size of the weight of this hardware. The idea was to try to match the scale of the West. And the park around here without mimicking. You know they wanted to build stuff with big and heavy. So this was the first thing with people came the. First experience after seeing the whole building was seeing this door and getting a feel this hardline handling. Atop the lobby's massive fireplace clings the most famous piece of iron the giant clock it was built below me here about 60 feet I guess by George Colpitts was a blacksmith on the project designed by Robert Ray. But. It's centuries old technology. Brought into a modern setting that still operate and it's still beautiful it's still one of the key points of the end. It's it's an honor to get out here and just take a look at how the old guy made the letters A
number of hours all put together. Any time I could work on this building. It's an honor. The timber frame has endured a relentless assault of heat. Cold Rain and snow. By the late 1970s. The strain on the giant wooden structure had taken its toll. There were some people that thought the old faithful in was in such bad shape we should tear it down. There were more joints coming apart. The roof was collapsing in sections. Logs were falling off the building. They needed a lot of work. In 1979 a 10 year restoration and rehabilitation of the old faithful in began. The. Restoration of a log structure this size had never been attempted. It would need the right man to oversee it. That man was Andy Beck.
Much like reamers effort in building the men back and his crew work night and day and through harsh winters restoring it. The two architects were from different areas but they shared a common bond. Old Faithful in. Just when the old faithful in bed had been restored to its original glory. It was nearly destroyed. The. Fire is a constant threat to a wooden lodge like in the inferno that engulfed Yellowstone country in 1988. It was like nothing in recent memory. As the flames surrounded the end. A new water system saw the roof. Volunteers stepped out sparks.
Then suddenly the wind shifted a million acres have burned. But old faithful in stood uncharted. The fires of 1988 reminded everyone that nature is in charge. In Yellowstone. The American West was once wilderness. A place of raw beauty where mighty peace roam free and the soul of man was humbled.
There is still such a place. More than two million acres of deeply gorged fire scarred and geysers studded rocky mountain landscape. Yellowstone National Park mystery. It was hurtful in the way the oriented. You didn't oriented to face Old Faithful geyser your aunt so that when your stage coach rolled up in front of people Geyser was. Racing directly ahead of you. He. Stands here next to the guys without upstaging them which probably could be done anyway. In. The moment the guys are wrapped in the guise of Rush takes over and all the buildings around Old Faithful including the. Largest. One with people within three minutes of the end of the geyser. Eruption. As they enter the front door. There's a ceiling over them for the first few feet inside and then it opens up an awful lot which
stands seventy six feet six inches from the bottom of the soles you shoes. To as high as you can see. And people are literally awestruck. They stand there with their jaws hanging open for a minute or two and sometimes not even speaking. And when they finally find words to speak it's the types of comments. Can you believe this. Building. In is the social hub of fieldstone those who come here to the upper Geyser Basin come to see the geysers and hot springs which rightfully overshadow the end they're the real scenic value here but those who step into the lobby of Old Faithful and find one of Yellowstone's greatest surprises in this structure. Today this building is very much a place for the public to come. Is not just restricted to the gas as it would have been when it opened in 1994. Visitors of all ages shapes sizes nationalities come inside and any of us are free to sit in a chair sit back enjoy an ice cream
just listen to the sights and the sounds of the building. When Robert Riemer designed the main lobby he had on a long span of open space that he wanted to open up for 76 and a half feet into the air and his concept of rustic architecture meant that he had to do something he couldn't get a single log to span the space he had to do something to get enough structure up there to hold. When I first started working on the building I was looking at the truss the structure that holds up the roof the triangular portion there and I resolve the truss in my head and realized it couldn't work. I would just can't fit together like that. And then I noticed there was a straight crack running down the center of the piece of wood. The crack that's in this column is not like the crack that's in the truss. It's absolutely dead straight it had to have been cut with a saw what Riemer did was he cut the
log in half out and then. Filled it with steel. And that's what's up they're holding it together. Robert reamer taught me a lot. Perhaps he was my mentor in some ways. I definitely do things differently now as a result of what I learned from Robert Reim. Located in the Rockies said. Utah's canyon country in the southern end of the Colorado Plateau Zion National Park offers a glimpse at a unique and seldom seen view of a canyon. The bottom. Grand Canyon is very grand. And Zion is almost the opposite of that rather than being at the top and looking down if you're in the bottom of it and things are a real cozy around you.
They're just totally different and I think they were intimate. When I was recently. Built in 1924 Zion Lodge. It's a simple rustic building forming the centerpiece of a community of cabins. This arrangement of day long and overnight cabins for some more bucolic approach to staying in a national park a far cry from the elegant know. What the Lodge does here is that it allows people to come in to the park and spend an evening here and get to experience the canyon in a way that the person who simply drives to the park doesn't get that same experience. Work and you sit in a dining room and next see what's what's here. You're right in the park that's the beauty of the lady right in the park. Here we sit on the patio and you can see the park here. We live in the park and it's a great experience to spend an overnight.
At the park. Zion Canyon was set aside as a national monument in 1929 and incorporated into the National Park Service. In 1992 the newly formed federal service was under the guidance of Steven Mather its first director. He did believe that for people to support the national park idea and these magnificent places. They had to be accessible. To people. Well the Union Pacific Railroad and others throughout the West saw building lines and taking people to national parks as good business. So never encouraged them to build spur lines. To national parks. And then ultimately lodges. And restaurants were places where people could stay. Once they arrived this was the nature of the railroads were in the West you just didn't create the east west road you had to reach all the areas that were adjacent to it. And so they began branching south into southern Utah and that line ran through Chuter City Utah. And this was in close proximity to Bryce Missouri in
national parks they're also not very far from MIT and. Steven Mather and the Union Pacific Railroad were just the right people at the right time at the right place to develop these national parks and to begin to get people to really appreciate the beauty and the ideal of national parks. The Grand Canyons more remote north rim and nearby Bryce Canyon were also being developed into national parks eager to compete with the Santa Fe the Union Pacific Railroad came up with an innovative plan under its subsidiary the Utah parks company. The railroad would build lodges at all three parks and link them with motor coaches running from a train stop at Cedar City Utah about 60 miles from Zion. The coaches would take visitors to each park in turn. They called it the loop tour and all three lodges became known as tour lodges.
They had 40 passenger buses that ran to the various parks. The first night they would stay in Zion. Or maybe two nights. Then drive from here to Grand Canyon and there was always a two night deal. Then from there to Bryce Canyon for one night stay then from Bryce back to Cedar City. By 1928 each of the three parks had a large. Mathare felt that these destinations needed a different approach than a single grand hotel like Elda bar. Instead he insisted that all three parks be a community of rustic overnight log cabins with a day lodge as the centerpiece. Of. A massive canyon carved by a river. Zion offers some one of a kind hiking experiences.
The Virgin River has been cutting down through the Navajo sandstone. And it has finally reached the shale layer. And that eroded away more easily from that spot. Downstream the canyon is widening. If you walk up to that spot and continue on you'll find that the canyon is very narrow and remains narrow and very vertical. So it's it's a change in. What erosion has left behind for us to see. One of the things that is unique about design is that it reminds us that we are very small in a much bigger world our natural environment. That's a very encompassing. These walls are very comforting to a lot of people. And the color of them and the sound of the wind. And the sound of the river moving through the canyon. And we very much become part of the natural environment here and it's easy to become part. I just think it's one of the most spectacular parks I know it's often been called the
Yosemite down color. It's just incredibly beautiful and every day that I come up here. I see something different. I think it depends on what they are looking for for people to find that design if they're looking for someone to entertain them they might as well not come looking for pieces that they're looking for beauty fun. Due to problems with traffic congestion. Cars are not allowed into most of Zion Canyon. In a bit of a throwback to the original loop tours a new shuttle system now takes people through the park. We're going back to the old way of doing buses and we're finding that people are enjoying it. It used to be the small number of parking spaces in this narrow canyon that was the limiting factor for access.
Now you can come up here at at any time of day and hike a trail. It's quiet. Guys and a lot of. Micro habitats for niches. Perfect spots for 900 types of players on a shuttle tour. 28 people can join a park ranger going up a canyon and have features of the park. Explain to them the geology the biology all of the plants the animals that you'll see. It turns out to be very popular with many folks. Perhaps Zion National Park is at its best in the evenings the sun setting over the colorful formations of the canyon creates a warm glow and the lawn in front of the lodge becomes a scene of serenity and relaxation. Dizzy all day will not resign. Let's just kind of relax and take it they sit on their Mirallas their porches. Just relax.
Sometimes And here you might see two or three deer eating feeding on. Some of us never did learn to relax. But you sir can. I believe national parks are one of the things that divide the country with good mental health. Places you can go to escape the everyday life. Places where you can go to enjoy nature. Places where you can go and just totally relax and see what the world used to be like. Being on the bottom of the canyon floor and looking up at these incredible canyon walls and to see the light change and you can have the wildlife in close proximity to me that's what makes this life unique. Some parks don't have a great deal to offer have here. So much so. That means that lodges just resilient. It comes with a canyon. Zion lodge was the first stop on the old loop tours.
After a couple of days there. People would crowd onto the old buses and move on to the next park. Today many people follow the old Gloup tour route. Visiting the parks and lodges in the same order. The next stop on the loop tour was the North Rim of the Grand Canyon and the Grand Canyon lodge. It was the middle stop of the tour. Located in a remote area of northern Arizona it was once a drive of many hours until the completion of the mile long Mount Carmel tunnel which cuts through some of the hazardous mountain passages. The drive between the two lodges is a paradox of geological and natural experience. The eroded landscapes of southern Utah give way to large stands of tall Ponderosa pines and it becomes hard to believe that one is headed for one of the world's largest canyons. Like the other loop tour locations. The design of Grand Canyon lodge was the
inspiration of Gilbert Stanley Underwood his great genius at the North Rim is that he manages to conceal one of the biggest holes in the world. Underwoods vision was really to bring people up to the lodge and have them leave their buses and come into the front entrance of the lodge into the lobby. But that same Grant came in and they saw this. Light emanating out of a lower room and saw huge windows there. They went down the stairs and then they went out into this what we call the sunroom. And all of a sudden boom there was a way that. Early Development was slow in coming to the north rim. Though only eight miles across the canyon from L.A. to bar on the South Rim. The two lodges are separated by hundreds of miles of mountain roads. Even today it is much less developed than it's sister to the south.
Envious of the Santa Fe success with Delta too far the Union Pacific Railroad was eager to build accommodations in this virtually untouched region. The result was one of the finest examples of rustic architecture ever built in a national park. The original lodge was like a Spanish. Fort. It had a very high tower. The thing is you can't take it all in. And you can't take it for very long. And so they back off. And even in my own experience if you can take your eyes off it for a while. And then gaze at it again you start seeing detail. But if you take it all at once it's overwhelming. The Grand Canyon does look unreal. And the reason it looks unreal is because there isn't anything else on the planet that looks like it.
And when your eye views it for the first time you know you're looking at something very very unusual. When we first got to the lodge. I think it was an overwhelming experience. I was just looking into the lodge and seeing the architecture and the beams ceilings and the. Chandelier and then coming into the sitting room and seeing the windows and the vest just kind of takes your breath away. As with the other Canyon parks the most popular activities at the North Rim are hiking and climbing. However the excessive daytime temperatures in the canyon and the harsh desert environment can make it a harrowing proposition. North Rim hiking its extreme. 400 searcher rescues a year. And when you look into that canyon here you realize that it's
unforgiving and you can get lost. You can get dehydrated you can get heat exposure. There's a million ways that you can really punish. After the Grand Canyon the tour buses would once again enter southern Utah to take passengers to the last stop on the book tour. Bryce Canyon. Of. Fifty six square miles splash of comr Bryce canyons unusual formations stand in stark contrast to this arid western region. After the massive spectacle of the Grand Canyon this intimate little park
was the perfect finale for the book tour experience. You can liken it to a full course meal. You go in design which is a first stop and then there you are to your sound or the starter and that's started the meal. The North Rim was the main course was the was the entree. And then you came to Bryce Canyon and there's where you had the desert. The geology of these parks are as interconnected as the histories they share as Lupe tour locations. All three are part of a geologic formation called the grand staircase. Gigantic steps have eroded cliffs whose varied bands of color like different formations as they descend toward the Grand Canyon. Bryce Canyon with its pink slips rock formation. This represents the upper most in this sequence of geologic layers. Below the pink cliffs is another step known as the grey cliffs below the grey cliffs or the white cliffs and those are found in Zion National Park. You work your way down to the Vermilion Cliffs and then the
chocolate cliffs which are down close to the Grand Canyon. So these three parks are kind of tied together by forming a complete geologic sequence represented by their different layers as gigantic stems. Bryce Canyon is something like a cave without a roof on it. That's what a lot of people will say stalactites. They call the ones that hang from the ceilings to like mite's the ones that grow up towards the ceiling. Well Rice Candy looks like a bunch of stalagmites inside of a cave these narrow skinny structures rock protruding up from the ground. Sideward about a quarter mile back from the unstable rim of Bryce Canyon the lodge reflects a Northern European rustic design. The only loop to launch not destroyed by fire and rebuilt at Bryce the original Gilbert Stanley Underwood vision can still be seen. I think it's just so special and we hear this so much more visitors they say. Grand
Canyon is so rock and Zion is beautiful but there's something about Bryce that people just love because it's a relatively small park and they call it intimate. It's very easy to get down on the trails. You can hike the only a mile or two and you can be right among these delicately carved formations and people feel like it's easy to become a part of this park. Wall Street is a deep narrow slot canyon that is part of the Navajo Trail and it's a very popular stretch of trail. And what Wall Street is is one of those deep vertical cracks which geologists called joints that are throughout this Claire-Anne formation. Those cracks are the pathways for water to get down in and. Erode away some of the rock and then widen the crack. The most dominant feature of Bryce are rock formations called hoodoos. Looking like the remnants of ancient castles these tall spires of stone are
unique to this area. A hoodoo that's the name that we give all of these intricately carved unusual rock formations at brazed. And then it's famous for the word who actually has two definitions one is a pillar or odd shaped rock and the other definition which is a little more intriguing would be of African origin and it means to cast a spell or cause bad luck. The. Way. We have an extraordinary sunrise this year. Candy one of the biggest questions we get is where's the best place to go for Sun. I think most everybody agrees Bryce one is of this place. It's on a peninsula of rock that sticks out into the main amphitheater and it almost is like that being the focal point of a parabola where the rising sun strikes into the amphitheatre reflects back to this point. And it's a very intense visual experience. It's 45 minutes that people will stand completely silent.
A hundred people be watching the sunrise it's spiritual burns. The employees would also sing to guests as they left the lodges called Sing away. These partic musical numbers would be a loop to her tradition. For nearly 60 years lasting until the Utah parks company turned the lodge's over to the park service in 1972. The best. Friends. And they just come and get everybody out of all the departments and just have them. I'll go out on the porch and line up and then we start saying it's a special song just for Bryce. It has stolen little bits from other songs every few years. Some of the old employees get together with Bryce and share memories of working at the park. Sometimes they even perform single ways just like they did in the past on some of these nostalgic occasions. The park service brings out an authentic old Lupe tour bus.
These people are former employees. They come back to find the magic. We're in the memory business and that's what the National Park Service has had in this large building the 20s and is full of memories. They create a rich addition farside give us a place of being they give us real purpose. And we came back to visit because we felt there was a magical part of our lives and there two years were young. And we came back to. See the magic again. And it's all here. We really are the repositories of the natural and cultural resources of this nation.
And the greatest libraries that the nation has of what it means to be American rather we're talking the natural resources. You can see looking out for him or talking about the cultural resources the history is truly the fiber of America. Located in the Rockies San Dimas Canyon Country in the southern end of the Colorado Plateau Zion National Park offers a glimpse at a unique and seldom seen view of a canyon. The. Bottom. Grand Canyon is very grand. And Zion is almost the opposite of that rather than being at the top and looking down if you're in the bottom of it and things are real cozy around you. They're just totally different and I think they were. Built in 1924. Zion Lodge is a simple rustic building
forming the centerpiece of a community of cabins. This arrangement of day lodge and overnight cabins affords a more bucolic approach to staying in a national park. A far cry from the elegant to. What the Lodge does here is that it allows people to come into the park and spend an evening here and get to experience the canyon in a way that the person who simply drives through the park doesn't get that same experience. Working and you sit in it in a dining room and next see what's what's here. You're right in the park that's the beauty of the lodge you're right in the park. You can sit on the patio and you can see a park here we live in the park and it's a great experience to spend an overnight. At the park. Zion Canyon was set aside as a national monument in 1989 and incorporated into the National Park Service in 1919 the newly formed
federal service was under the guidance of Stephen Mather its first director. Did believe that for people to support the national park idea and these magnificent places. They had to be accessible. To people. Well the Union Pacific Railroad and others throughout the West saw building lines and taking people to national parks as good business. So Mathare encouraged them to build SMR lines. To national parks. And then ultimately lodges. And restaurants and places where people could stay. Once they arrived. This was the nature of the railroad somewhere in the West you just didn't create the East-West road you had to reach all the areas that were adjacent to it. And so they began branching south into southern Utah. And that line ran through Chuter City Utah. And this was in close proximity to race. These are national parks they're also not very far from north.
Stephen Mather and the Union Pacific Railroad were just the right people at the right time at the right place to develop these national parks and to begin to get people to really appreciate the beauty and the ideal of national parks. The Grand Canyons more remote north rim and nearby Bryce Canyon were also being developed into national parks eager to compete with the Santa Fe the Union Pacific Railroad came up with an innovative plan for its subsidiary the Utah parks company. The railroad would build lodges at all three parks and link them with motor coaches running from a train stop at Cedar City Utah about 60 miles from Zion. The coaches would take visitors to each park in Germany. They called it the loop tour and all three lodges became known as Two tour lodges. They had 40 of these passenger buses. They ran to
the various parks. The first night they would stay in Zion. Or maybe two nights. Then drive from here to Grand Canyon and there was always a two night deal then from there to Bryce Canyon for a one night stay. Then from Bryce back to Cedar City. By 1928 each of the three parks had a large. Mathare felt that these destinations needed a different approach than a single grand hotel like elata bar. Instead. He insisted that all three parks be a community of rustic overnight log cabins with a day lodge as the centerpiece. People never forget their experience of Grand Canyon. It's just a great place to be. After the Grand Canyon. The tour buses would once again enter southern Utah to
take passengers to the last stop on the book tour. Bryce Canyon lodge. Of. Fifty six square miles splash of color Bryce canyons unusual formations stand in stark contrast to this arid western region. After the massive spectacle of the Grand Canyon. This intimate little part was the perfect finale for the boop to her experience. You can liken it to a full course meal go design in which is a first stop and there you are tea solid or the starter and that starts the meal. The North Rim was the main course was the was the entree. And then you came to Bryce Canyon and there's where you had the desert.
The geology is of these parks are as interconnected as the histories they share as Leupp tour locations. All three are part of a geologic formation called the grand staircase. Gigantic steps of eroded cliffs whose varied bands of color highlight different formations as they descend toward the Grand Canyon. Bryce Canyon with its pink slips rock formation. This represents the uppermost step in this sequence of geologic layers below the pink cliffs is another step known as the grey cliffs below the gray cliffs or the white cliffs and those are found in Zion National Park. You work your way down to the Vermilion Cliffs and then the chocolate cliffs which are down close to the Grand Canyon. So these three parks are kind of tied together by forming a complete geologic sequence represented by their different layers as gigantic scans. Bryce Canyon is something like a cave without a roof on it. That's what a lot of people will say
stalagmites. They call the ones that hang from the ceilings to like mite's the ones that grow up towards the sea like wild rice Candy looks like a bunch of stalagmites inside of a cave. These narrow skinny structures rock Petrine up from the ground. Sided about a quarter mile back from the unstable rim of Bryce Canyon. The lodge reflects a Northern European rustic design. The only loop to or launch not destroyed by fire and rebuilt and Bryce the original Gilbert Stanley Underwood vision can still be seen. Rise I think it's just so special and we hear so much from our visitors they say Grand Canyon is so grand and Zion is
beautiful but there's something about Bryce that they just love because it's a relatively small park and they call it intimate. It's very easy to get down on the trails. You can hike only a mile or two and you can be right among these delicately carved formations and people feel like it's easy to become a part of this park. Wall Street is a deep narrow slot canyon that is part of the Navajo Trail and it's a very popular stretch of trail. And what Wall Street is is one of those deep vertical cracks which geologists called joints that are throughout this Claire-Anne formation. Those cracks are the pathways for water to get down in and erode away some of the rock and then widen the crack. The most dominant feature right Bryce are rock formations called hoodoos. Looking like the remnants of ancient castles these tall spires of stone are
unique to this area. A hoodoo that's the name that we give all of these intricately carved unusual rock formations at brazed and it is famous for the word who actually has two definitions one is a pillar or odd shaped rock and the other definition which is a little more intriguing. Would be of African origin. And it means to cast a spell or cause bad luck. And. Later. We have an extraordinary sunrise this year. Bryce can. One of the biggest questions we get is where's the best place to go. So I think most everybody agrees Bryce is the best place. It's on a peninsula of rock that sticks out into the main amphitheater and it almost is like that being the focal point of a parabola where the rising sun strikes into the amphitheatre reflects back to this point. And it's a very intense visual experience. It's 45 minutes that people will stand completely silent.
A hundred people be watching some very spiritual experience. The employees would also sing to guests as they left the lodges called Sing away. These parting musical numbers would be a loop tour tradition. For nearly 60 years lasting until the Utah parks company turned the lodges over to the park service in 1972. The bus. Pulled up. And just come and get everybody out of all the departments and just have. I'll go out on the porch and line up and then we'd start saying it's a special song just for Bryce that has stolen little bits from other songs every few years. Some of the old employees get together with Bryce and share memories of working at the park. Sometimes they even perform single ways just like they did in the past on some of these nostalgic occasions. The park service brings out an authentic old Lupe tour bus.
These people are former employees. They come back to find the magic. I ran the memory business and that's what the National Park Service has had in this large building in the 20s and is full of memories. They create a great tradition for us to give us a place of being they give us a real purpose. And we came back to visit because we felt there was a magical part of our lives in the early years we were young. And we came back to. See the magic again. And it's all here. We really are the repositories of the natural and cultural resources of this nation.
One of the greatest libraries that the nation has of what it means to be American rather than you know natural resources you can see looking out for them to talk about the cultural resources the history of is truly the fiber of American. The Grand Canyon embodies the wild open spirit of the American West. Its vastness and scale challenge human comprehension. Theodore Roosevelt called it this side. Every American should see. Forming part of the border between northern Arizona and southern Utah. The
canyon is located in one of America's most remote and hostile desert areas. El Tovar. Situated on the south rim is a fitting addition to the canyon. Completed by the Santa Fe Railroad in 1985. This wouldn't frame time capsule from the Victorian age offers a warm contrast to the hostile desert surroundings. The canyon is such a vast place I mean when you're coming from virtually anywhere you don't have any perspective distance you know because you've never seen anything this big. A look at these buildings and they provide for that touchstone for our own culture because we're in an environment a landscape that is so totally foreign to most of us. Even in an age of modern travel. The Grand Canyon is still an isolated place. A hundred years ago this remoteness meant that very few Americans were able to get to it.
That changed as a burgeoning rail network was winding its way across the continent as well as developing lasting many ways populate the blast. Was very instrumental in getting national parks established that we have a particular national park. Soaring. Over these manmade landmarks along the. California Condors are reminders of the canyons rich and natural history. Though nearly extinct before a reintroduction program started a few years ago. Commodores now fly over the canyon almost daily. A fitting adjunct to this wild environment. They love the canyon habitat. I think there's about 21 now that are in the wild just circling the area. They're very curious animals and they're very social animals. So they just like to go hang out and just kind of check out all the people in the room and say you'll see them on any given day.
The Commodores reflect the wild and untamed spirit of the canyon. Their graceful flight a contrast to the stoic solidarity of the Rocky walls. The buildings have two distinctly different architects provide a similar contrast along the rim. The native inspired designs of Mary Coulter and the European homage of Charles widdled sees elde to var reflect different approaches to taming this wild territory. They offer comfort and familiarity in concert with the overpowering vistas of the canyon. You've got this backdrop that's very real. The Grand Canyon. But then you've developed a very personal village. With walkways that connect the different buildings. You've got everything connecting itself. It's very much a landscape design change. Grand Canyon is probably the best remaining example of any 1924 village plan it's pretty much
still there. There has to be places like this so that we know what the West was. You know a lot of folks come here and they take away something they weren't even looking for. The fact that they walk away feeling something that they didn't bargain for. They recharged them. They are really connected again to wide open spaces to wonder. Awesome is the word Aeschines way too much. This. Is. Awesome. This is. Inspiring. Look at that view. It's a long way down is an. Early development was slow in coming to the north rim. Though only eight miles across the canyon from L.A. to var on the South Rim. The two lodges are separated by hundreds of miles of mountain roads. Even today. It is much less developed than its sister to the south. Envious of the sound of Fay's success with elde too far. The union Pacific Railroad was eager to build accommodations in this virtually
untouched region. The result was one of the finest examples of rustic architecture ever built in a national park. The thing is that you can take it all in. And you can't take it for very long. And so they back off. And even in my own experience if you can take your eyes off it for a while. And then gaze at it again you start seeing detail. But if you take it all at once it's overwhelming. The Grand Canyon does look real. And the reason it looks unreal is because there isn't anything else on the planet that looks like it. And when your eye views it for the first time you know you're looking at something very very unusual. We first got to the lodge. I think it was an overwhelming experience. I mean just
looking into the lodge and seeing the architecture and the beam ceilings and. Channel years and then coming into the sitting room and seeing the windows and the rest of it just kind of takes your breath away. As with the other Canyon parks the most popular activities at the North Rim are hiking and climbing. However the excessive daytime temperatures in the canyon and the harsh desert environment can make it a harrowing proposition. North Rim hiking its extreme. With the 400 search and rescues a year. And when you look into that canyon here you realize that it's unforgiving and you can get lost. You can get dehydrated you can get heat exposure. There's a million ways that McCain can really punish you.
The Grand Canyon embodies the wild open spirit of the American West. It's vast nuisance scale challenge human comprehension. Theodore Roosevelt called it the site. Every American should see. Forming part of the border between northern Arizona and southern Utah. The canyon is located in one of America's most remote and hostile desert areas. El Tovar. Situated on the south rim is a fitting addition to the canyon.
Completed by the Santa Fe Railroad in 1985. This wood frame time capsule from the Victorian age offers a warm contrast to the hostile desert surroundings. The canyon is such a vast place. I mean when you're coming from virtually anywhere you don't have any perspective distance you know because you've never seen anything this big. You look at these buildings and they provide for that touch tone for our own culture because we're in an environment a landscape that is so totally foreign to most of us. Even in an age of modern travel. The Grand Canyon is still an isolated place. A hundred years ago this remoteness meant that very few Americans were able to get to it. That changed as a burgeoning rail network was winding its way across the continent developing lasting many ways populate it the last. And. Very instrumental in getting national parks established that we have a national
park. When the lodge opened the dining room was managed by the company which handled all matters Epicurean for the Santa Fe Railroad. The Fred Harvey company aided by his famous Harvey girl waitress's Fred Harvey pioneered the concept of quality food on the go. He was like the original person to design fast food. He developed a system where people could go and sit down and eat at a nice four five course meal in about 25 minutes at a train stop. There were 15 hotels and 47 restaurants that he managed in the Santa Fe Railroad and it was his service and the quality food and training of the staff that made the Santa Fe popular. Perhaps Harvey's biggest contribution to the south rim of the Grand Canyon is the fact that his company hired Mary Coulter. She was originally
employed as a decorator but soon proved herself a most innovative and progressive architect interested in interpreting the cultural heritage of the region rather than mimicking European styles. Coulter designed several buildings along the south rim including the Hopi house right across from El towbar function structure and beauty were the things most architects revolved their concepts and themes around. Mary Coulter added a storyline. She said What if native Americans had a building on the canyon. What if the Native Americans built a tower on the canyon. What if there was a place where you looked out over the canyon at Lookout studio. And recall that was. Probably the most remarkable woman that most people have never heard of. From the early part of the century she was an architect at a time when women were not expected to be architects. Someone said that is almost an exact contemporary to Frank Lloyd Wright in that they were both born around the same time and died around the same time and both were
temperamental short people who built the exquisite buildings that like one of the things about Mary Elizabeth Jane Coulter was her fascination with American Indians archaeology and American Indian art. A lot of Coulter's last buildings the Grand Canyon the desert large tower was completed in 1932. You know we have a building that basically the foundations are in and it comes out of the canyon itself. Logos in the tower each the merging into another level as you go up. The second floor the tower being the Hopi the we were afraid to go to use Hopi artist to do it telling one of the creation stories we're hoping with his murals in his drawings and everything authentic. Part of her genius in the construction of her building. Does she like to employ materials that had been used before whether it be out at the Watchtower or wish to use the old timbers from the old Grandview hotel which had been closed for a number of years and or here in the hope he has
the beams upstairs and downstairs all all the Western Union Telegraph Company poles. They were old when they were put in here some ninety five years ago. And now you can still see the marks that were made from the spikes on the workmen shoes when they used to have to go up in and repair line. So you look at the bar and right across the parking lot is the Hopi house. They're very very different structures. It's hard to kind of figure out why they are there together. But as for that different experience you have it you've got your comfortable hotel and then right across the way you can experience Indian culture you can hope is living there making pottery. You've got dances going to you're able to provide to your visitors both things right there. Coulter is an architect developed a style that would later become what I think is rustic architecture. She isn't credited with it but again you'd see that sort of the genesis of what became rustic architecture for the national parks as happened with Coulter's
earlier buildings. She was just this force this vision and her works at Grand Canyon national historic landmarks. They are a real testament to the work that she had done as a woman as an architect and as a designer. Set in the remote and wild northern Rockies in north western Montana Glacier National Park covers over fifteen hundred square miles. The park is bordered to the north by Canada to the east by the Blackfeet Indian reservation and to the south by the historic line of the Great Northern Railway Hills Grand Hotel Glacier Park Lodge sits at the eastern entrance to the park in East Glacier Montana where tourists still arrive by rail today today onboard Amtrak's empire builder.
While other national parks might claim to rival such magnificent scenery nothing elsewhere compared to the fascinating blend of cultures that guests encountered at Glacier Park Lodge. Louis Hill promised visitors to the park a varied cultural experience that included both European elements but also a heavy emphasis on the Blackfeet tribe judicial lands of which incorporate and are located adjacent to the park. That advertising effort took a variety of forms probably the most obvious is that the Blackfeet tribe was reference says the glacier park tribe. Disembarking at the park at Glacier Park station. Visitors would find the Blackfeet encampment on the main lawn. The number of teepees. Entering the lobby. The Native American theme continued. There were teepees set up in the lobby and Blackfeet chiefs were sitting by the fireplace
to meet with visitors. Who are here certainly had an enormous respect for the tribe. He also recognized that they were a very effective marketing tool and employed them accordingly. The amount of employment that was generated by the glacier Park Hotel Company through the Great Northern. For the tribe was significant. Everything is living from the sky the sun the moon the stars the clouds the Mount Blackfeet Indian curly bear Wagners and sisters play a significant role in the promotion of Glacier Park and its lodges. Today curly bear is a welcome speaker at Glacier Park Lodge. Sharing with guests stories of his people. The building of Glacier National Park Lodge did provide livelihood in a sense because. Employment was being created. Jobs are being created so our people didn't have the opportunity to get formal peer which was good because you got to understand that that time period our culture and our traditions were taken away
from us. We could no longer practice. So this gives us opportunity to practice our ways meaning our dancers do our ceremonies with a pipe dream to people. Of Glacier National Park has always been part of our nation and so we have a lot of understanding of the mountains. Of the water. Over the four legged ones doing ones that are very much alive and so we have the opportunity to tell them who we are. To get rid of the stereotype thinking about our Indian people. It was an opportunity for us. Also for opportunity for the Great Northern Railroad at the time to help one another in promoting tourism. While the structural scale of the lobby is impressive the charm is found in the details. The hotel's original owner was an avid
outdoorsman and hunting trophies hanging from the lobby framework reproductions of the 1930s lampshades adorned with Indian motifs cast a golden light on the space. The concrete floors are scored to look like flagstone and incised with local Indian phrases that are said to translate into greetings like look to the mountains and sleep well. The huge fireplace hearth is framed by Indian designs scored and painted around the opening. Renowned western artist Charlie Russell was a frequent visitor to the lodge and there is speculation that Russell inspired the fireplace design. Set in the remote and wild northern Rockies in North Western Montana. Glacier
National Park covers over fifteen hundred square miles. The park is bordered to the north by Canada to the east by the Blackfeet Indian reservation and to the south by the historic line of the great northern railway. Hills Grand Hotel. Glacier Park Lodge sits at the eastern entrance to the park in East Glacier Montana where tourists still arrived by rail today. Onboard Amtrak's empire builder. Yet with all the grand jury and amenities that Glacier Park Lodge has to offer it is the park's spectacular scenery that is the real attraction. We're in the heart of glacier country. This is glaciation. This is the U-shape Valley for
which Glacier Park gets its name. This is what has drawn people here for the better part of a century. These glaciers are moving bodies of ice. They do grind the rock beneath. The grinding of the rock. We'll pass a settlement down into the upper lakes which of those lakes often a brilliant and beautiful turquoise color. The geology is not the only. Strong point of the park. We have wildlife. We have. Solitude. The people come to. Experience. We have the beauty of the changing light and weather on these mountains. I understand why people coming Glacier Park because I myself with my family have been here for over 25 summers. This is truly a beautiful place.
Leaving the lodge at Lake McDonald and the comforts of a front country hotel visitors can journey into the interior of Glacier Park to one of the remaining back country retreats Sperry chalet. It's not an easy trip as they climb high into the Rockies along the spine of the continental divide. For gentlemen like free. Today we take the average of 10 to 14000 people a summer horseback through Glacier National Park. A lot of the people are come with us horseback riding do a day trip up to Sperry chalet. We leave out of our barn down at Lake Macdonell the. Grand hotels. We're only one part of the great northerns plans for Glacier National Park. From the very beginning Louis Hill envisioned a
variety of accommodations connected by an intricate transportation system and a network of trails. So besides the front country hotels. Hill planned tent camps and comfortable back country chalets high in the mountains accessible only by foot or horseback all grouped at the end of a day's journey. These places were linked by an elaborate system of trails. Of the nine original chalets only two high country chalets remain. Greenwich Park and Sperry chalet. It's about seven and a half miles from the barn to Sperry chalet. It's a fairly steep gradual climb. Thirty one hundred feet to about 7000 feet. The ride takes about three hours each way to complete.
They'll see different types of vegetation and trees and you go through different types of terrain. We. Come all the drainage and Snyder creek runs right along it follows the canyon all the way up in despair is shway. Now there's not much change here at the back door of Sperry shochet. The thing that makes Pheri chalet special over other hotels in the park is the fact that it is a back country chalet. It's a very special group of people that come here.
One has to either hike or ride a horse. There are no roads or helicopters allowed here so you have to work to get here. Barbara Worthington's family has managed Sperry chalet for almost 50 years. The scenery its ferry is one of its greatest draws. It is absolutely beautiful no matter what direction you like. Every morning I looked down over Lake McDonald and I did stand there for about two minutes just looking at nothing in particular but just absorbing it all it. It is beautiful here. The rock structures are so unique. The colors are so unique. That its good. For years. The most spectacular vistas in Glacier National Park could only be enjoyed by those parties souls venturing out on foot or horseback. But the demand for a road crossing the mountains led to the building of the dramatic.
Going to the Sun Road. While increasing access to the park's remote areas it also forever changed the visitor's experience to the park. The road provides easy access to spectacular views of mountains lakes waterfalls and glacial valleys in the heart of Glacier National Park. For many visitors today going to the Sun Road is the fog. The 52 mile long road bisects glacier east to west the narrow and winding road climbs high over the continental divide at Logan pass. This engineering marvel took 16 years to build. Mostly with hand tools and dynamite. Even today visitors marvel at how such a road could have been built. It is the only road in the country designated a national historic landmark. After it was completed in 1933 automobile tourists
soon outnumbered train travelers. Grand vistas and steep fearsome dropoffs going to the Sun Road is a challenging drive. One of the most pleasurable and carefree ways to experience the highway is from the seat of a unique touring vehicle known as a jammer. These charming red buses introduced in the national parks in the 1930s derive their name from drivers who had to jam on the gears to get up the mountain roads of glacier. By the late 1990s concern about safety led to the retirement of the old fleet. But Jammer fans convinced those in charge that the old buses should be rehabilitated. Today the historic red buses are back in the park again and people can explore glacier in the same delightful way they did in the 1930s.
The park's largest lodge. Many Glacier was for decades the biggest hotel in Montana. Yet for all its magnificent massive scale it is dwarfed by the surrounding panorama of towering jagged mountain peaks and glaciers. Dubbed the showplace of the Rockies. Many Glacier hotel winds along the shoreline of pristine swift current lake. Rooms balconies and Barondess offer views of some of the most spectacular scenery in the park. Many Glacier is the most isolated of the park's Grand Lodges tucked into a rugged pocket of glacial carved valleys. At the very end of a remote 12 mile road. Both Brunelle valiance of corn Valley meet at the doorstep of many glacier hotel. It's a grand hotel in size but it doesn't begin to compete with the backdrop of the glacial peaks behind it.
It's a great outdoor experience here at the head of the lake. Many Glacier hotel is located in the heart of the park's mountains with hiking trails radiating outward to some of the best locations for exploring glaciers and spotting bighorn sheep and bears. Park ranger Bob Adams has been leading gas through Glacier country for over 25 years. We have grizzly bears here we have black bears. These bears are known to be reclusive. They are known not to. Bother people for the most part but there is always that element of wildness the presence of bears who are more powerful than we. And who can present extreme danger in rare occasions to people traveling in the park.
Glacier Park gives the opportunity for people of all physical abilities to see and experience the beauty of the park. And it's actually possible to see bears from the balcony of the many glacier hotel in the early morning of late afternoon. A person can scan the slopes of Mount Hinkel and Alton and there is a good possibility that that. Viewer will see either black bear or grizzly bear. About an hour and a half's drive east of Portland sits Oregon's highest mountain Mt. Hood like Rainier. It is one of the volcanic peaks of the Northwest Cascade Range. Perched six thousand feet up the south side of the mountain. Here's the awesome
Timberline Lodge an amazing achievement. Born on the heels of one of America's darkest moments. Timberline was built with depression. And I think it still stands as. A symbol of. Love hard work and germination and quality. But it reflects the time of our history. Great Depression. And the American public's willingness and ability to. Recover from that. And all Americans should be proud of what we can do and pull together on something like that and give them the opportunity to do it and to do it very well. In the early 1930s America was really in the midst of the Great Depression. It was a. Crisis in this country. Unparalleled. Other than the.
And the Roosevelt was elected office in part from the promise to bring the country out of the hotel is a product of its time and recreation. Growing you had a skiing industry that was. Clamoring for this opportunity for you on the mountain. You had the Great Depression and then FDR as a response to that and the New Deal part of the New Deal was the Works Progress Administration the WPA was charged with funding projects that could employ and train an American workforce decimated by the Depression. Timberline Lodge was intended to teach new trades to hundreds of workers. Unlike other lodges. It was built with public money and on Forest Service. It's not a national park. Construction began in 1935 with more than 600 trainees taking part. Timberline was completed in 1937 and dedicated by President Roosevelt. And Depression era art decorates nearly every wall.
There were a number of artists on the WPA project who are of national stature. Howard painted a number of oil paintings for the launch including two large drills that were used in the Caskie dining room for many years. In this room the Blue Ox bar. There are glass murals that were executed by Virginia Darci. First she did drawings and then cut the glass to fit in place. They should Paul Bunyan and is Blue Ox babe. And was a real renaissance in art in American Gerring Roosevelt time. And this building is a personification of that. The WPA had a. Teaching component. To it. So they had some good craftsmen there but they were also teachers and taught the people to be iron Smiths wood carvers and.
Weavers. Seattle personifies the pioneering spirit of the Pacific Northwest sandwiched between the Puget Sound and the rugged terrain of the Cascade mountain range it is a major metropolis bordered by some of America's most beautiful natural areas and shadowed by one of the world's great mountains. Mt. Rainier is the icon of the northwest. You can see it from the east side from the west side from Seattle-Tacoma even from Portland Oregon. When people think of national parks they think of Mt. Rainier as one of the finest examples of that. And certainly a great lump of a mountain of beautiful white cupcakes that are there on the horizon.
Rainier is really fundamental to our sense of place here in the northwest. Those of us who live here. Paradice seen as an opportunity for the public to come here and slow down and experience a little bit of the old world of the Paradise and the meadows of paradise. Views of the mountains all. Are just intertwined and it creates an experience that's off to. Mt. Rainier National Park was established in 1899 and in built in 1916 at the dawn of the National Park Service. Paradise in represents an early attempt to provide comfortable accommodations inside a national park. In 1916 the Rainier National Park company was formed and work began on Paradise in patterned after European arges. The UN is dominated by its massive three storey shingle roof.
Likened to a Swiss chalet. It's Alpine design fits well with its environs. The structure elements expressed on the interior next tier in their native form expressed the natural features of the park. We have the timbers that we see that came from the forests around here. They represent the trees right here at Timberline. Ironically it was an 1885 forest fire which unexpectedly provided the distinctive timbers for the construction of paradise in but it went through quickly enough that it didn't destroy the heart of the wood it just really pretty much burned the bark and killed the trees. It was called the silver forest because they had weathered two wonderful silver color. Here's some of the examples is it these are the columns in the in the building that support the frame. And we have a whole our own silver forest here in the lobby and in the dining room of the in. The mezzanine in the great hall the lobby of this wonderful building was added primarily for structural support.
The building itself is resisting trying to resist a man's world record snowfalls that we get up here in paradise. In the lobby here on days when you can't see them and you get an experience of being in the forest. It brings the outdoors in and you don't leave it. You have the massive stone fireplaces there came from the mountain and represent the mountain and the massive geological elements. The features two types of lampshades in the main hall the small conical lampshades near the ceiling date from the 1930s the larger lampshades are a simple design made of parchment paper and painted with wild flowers native to the park. By the mid 80s the original set of shades had become too worn for more than 50 years of use. Dale Thompson a retired park
naturalist and wildlife artist was called in to paint new ones. Some two years after I left the National Park Service and had begun my new business in wildlife art. The park staff approached me about my interest in painting new lampshades to replace those that had hung here for 50 years. And it had a great deal of appeal to me because it was an opportunity to give something back to an organization that had been good to me for so many years of my life. I was required to do these new shades of the very same materials as the originals using the heavy tag board and lacing them to the metal hoops with raffia. I had to work in the very same art medium which was just good old school children's tempera. There were a total of 74 shades so I literally had to shut down my wildlife art business for a period of between three and four months to complete.
I still consider Mt. Rainier and paradign is my second home. It's wonderful for me to come up here to enjoy the park smell like just any other visitor. But also to come up to this historic building particularly gratifying for me to know that the lampshades I've painted for that may be here for another 15 years. That gives me leaves me with a good feeling. The park has a lot of very old growth forests glaciers wildlife beautiful wild flowers. It's it's an experience that's not to be missed. I think often we want the weather to be sunny and clear but really there
is a lovely soft quality on a wet day with the world kind of closed in apartments. Ruth Kirch has lived in the Pacific Northwest for over 40 years and has written books about national parks and wilderness areas. One of them. Sunrise to paradise is a celebration of the history and beauty of Mt. Rainier. We know there are people that think every year is a myth because it doesn't show every day but it is not a hussy. It's gonna just show it all every day your days has being very quiet behind the gray sky. I certainly try wandering around under those circumstances where I torn up in the high country of Paradise and the flowers get all spotted with the droplets and sometimes you'll see perhaps a deer wandering through the mist oblivious. I think the deer is
not yearning for sunshine and takes it as it comes. After a day on the mountain or in the meadows. Visitors are grateful for the warmth of paradise in its rustic charm complements the park experience. 330 miles to the south of Timberline tucked away in southwestern Oregon Siskiyou Mountains is one of the state's best kept secrets. Oregon Caves is among this country's first national monuments set aside in 1939 to preserve the marble caverns that delve deep into the mountainside. They are joined by the Oregon Caves châteaux. A bark covered lodge that seems to have grown out of the forest as naturally as the trees that surround it.
Its remote location makes it the least known of the lodges of the Pacific Northwest. At 480 acres Oregon Caves is among the smallest national monuments in the United States. This here John ROFF is the natural resources specialist at the monument. And is an authority on the Oregon. Case us a lot because there are three dimensional window into the past under the earth so they expose things in three dimensions. And especially there don't have any vegetation to cover them over so all the geologists expose what geologists call a higher percent exposure which is the geological dream. The end result in this particular cave we can see over 200 million years of geological activity exposed in the walls of the. Stairway. But.
Visitors to the park are taken through the caves in groups of 16 on a 90 minute tour filled with fascinating and often very unusual formations. The caves offer a glimpse at the Earth's interior decoration. Another neat thing about this cave is the bedrock itself is very complicated and illustrates perhaps the most complicated geology in America and in this region. The best known formations in the cave are these kind of composite drapery stalagmites are also a form of close stone as if the rock is actually flowing down. Seattle personifies the pioneering spirit of the Pacific Northwest. Sandwiched between the Puget Sound and the rugged terrain of the Cascade mountain
range. It is a major metropolis bordered by some of America's most beautiful natural areas and shadowed by one of the world's great mountains. Mt. Rainier is the icon of the northwest. You can see it from the east side from the west side from Seattle-Tacoma even from Portland Oregon. When people think of national parks they think of Mt. Rainier as one of the finest examples of that. It's certainly a great for the mountain and beautiful white cupcakes that are there on the horizon. Rainier is really fundamental to our sense of place here in the northwest. Those of us who live here. Paradice seen it as an opportunity for the public to come here and slow down. And experience a little bit of the old world. But the Paradise and the meadows of Paradise and views of the mountain all. Are just intertwined and it creates an experience that's on. Mt.. Rainier National Park was established in 1899
and the in built in 1916 at the dawn of the National Park Service paradise in represents an early attempt to provide comfortable accommodations inside a national park. After a day on the mountain or in the meadows visitors are grateful for the warmth of paradise in its rustic charm complements the park experience. Everybody has a perception when they come to these types of facilities. You need to be willing to experience. The outdoor. That's what these facilities were built for. Not necessarily as as hotels but more of a place to rest during the evening. Spend your day time out in the park enjoying the nature. These buildings are not full of modern conveniences telephones TVs. We don't have them.
I'm not sure that television would really enhance your experience of the mountain. You might then be tempted to stay in and watch some sitcom instead of what's the sunset. The things that you can do somewhere else do them somewhere else they can come to the mountain for the special qualities that it has to offer. Nothing makes me feel better than to see people and families and. International visitors just sitting in the lodge enjoying the fireplace enjoying their families and feeling very comfortable. I think the time. Was. Probably because it is. Something that is all that is familiar. It's the same building that our. Parents grandparents saw. That was. About an hour and a half's drive east of Portland since Oregon's highest
mountain Mt. Hood like Rainier it is one of the volcanic peaks of the Northwest Cascade Range. Perched six thousand feet up the south side of the mountain. Here's the Timberline Lodge an amazing achievement. Born on the heels of one of America's darkest moments. Timberline was built. And I think it still stands as a symbol of how hard work and germination and quality. But it reflects the time of our history. Great Depression. And the American public's willingness and ability. To recover from that. And all Americans should be proud of what we can do and we pulled together on something like that. And given the opportunity to do it and to do our very best. In the early 1930s. America was really in the midst of the
great. Depression. That was a. Crisis in this country. Unparalleled. Other than the Soviet. And Franklin Roosevelt was elected office from. The promise to bring the country out of the hotel as a product of its time and recreation. Growing you had tsking industry that was. Clamoring for this opportunity for two on the mountain. You had the Great Depression and then FDR as a response to that and the New Deal part of the New Deal was the Works Progress Administration the WPA was charged with funding projects that could employ and train an American workforce decimated by the Depression. Timberline Lodge was intended to teach new trades to hundreds of workers. Unlike other lodges it was built with public money and on Forest Service. It's not in a national park. Construction began in 1935 with more than 600 trainees taking part. Timberline was completed in
1937 and dedicated by President Roosevelt. One of the design schemes for the building and one of the parameters was to use local materials. They wanted to showcase local materials in the construction as well as local artisans and craftsmen architects and developer of the lodge. The lodge itself. It grows right out of the mouth. The way it's been designed and inside the. Timber lines original structure has remained virtually unchanged for over 60 years built in three main sections. The two side wings are joined by an enormous three storey hexagonal house. Featuring a centre 80 foot high chimney with three hearths on each floor. The main house fireplace is sort of a central focus of the building.
The rockwork is so big and massive that it seems to be the focal point for the whole room. This is my favorite room in the whole building. We call it the heart of the mountain area and it's the fireplace is. All. The original rock. We're in handling wrought iron and you've got the wonderful handrails that are made of the railroad tracks. The room itself has the same six sides and the fireplace has the same six sides and the big tall pillars have the same six sides so it's a great way to see that the architects and the blueprints and the craftsmen all work together hand-in-hand. Echoing the hexagonal theme. Three massive iron chandelier is like the main Lovelle. The head House is also home to the cascade dining room and on the upper level the Rams Head bar one of two in the line. The upper level also has a dining area featuring several little nooks and alcoves
and depression era art decorates nearly every wall. 330 miles to the south of Timberline tucked away in Southwestern Oregon Siskiyou Mountains is one of the state's best kept secrets. Oregon Caves is among this country's first national monuments set aside in 1989 to preserve the marble caverns that delve deep into the mountainside. They are joined by the Oregon Caves châteaux. A bark covered lodge that seems to have grown out of the forest as naturally as the trees that surround it. Its remote location makes it the least known of the lodges of the Pacific Northwest. The chateau is an integral part of the whole landscape here. It's a neat old resort emblematic of the old resorts round turn of the century a refuge if you will a place to rest and recuperate and get away from it all. It's
quiet. Oh. The. Quiet. There'll be very few places where you'll go the absolute quiet. Completed in 1934 the ten sided six story structure sprouts up from a ravine and seems to be a natural part of its environment. The Shanteau was the vision of a local virtually unknown contractor a man named Guste Liam. He happened to be a very skilled carpenter who could also serve as a contractor. He had enough talent to do architectural design and you have to say when you look at or came Shatto that it's a brilliant piece of work. Just describing it it's so irregular. All of its sides are different. The window shapes and sizes are very different. Doors are different and yet the thing works.
Liam knew the area and knew the material so that made a difference. There was a master plan by the Forest Service but he found the spot the ravine. He looked at was a way of being environmentally sensitive or providing a very low storey facade as you approached. And. Then to tumble the building down the hillside. So the place he built in this area he knew how to make the numbers pick the finished materials and really make it all work inside. The stairwell. As an example uses all the local materials and they're orchestrate this crescendo of the large massive post of Doug Fir. Then there are the carrying elements that support the stairs. You know you're in this forest in a rustic setting. And all the blades of the colors absorb the light for. The fireplace which is rather unusual being double sided is a mass of stone that goes
directly down to the foundation. Liam saw a way of relating the flow of water down into the building by actually channelized a flow through the floor of the living room. And then how intervene. So the waterfall that trickles over the edge into a lagoon then is channelized down under the floor of the time so that while you're sitting there you can hear the water. So you're looking at the walls of glass out into the ravine and then the water flowing in the continuous sound a waterfall. Is part of the rest is part of the character of the place. The chateaus warm golden ambience is as deep as the forest that
surrounds it. The rough stone of the fireplace peeled Lague beams and wood paneling create an aura as mysterious as the caves from which it gets its name. None of the 23 guest rooms are alike and nearly all feature distinctive Monterey furniture. The chateau remains virtually unchanged since it opened in the 30s. A comfortable old World Resort stuck in a time. I think that humans have a potentially fatal flaw and that is that we become obsessed with ourselves too much and both the natural beauty of the cave and the natural beauty of the Shantelle helps us get away from ourselves. I loved the place and I'll always love. You. It's a beautiful place and it's a wonderful thing. Thank god it's still
here. 130 miles northeast of Oregon Caves near the point where this rescue mountains converge with the Southern peaks of the Cascade Range is Crater Lake. Cupped in a half million years of volcanic accumulation. The Midnight Blue Lake is one of nature's most majestic surprises. Crater Lake National Park is one of those places. For me where I go to and I have a feeling come over me. When I come up that RIM and I get the first view of the lake. You know it's it's. It's have a euphoric feeling for me. Where else can you spend the night on the edge of a caldera. Made by my erection. Over 7000 years ago. And contemplate the sunset and the
summer. I mean there aren't very many places like this. The rehabilitation has made the. Complete basically for the first time in history. Today. Is really the finest hour of Crater Lake Lodge. In 1885. The lake was visited by a man who would become the founder of Crater Lake National Park. William Gladstones. And as the story goes back in Kansas he looked at a newspaper that wrapped his lunch and saw an article in Crater Lake in resolved that he was going to come out and he was going to see Crater Lake. And once he did he worked tirelessly into the crater lake and established the National Park in 1942. Steel became the park's first concessionaire but early tent villages he set up did not match his
grand dreams for the area. In 1909 he teamed up with a Portland developer to build a lodge on the rim of Crater Lake. The lodge would open some five years later but the construction never really ended. The next 60 years would be a long misadventure of patching and repairing a crumbling monolith. The Lodge's problems stem from typical business failure. Reason is under capitalization the concessionaire who became involved with it didn't have enough money didn't know what he was into. So not enough money to start with. A very short construction season even when it was under way conspired to produce Belhaj that was dramatically under Bill and took forever to be completed. It was continuously under construction back from the time we were one on through the 1920s into the 1930s. It was in varying stages of
construction and it was never actually really completed. A tattered building was not enough to keep it from becoming a very special place to the people of the northwest. The launch provided accommodations next to one of the world's true wonders. Crater Lake Lodge had become unsafe and was facing demolition in 1984. There would be no lodge today were it not for a local public outcry that led to its complete reconstruction. Like at Timberline it was the will and determination of the people of Oregon that came to the rescue at the head of this campaign was the historic preservation league of Oregon and Eric Eisenman. We ended up with over 4000 testimonials postcards letters that just came flooding into the office from people telling us about
their experiences at the lodge and why those experiences were important in their lives. So armed with that information we went back to the National Park Service and said Look at this. This is unanimous support. The park service got the message. And in 1991 Congress funded a rehabilitation that would finally make the original idea of Crater Lake Lodge a reality. The first thing we did was identify the character defining features of the historic lodge and we decided to retain all of those character defining features in the rehabilitation. There was a combination of reconstruction rehabilitation and restoration. So it was a combination of all those three elements that came together with the Lodge. From the outside the New Lodge looks just like the old. But inside it's a modern hotel which preserves many of the originals features.
The stone fireplace which is an historic element and a character defining feature in the dining room and in the Great Hall were identified numbered before we took them down each individual stone and then they were put aside again and then once ready they were put back exactly as they were. Other elements include the. Log handling inside and those are actually segments of large logs that were cut and then placed as a finished material on the inside of the lobby the great hall and the dining room. Another major element is the historic stair inside the Great Hall and it was a stair. We use the major log components to use as in the reconstruction of the stair. The Lodge's Central Great Hall forms a natural meeting area where people can relax read a book or wait for a table in the dining room. The new lodge opened in 1995. And unlike the original it is built to last. The most popular gathering area
is the large terrorist balcony that faces the river. It's the perfect place for watching the sunset or sunrise with a cup of coffee. Almost 100 years after William Steele's vision of Crater Lake National Park became a reality. The park is thriving beyond his wildest dreams. Today it's visited by nearly half a million people annually and is one of the most popular parks in the Pacific Northwest. Areas like this are international treasures. They're unique and pristine and they're preserved for education and scientific study and enjoyment of the public. I think all of us have a share in a common heritage. And that heritage is our natural resources base and it's also our cultural and historic resource base.
This record is featured in “Protecting Places: Historic Preservation and Public Broadcasting.”
Collection
Great Lodges of the National Park
Contributing Organization
Oregon Public Broadcasting (Portland, Oregon)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/153-94hmh3v8
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Description
This educational program is a series of 4 clips documenting lodges in the National Parks. This series features interviews, narration, and archival photos about the history of National Parks and the lodges that host visitors. The series begins with the founding of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 and how railroads allowed access to National Parks like never before. This influx of tourism allowed for the building of the Old Faithful Inn grand lodge in 1904 located in the upper geyser basin, designed by architect Robert Reamer. An interpreter tours an original section of the Inn, that has been restored to allow visitors to stay in rooms that have been preserved to their original design. The program continues to tour the design features of the ceiling, lobby, and rooms noting how Reamer drew inspiration from Yellowstone. Then lodges are explored at the Grand Canyon, Zion National Park, and Bryce Canyon National Park, as well as these parks? natural and cultural histories. The program specifically focuses on what architects drew on in the natural landscape to influence the design of these structures. The next segment looks at Glacier Park, its architecture, and its employment of Blackfeet Native Americans and Native Americans relationship with the Glacier National Park lodge. Additionally explored is Mount Rainier National Park, the sense of place it gives to the Pacific Northwest, and the history and architecture of the Paradise Inn. Last explored in the lodge at Crater Lake.
Asset type
Compilation
Topics
Education
History
Nature
Geography
Architecture
Rights
No copyright statement in content
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
01:00:00:00?
Embed Code
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Credits
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Oregon Public Broadcasting (OPB)
Identifier: 400497.0 (Unique ID)
Format: Digital Betacam
Duration: 01:00:00:00?
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Citations
Chicago: “Great Lodges of the National Park,” Oregon Public Broadcasting, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 20, 2019, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_153-94hmh3v8.
MLA: “Great Lodges of the National Park.” Oregon Public Broadcasting, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 20, 2019. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_153-94hmh3v8>.
APA: Great Lodges of the National Park. Boston, MA: Oregon Public Broadcasting, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_153-94hmh3v8